Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080109947, 9781483149400

Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering

1st Edition

A Study of Engineering Materials and Processes Whose Characteristics May Be Explained by Considering the Behavior of Small Particles When Grouped Into Systems Such as Nuclei, Atoms, Gases, and Crystals

Authors: J. R. Eaton
eBook ISBN: 9781483149400
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 560
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Description

Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering focuses on the engineering significance of electrons, neutrons, and protons. The emphasis is on engineering materials and processes whose characteristics may be explained by considering the behavior of small particles when grouped into systems such as nuclei, atoms, gases, and crystals. This volume is comprised of 25 chapters and begins with an overview of the relation between science and engineering, followed by a discussion on the microscopic and macroscopic domains of matter. The next chapter presents the basic relations involving mechanics, electricity and magnetism, light, heat, and related subjects which are most significant in the study of modern physical science. Subsequent chapters explore the nucleus and structure of an atom; the concept of binding forces and binding energy; the configuration of the system of the electrons surrounding the atomic nucleus; physical and chemical properties of atoms; and the structure of gases and solids. The energy levels of groups of particles are also considered, along with the Schrödinger equation and electrical conduction through gases and solids. The remaining chapters are devoted to nuclear fission, nuclear reactors, and radiation. This book will appeal to physicists, engineers, and mathematicians as well as students and researchers in those fields.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

Editor’s Preface

Chapter 1. Relation between Science and Engineering

Chapter 2. The Microscopic Domain

2.1. Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains

2.2. Particles of the Microscopic Domain

2.3. Interactions between Particles

2.4. Systems of Particles

2.5. Particle Volumes

Summary

Chapter 3. Some Basic Relations

Introduction

3.1. System of Units

3.2. Force and Energy Relations

3.3. Electric Field Relations

3.4. Magnetic Field Relations

3.5. Gravitational Field Relations

3.6. Electromagnetic Waves

3.7. Differential Equations

Chapter 4. The Nucleus

Introduction

4.1. Structure

4.2. Nomenclature

4.3. Dimensions and Masses

4.4. Nuclear Forces

4.5. Binding Forces and Binding Energy Illustrated

4.6. Nuclear Binding Energy

4.7. Nuclear Types

4.8. Absorption, Fission, and Scattering Cross-section

4.9. Laws of Radioactive Decay

4.10. Chart of the Nuclides

4.11. Mass-energy Relations

Chapter 5. Structure of the Atom

Introduction

5.1. The Bohr-Rutherford Atom

5.2. One-electron Atoms

5.3. The Spectrum of Hydrogen

5.4. Limitations of the Bohr-Rutherford Model

5.5. Probability Density

5.6. Quantum Numbers

5.7. States of the Hydrogen Atom

5.8. Orbitals

5.9. More Complicated Atoms

5.10. Exclusion Principle and Uncertainty Principle

Chapter 6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Atoms

Introduction

6.1. Structure and Nomenclature

6.2. The Shape of Atoms

6.3. Atomic Radii

6.4. The Periodic Table

6.5. Tendency to Fill Incompleted Shells

6.6. Ionizing Energy

6.7. Valence

Chapter 7. Structure of Gases

Introduction

7.1. General Characteristics of Gases

7.2. Temperature-Pressure-Velocity Relations

7.3. Distribution of Velocities

7.4. Length of Free Paths of Gas Particles

7.5. Behavior within the Molecule

Chapter 8. Binding Forces and Binding Energy

Introduction

8.1. The Union of Two Particles

8.2. van der Waals Bonds

8.3. Covalent Bonds

8.4. Ionic Bonds

8.5. Metallic Bonding

8.6. Chemical and Mechanical Stability of Structure

Chapter 9. Structure of Solids

Introduction

9.1. Structure Study Methods

9.2. Types of Solids

9.3. Crystal Structure

9.4. Atomic Shape Related to Crystal Structure

9.5. Structure Idealization

9.6. Crystal Imperfections

9.7. Activity within Solids

Chapter 10. Energy Levels

Introduction

10.1. Free Particle Theory

10.2. Applications of the Free Particle Theory

10.3. Summary of Results of the Free Particle Theory

10.4. Energy Levels of Single Atoms and of Assemblies of Atoms

10.5. Interpretation of Band Structure

10.6. Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors

Chapter 11. The Schrödinger Equation

Introduction

11.1. Objectives of Presentation

11.2. General Method of Approach

11.3. The Schrodinger Equation

11.4. Application to a One-dimensional Problem. The Square Potential Well

11.5. Numerical Example, Square Potential Well

11.6. Potential Well of Finite Width and Infinite Depth

11.7. Interpretation of Results

11.8. More Complicated Types of Systems

11.9. Conclusion

Chapter 12. Surfaces

Introduction

12.1. The Physical Nature of a Surface

12.2. Surface Energy

12.3. Surface Tension

12.4. Surface Wetting

12.5. Adsorption at Surfaces

12.6. Chemical Catalysis

12.7. Adhesion

12.8. Friction

12.9. Electron Emission from Metal

12.10. Contact Potential

12.11. Oxidation

12.12. Corrosion

Chapter 13. Energetic Particles

Introduction

Electrons

13.1. Sources of Electrons

13.2. Energy Loss Mechanisms

13.3. Fate

Positive Particles with Small Charge-to-mass Ratio

13.4. Sources of High-mass, Positively Charged Particles

13.5. Mechanism of Energy Loss

13.6. Fate

Photons

13.7. Sources of Photons

13.8. Energy Loss Mechanisms

13.9. Fate

Neutrons

13.10. Sources of Neutrons

13.11. Mechanism of Energy Loss

13.12. Fate

Fission Fragments

13.13. Sources

13.14. Mechanism of Energy Reduction

13.15. Fate

Chapter 14. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Gases

Introduction

14.1. Pressure-Volume Relation

14.2. Specific Heat

14.3. Thermal Conductivity

14.4. Diffusion

14.5. Diffusion and Absorption

14.6. Viscosity

Chapter 15. Electrical Conduction through Gases

Introduction

15.1. The Basic Conduction Process

15.2. Conduction in High Vacuum

15.3. Conduction Processes in High Pressure Gas

15.4. Movement of Charged Particles through High Pressure Gas

15.5. Amplification of Charge-carrier Concentration Due to Gas Molecules

15.6. The Breakdown Process

15.7. Effect of Space Charges Due to Electrons and Positive Ions

15.8. The Arc

15.9. Corona

15.10. Breakdown in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

15.11. Application of Gaseous Conduction Processes

Chapter 16. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Solids

Introduction

16.1. Lattice Energy

16.2. Thermal Expansion

16.3. Heat Capacity

16.4. Thermal Conductivity

16.5. Mechanical Strength

16.6. Plastic Deformation

Chapter 17. Electrical Conduction in Solids

Introduction

17.1. Electronic Structure of Solids

17.2. Electrical Conduction in Metals

17.3. Electrical Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors

17.4. Impurity Semiconductors

17.5. Hall Effect

17.6. Minority Carriers

17.7. Lifetime of Minority Carriers

Chapter 18. Semiconductor Devices

Introduction

18.1. Comparison of Conduction in a Semiconductor with Conduction in a Vacuum Tube

18.2. The p-n Junction

18.3. Transistors

18.4. The Junction Transistor

18.5. The Point-contact Transistor

18.6. Transistor Operation Limitations

18.7. Thermistors

18.8. Photoconductivity

18.9. The Photovoltaic Cell

18.10. Thermoelectric Effects

Chapter 19. Dielectric Properties of Materials

Introduction

19.1. Macroscopic Behavior of Dielectrics

19.2. Microscopic Behavior of Dielectric Materials

19.3. Types of Polarization

19.4. Energy Loss and Relaxation Time

19.5. Ferroelectric Crystals

19.6. Electrets

19.7. Dielectric Breakdown

19.8. Dielectric Behavior in Time-varying Electric Fields

Chapter 20. Magnetic Properties of Materials

20.1. The Origin of the Magnetic Behavior of Materials

20.2. Characteristics of Ferromagnetic Materials

20.3. Magnetic Domains

20.4. Magnetization Curves

20.5. Magnetic Materials for Operation at Varying Flux Densities

20.6. Permanent Magnets

Chapter 21. Nuclear Reactors

Introduction

21.1. The Nucleus

21.2. Binding Energy Reviewed

21.3. The Fission Process

21.4. Rationalization of the Fission Process

21.5. Energy Released in Fission

21.6. Fissionable Materials

21.7. Fission Products

Chapter 22. Nuclear Reactors

22.1. A Critical Assembly

22.2. Interaction Rate and Neutron Flux

22.3. Diffusion of Neutrons

22.4. The Diffusion Equation (One-dimensional)

22.5. The Diffusion Equation (Three-dimensional)

22.6. Reflector

22.7. The Diffusion Equation, Two-group Theory

22.8. The Uranium Reactor

22.9. Moderator Characteristics

22.10. Nuclear Reactor Construction

22.11. Neutron Economy

22.12. Reactor Power and Flux

22.13. Nuclear Reactor Control

22.14. Excess Multiplication Factor Requirements

22.15. Reactor Start-up. The Sub-critical Assembly

22.16. Manufacture of Fissionable Material

22.17. Reactor Types

22.18. Reactor Thermal and Mechanical Problems

Chapter 23. Radiation Measurements

Introduction

23.1. Radiation Detection Principles

23.2. The Electroscope

23.3. Photographic Emulsions

23.4. Cloud Chambers

23.5. Crystal Counters

23.6. The Scintillation Detector

23.7. The Gas-filled Detector

23.8. Gas Amplification

23.9. Operation of the Gas-filled Detector

23.10. Associated Electric Circuits

23.11. Statistics

Chapter 24. Radiation-Induced Damage in Matter

Introduction

24.1. Radiation Damage Processes

24.2. Units of Radiation Exposure

24.3. Effects on Engineering Materials

24.4. Radiation Effects on Living Organisms

24.5. Radiation Effects on Man

24.6. Radiation Environment

24.7. Shielding of Radioactive Sources

24.8. Radioactive Waste Disposal

Chapter 25. Radiation Applications in Industry and Science

Introduction

25.1. The Basis of Application

25.2. Inspection of Opaque Objects

25.3. Thickness Gauging

25.4. Observation of Parts inside an Opaque Container

25.5. Measurement of Density of Liquids

25.6. Indication of Liquid Level

25.7. Soil Moisture Content and Density Measurement

25.8. Measurement of the Wear of Moving Parts

25.9. Metal Transfer at Contacts

25.10. Chemical Analysis for Trace Impurities

25.11. Isotope Dilution

25.12. Mixing

25.13. Washing Machine Effectiveness

25.14. Fertilizer Utilization Studies

25.15. Physiological Processes

25.16. Medical Diagnosis

25.17. Carbon Dating

25.18. Chemical Processing

25.19. Electron-beam Processing

25.20. Stabilization of High-voltage Breakdown of Gaps

25.21. Radiation Therapy

Appendix

Table I. Physical Constants

Table II. Chart of the Nuclides opposite

Table III. Periodic Table of Elements

Table IV. Alphabetical List of the Elements

Table V. Cross-sections for Naturally Occurring Elements

References

Index






Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483149400

About the Author

J. R. Eaton