Elemental Analysis in Geochemistry

Elemental Analysis in Geochemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1969

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  • Author: Alexis Volborth
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601513

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Elemental Analysis in Geochemistry: A. Major Elements provides an introduction to basic classical and modern instrumental ""macro"" methods for geochemical research. The intention is to acquaint the beginning analyst or geochemist with the minimum of analytical methods required to satisfactorily perform a complex silicate or similar analysis. By combining classical and modern instrumental methods in one book, strong emphasis is put on the importance of the analyst's ability to grasp the general structure and relation of some of the most frequently used analytical techniques. The book begins with basic concepts such as the preparation and decomposition of samples; statistical evaluation; and methods of separation and analysis. It outlines the classical qualitative separation scheme, which is very useful in understanding the analytical problems of complex mixtures, especially when hydrogen sulfide group metals are present. It discusses analytical techniques such as the detection and quantitative gravimetric analysis of silicon; volumetric or titrimetric methods; emission photometric analysis; atomic absorption spectroscopy; nondestructive instrumental methods; methods in X-ray spectrochemistry; and developments in neutron activation analysis.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    Chapter 2. Preparation and Decomposition of Samples

    Preparation of samples

    Common types of samples and methods of sampling

    Sample size

    Diminution of samples

    Contamination of samples during preparation

    Storage and care of samples

    Decomposition of samples

    Undecomposed sample powders and their use

    Solution techniques

    Fluxing techniques

    Special fluxing techniques

    Contamination of samples during decomposition

    Storage of decomposed samples

    Chapter 3. Statistical Evaluation and Sampling

    Chapter 4. Factors Influencing the Selection of Methods of Separation and Analysis

    Separation of elements

    Gravimetric "absolute" methods

    Instrumental nondestructive methods

    Volumetric methods

    Colorimetric methods

    Flame-photometric methods

    Atomic absorption

    Emission spectroscopy

    Chapter 5. Some Methods of Extraction and Ion Exchange Separation

    Separation by extraction

    Separation methods by ion exchange resins

    Procedure to determine the capacity of a resin

    Ion exchange separation method for systematic analysis of silicate rocks by Shibata

    Chapter 6. The Classical Qualitative Separation Scheme

    Chapter 7. Classical Gravimetric and Other Methods


    Gravimetric determination as silica, SiO2


    Gravimetric method

    Determination of aluminum by the oxine method


    Ferric or total iron, volumetric procedure

    Ferrous iron, volumetric procedure




    Gravimetric procedure

    EDTA titration methods for calcium and magnesium

    Sodium and potassium

    Decomposition of sample

    J. Lawrence Smith method

    Potassium Perchlorate method

    Potassium tetraphenylboron method

    Sodium as uranyl zinc acetate


    Titanium as peroxide


    Separation and determination of manganese

    Colorimetric determination of manganese


    Gravimetric determination

    Ammonium phosphomolybdate method

    Precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate


    Simplified method

    Combination of classical acid decomposition and combustion methods

    Hydrogen and water

    Total water

    The Penfield method


    Decomposition and preparation of fluorine-bearing samples


    Gravimetric determination as barium sulfate

    Decomposition of sulfide samples by aqua regia and bromine

    The zinc oxide-sodium carbonate fusion




    Sample decomposition

    Gravimetric method for chlorine as silver chloride, AgCl


    Decomposition of samples

    Silica determination in zirconium-bearing materials

    Zirconium as phosphate

    Zirconium as mandelate


    Decomposition of samples


    Decomposition of the sample

    Titrimetric procedure

    Gravimetric method


    Decomposition of samples

    Titrimetric method

    Titration of the lead Chromate by ferrous ammonium sulfate


    Decomposition of samples


    Electro-gravimetric procedure


    Gravimetric procedure for zinc in silicates

    Titrimetric methods

    Chapter 8. Classical Volumetric Methods

    Normality and molarity

    Procedure for total iron

    Acid-base titrations

    The silver reductor

    The Jones reductor

    Chapter 9. Emission Flame Spectrophotometry



    Preparation of sample

    Removal of interfering anions

    Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium (and magnesium)

    Beer's law

    Chapter 10. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy


    Instrumentation and methods


    Determination of magnesium

    Standards for atomic absorption

    Chapter 11. Instrumental Nondestructive Analysis


    Electromagnetic radiation

    Atom as a source of electromagnetic radiation

    Separation, detection, and measurement of the electromagnetic radiation

    Scintillation counters

    Semiconductor detectors

    Chapter 12. X-ray Emission Analysis


    Precision in X-ray emission analysis

    Methods in X-ray spectrochemistry

    Procedure for pelletizing

    Chapter 13. Fast-Neutron Activation Analysis


    Fast-neutron generators

    Laboratories shielded for fast-neutron activation analysis

    Determination of oxygen by fast-neutron activation


    Determination of silicon by fast-neutron activation


    Appendix 1. Gravimetric Factors

    Appendix 2. Analytical Quality Reagents for Stock Solutions in Atomic-Absorption and Emission-Flame Analysis



Product details

  • No. of pages: 388
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1969
  • Published: January 1, 1969
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601513

About the Author

Alexis Volborth

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