Electrophysiological Methods in Biological Research

Electrophysiological Methods in Biological Research

3rd Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Authors: Jan Bures, Mojmir Petran, Jozef Zachar
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261454

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Electrophysiological Methods in Biological Research, Third Revised Edition describes the principles and applications of significant electrophysiological methods as regards to transistorisation of electrophysiological apparatus and to the mathematical analysis of electrophysiological data. The book explains the aspects of physics and electronics that are important in electrophysiology, such as the basic principles of semiconductor function, electronic simulators, electrodes, and the processing of electrophysiological data. The text also cites several examples that measure the resulting membrane potential if one electrode is inside the cell while the other is in contact with the cell's surface. Other experiments show the electrophysiological techniques and the fundamentals of electrical activity in the peripheral excitable structures, and its association with physiological functions. In considering the problems of nerve and muscle physiology, the investigator should know the technique of recording the electrical signs of a nerve impulse. These signs, or action potentials, indicate the presence of a nerve impulse. The text also discusses the effects of barbiturates or ether anesthesia in EEG activity, as well as its dissociation after physostigmine and atropine have been administered. The book can prove useful for pharmacologists, microchemists, cellular biologists, and research workers and technologists dealing with neural mechanisms.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword to the Third Edition



    Chapter I Theoretical Basis of Electrophysiological Phenomena

    A. Some Fundamentals of Electrochemistry

    Electrode Potential

    The Concentration Cell

    Liquid Junction Potential

    Membrane Potential

    B. The Membrane Theory of Bioelectric Phenomena

    CHAPTER II Electrophysiological Apparatus and Technique

    A. Stimulation Technique

    a) The Physical Effect of the Electrical Stimulus on the Tissue

    b) The Physical Characteristics of the Stimulus

    c) The Main Requirements for a Stimulator

    d) Kinds of Stimuli

    B. Basic Principles of Valve and Semiconductor Function

    a) Valves

    b) Semiconductors

    c) Gas Filled Tubes

    d) The Basic Electronic Circuits

    C. Electronic Stimulators

    a) Generators of Harmonic Oscillations

    b) Generators of Nonharmonic Oscillations

    c) Pulse Shaping Circuits

    d) Assembling a Stimulator

    e) Stimulus Isolation

    D. Recording Technique

    a) The Fundamental Characteristics of Signals and their Sources

    b) Demands on the Amplifier Stages

    c) Biological Amplifiers

    d) Recording Devices

    e) Simultaneous Recording of Electrical and Non-Electrical Quantities

    E. Location of Faults and Interferences

    a) Faults

    b) Interferences

    F. Electrodes

    a) Nonpolarizable Electrodes

    b) Capillary Microelectrodes

    c) Metal Microelectrodes

    G. Processing of Electrophysiological Data

    a) Hunting the Signal in Noise

    b) Analysis of Spike Distribution

    c) Application of Digital and Analog Computers

    Chapter III General Electrophyslology of Cells and Tissues

    A. Electric Potentials of Cells

    a) The Membrane Potentials of Large Plant Cells

    b) The Membrane Potential of Nerves

    c) The Resting Potential of a Muscle Fiber

    B. Electric Potentials of Tissues

    a) Polarity of Frog Skin

    b) Positive Demarcation Potential of Gastric Mucosa

    c) Cell Dipoles in Series

    C. Electric Phenomena in Plants

    a) The Bioelectric Potential of Photosynthesis

    b) Potential Changes Accompanying Leaf Movement in Mimosa Pudica

    D. Electric Polarity of the Animal Organism

    Chapter IV Electrophyslology of Isolated Excitable Structures In Vitro

    A. Electric Manifestations of a Nerve Impulse

    a) The Action Potential of Peripheral Nerves

    b) The Action Potential of Isolated Nerve Fibers. The "all or nothing" Law

    c) The Action Potential of a Giant Axon. Intracellular Recording with Microelectrodes

    B. Propagation of Nervous Impulses

    a) Measurement of Conduction Velocity of a Nervous Impulse

    b) Relation Between Fiber Size and Conduction Velocity

    c) Extrinsic Potentials

    d) The Law of Independent Conduction

    e) Interaction Between Nerve Fibers

    C. The Initiation of Nerve Impulses

    a) Electrotonus and Nerve Excitability

    b) Electrotonic Potentials. The Measurement of Electrical Constants

    c) Strength-Duration Curve. Chronaxie

    d) Accommodation

    e) The Local Response of a Nerve

    f) The Effect of Sodium Ions on the Action Potential. The Sodium Hypothesis

    D. Recovery Processes Following a Nerve Impulse

    a) After-Potentials

    b) The Absolute and Relative Refractory Period. The Supernormal and Subnormal Period

    c) The Maximal Rhythm of a Nerve Fiber. The Lability of Wedensky

    E. Electrophysiology of the Isolated Skeletal Muscle

    a) The Action Potential of a Skeletal Muscle

    b) Membrane Excitation and Development of Tension. Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    Chapter V Electrophysiology of Peripheral Excitable Structures In situ

    a) Recording of an Impulse in a Volume Conductor

    b) Impulse Activity of Somatic and Vegetative Nerves

    c) Impulse Activity of Muscle in situ. Electromyogram

    d) Recording of Nerve and Muscle Action Potentials through the Intact Skin in Man

    Chapter VI Electrophysiology of Peripheral Synoptic Junctions

    A. Neuromuscular Transmission in Skeletal Muscle

    a) Electrophysiological Localization of the End-Plates in Skeletal Muscle

    b) End-Plate Potential (EPP)

    c) Repetitive Stimulation of the End-Plate. Recruitment. Wedensky Inhibition

    d) Excitatory and Inhibitory Junctional Potentials

    e) Excitation of the End-Plate by Acetylcholine. Micro-Electrophoretic Injection

    f) Miniature End-Plate Potentials

    B. Synaptic Transmission in a Sympathetic Ganglion

    a) Action Potentials from the Superior Cervical Ganglion

    b) Synaptic Potentials in the Superior Cervical Ganglion

    c) Occlusion and Facilitation in the Superior Cervical Ganglion

    C. Electrically Transmitting Junctions

    Chapter VII Electrophysiology of Sensory Receptors

    A. Models of Sensory Organs

    The Effect of D. C. Current on the Isolated Nerve Fiber

    B. Impulse Activity in Sensory Nerve Fibers

    Afferent Impulses from Muscles. Stretch Responses

    C. Receptor Potentials

    a) The Receptor Potential of a Muscle Spindle. Extracellular Recording

    b) The Receptor Potential of a Crayfish Stretch Receptor Cell. Intracellular Recording

    c) The Electroretinogram

    d) The Electro-Olfactogram

    Chapter Electrophyslology of the Spinal Cord

    A. Extracellular Recording

    a) Electrophysiological Manifestations of Monosynaptic and Polysynaptic Reflexes

    b) Facilitation and Inhibition in the Motoneurone

    c) Relation Between Afferent Influx and Efferent Efflux in the Spinal Monosynaptic Arc

    d) Recovery Cycle in the Motoneurone

    e) Synaptic Potentials in a Monosynaptic Reflex Arc

    f) Dorsal Root Potentials. Presynaptic Inhibition in the Spinal Cord

    g) Post-Tetanic Potentiation

    B. Intracellular Recording

    a) Orthodromic and Antidromic Activation of the Motoneurone

    Chapter IX Electrophyslology of the Cerebral Cortex

    A. Electroencephalography and Electrocorticography in General

    B. Spontaneous EEG and ECoG in Animals

    C. Drug Effects on EEG

    D. Primary Cortical Responses. Localization of Primary Responses in Rat and Cat. Primary Responses to Repeated Stimuli

    Secondary Responses

    E. Responses of the Cerebral Cortex to Direct Electrical Stimulation

    F. Mapping of Nervous Pathways in the Central Nervous System using Neuronography

    G. Depth Recording in the Cerebral Cortex

    H. Antidromic and Orthodromic Stimulation of Pyramidal Pathway

    I. Steady Potentials and Impedance of the Cerebral Cortex

    J. Spreading Depression

    K. Theoretical Basis of Recording Electric Potentials in a Volume Conductor

    Chapter X Electrophyslology of Subcortlcal Structures

    A. Stereotaxic Method

    Determination of Stereotaxic Coordinates

    Stereotaxic Lesions

    B. Primary Responses in the Subcortical Centres of Afferent Systems

    C. Electric Activity of the Cerebellum

    D. Electric Activity of the Hippocampus

    E. Nonspecific Subcortical Influences on the Cerebral Cortex

    F. Unit Activity of Reticular Neurons

    G. Simple Methods for Evaluating Unit Activity

    1. Slow Changes in Unit Activity

    2. Detection of Evoked Responses. Correlation with Other Events

    3. Distribution of Inter-Spike Intervals

    H. Application of the Functional Ablation Technique in Analyzing the Corticosubcortical Relationships. Spreading Depression in Deep Brain Structures. Cortico-Hippocampal and Hippocampo-Cortical Relationships. Cortico-Thalamic Influences. Reversible Deafferentation of Cerebral Cortex by Thalamic Spreading Depression

    I. Electrophysiological Signs of an Epileptic Seizure

    Appendix I

    Stereotaxic Atlases for the Cat, Rabbit and Rat

    Appendix II

    Mathematical Terms


    Derivative Function or Differential Quotient

    Indefinite Integral

    Definite Integral

    Calculus of Probability


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 824
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261454

About the Authors

Jan Bures

Mojmir Petran

Jozef Zachar

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