Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering

Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering

A Study of Engineering Materials and Processes Whose Characteristics May Be Explained by Considering the Behavior of Small Particles When Grouped Into Systems Such as Nuclei, Atoms, Gases, and Crystals

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Author: J. R. Eaton
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483149400

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Description

Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering focuses on the engineering significance of electrons, neutrons, and protons. The emphasis is on engineering materials and processes whose characteristics may be explained by considering the behavior of small particles when grouped into systems such as nuclei, atoms, gases, and crystals. This volume is comprised of 25 chapters and begins with an overview of the relation between science and engineering, followed by a discussion on the microscopic and macroscopic domains of matter. The next chapter presents the basic relations involving mechanics, electricity and magnetism, light, heat, and related subjects which are most significant in the study of modern physical science. Subsequent chapters explore the nucleus and structure of an atom; the concept of binding forces and binding energy; the configuration of the system of the electrons surrounding the atomic nucleus; physical and chemical properties of atoms; and the structure of gases and solids. The energy levels of groups of particles are also considered, along with the Schrödinger equation and electrical conduction through gases and solids. The remaining chapters are devoted to nuclear fission, nuclear reactors, and radiation. This book will appeal to physicists, engineers, and mathematicians as well as students and researchers in those fields.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Editor’s Preface

    Chapter 1. Relation between Science and Engineering

    Chapter 2. The Microscopic Domain

    2.1. Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains

    2.2. Particles of the Microscopic Domain

    2.3. Interactions between Particles

    2.4. Systems of Particles

    2.5. Particle Volumes

    Summary

    Chapter 3. Some Basic Relations

    Introduction

    3.1. System of Units

    3.2. Force and Energy Relations

    3.3. Electric Field Relations

    3.4. Magnetic Field Relations

    3.5. Gravitational Field Relations

    3.6. Electromagnetic Waves

    3.7. Differential Equations

    Chapter 4. The Nucleus

    Introduction

    4.1. Structure

    4.2. Nomenclature

    4.3. Dimensions and Masses

    4.4. Nuclear Forces

    4.5. Binding Forces and Binding Energy Illustrated

    4.6. Nuclear Binding Energy

    4.7. Nuclear Types

    4.8. Absorption, Fission, and Scattering Cross-section

    4.9. Laws of Radioactive Decay

    4.10. Chart of the Nuclides

    4.11. Mass-energy Relations

    Chapter 5. Structure of the Atom

    Introduction

    5.1. The Bohr-Rutherford Atom

    5.2. One-electron Atoms

    5.3. The Spectrum of Hydrogen

    5.4. Limitations of the Bohr-Rutherford Model

    5.5. Probability Density

    5.6. Quantum Numbers

    5.7. States of the Hydrogen Atom

    5.8. Orbitals

    5.9. More Complicated Atoms

    5.10. Exclusion Principle and Uncertainty Principle

    Chapter 6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Atoms

    Introduction

    6.1. Structure and Nomenclature

    6.2. The Shape of Atoms

    6.3. Atomic Radii

    6.4. The Periodic Table

    6.5. Tendency to Fill Incompleted Shells

    6.6. Ionizing Energy

    6.7. Valence

    Chapter 7. Structure of Gases

    Introduction

    7.1. General Characteristics of Gases

    7.2. Temperature-Pressure-Velocity Relations

    7.3. Distribution of Velocities

    7.4. Length of Free Paths of Gas Particles

    7.5. Behavior within the Molecule

    Chapter 8. Binding Forces and Binding Energy

    Introduction

    8.1. The Union of Two Particles

    8.2. van der Waals Bonds

    8.3. Covalent Bonds

    8.4. Ionic Bonds

    8.5. Metallic Bonding

    8.6. Chemical and Mechanical Stability of Structure

    Chapter 9. Structure of Solids

    Introduction

    9.1. Structure Study Methods

    9.2. Types of Solids

    9.3. Crystal Structure

    9.4. Atomic Shape Related to Crystal Structure

    9.5. Structure Idealization

    9.6. Crystal Imperfections

    9.7. Activity within Solids

    Chapter 10. Energy Levels

    Introduction

    10.1. Free Particle Theory

    10.2. Applications of the Free Particle Theory

    10.3. Summary of Results of the Free Particle Theory

    10.4. Energy Levels of Single Atoms and of Assemblies of Atoms

    10.5. Interpretation of Band Structure

    10.6. Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors

    Chapter 11. The Schrödinger Equation

    Introduction

    11.1. Objectives of Presentation

    11.2. General Method of Approach

    11.3. The Schrodinger Equation

    11.4. Application to a One-dimensional Problem. The Square Potential Well

    11.5. Numerical Example, Square Potential Well

    11.6. Potential Well of Finite Width and Infinite Depth

    11.7. Interpretation of Results

    11.8. More Complicated Types of Systems

    11.9. Conclusion

    Chapter 12. Surfaces

    Introduction

    12.1. The Physical Nature of a Surface

    12.2. Surface Energy

    12.3. Surface Tension

    12.4. Surface Wetting

    12.5. Adsorption at Surfaces

    12.6. Chemical Catalysis

    12.7. Adhesion

    12.8. Friction

    12.9. Electron Emission from Metal

    12.10. Contact Potential

    12.11. Oxidation

    12.12. Corrosion

    Chapter 13. Energetic Particles

    Introduction

    Electrons

    13.1. Sources of Electrons

    13.2. Energy Loss Mechanisms

    13.3. Fate

    Positive Particles with Small Charge-to-mass Ratio

    13.4. Sources of High-mass, Positively Charged Particles

    13.5. Mechanism of Energy Loss

    13.6. Fate

    Photons

    13.7. Sources of Photons

    13.8. Energy Loss Mechanisms

    13.9. Fate

    Neutrons

    13.10. Sources of Neutrons

    13.11. Mechanism of Energy Loss

    13.12. Fate

    Fission Fragments

    13.13. Sources

    13.14. Mechanism of Energy Reduction

    13.15. Fate

    Chapter 14. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Gases

    Introduction

    14.1. Pressure-Volume Relation

    14.2. Specific Heat

    14.3. Thermal Conductivity

    14.4. Diffusion

    14.5. Diffusion and Absorption

    14.6. Viscosity

    Chapter 15. Electrical Conduction through Gases

    Introduction

    15.1. The Basic Conduction Process

    15.2. Conduction in High Vacuum

    15.3. Conduction Processes in High Pressure Gas

    15.4. Movement of Charged Particles through High Pressure Gas

    15.5. Amplification of Charge-carrier Concentration Due to Gas Molecules

    15.6. The Breakdown Process

    15.7. Effect of Space Charges Due to Electrons and Positive Ions

    15.8. The Arc

    15.9. Corona

    15.10. Breakdown in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    15.11. Application of Gaseous Conduction Processes

    Chapter 16. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Solids

    Introduction

    16.1. Lattice Energy

    16.2. Thermal Expansion

    16.3. Heat Capacity

    16.4. Thermal Conductivity

    16.5. Mechanical Strength

    16.6. Plastic Deformation

    Chapter 17. Electrical Conduction in Solids

    Introduction

    17.1. Electronic Structure of Solids

    17.2. Electrical Conduction in Metals

    17.3. Electrical Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors

    17.4. Impurity Semiconductors

    17.5. Hall Effect

    17.6. Minority Carriers

    17.7. Lifetime of Minority Carriers

    Chapter 18. Semiconductor Devices

    Introduction

    18.1. Comparison of Conduction in a Semiconductor with Conduction in a Vacuum Tube

    18.2. The p-n Junction

    18.3. Transistors

    18.4. The Junction Transistor

    18.5. The Point-contact Transistor

    18.6. Transistor Operation Limitations

    18.7. Thermistors

    18.8. Photoconductivity

    18.9. The Photovoltaic Cell

    18.10. Thermoelectric Effects

    Chapter 19. Dielectric Properties of Materials

    Introduction

    19.1. Macroscopic Behavior of Dielectrics

    19.2. Microscopic Behavior of Dielectric Materials

    19.3. Types of Polarization

    19.4. Energy Loss and Relaxation Time

    19.5. Ferroelectric Crystals

    19.6. Electrets

    19.7. Dielectric Breakdown

    19.8. Dielectric Behavior in Time-varying Electric Fields

    Chapter 20. Magnetic Properties of Materials

    20.1. The Origin of the Magnetic Behavior of Materials

    20.2. Characteristics of Ferromagnetic Materials

    20.3. Magnetic Domains

    20.4. Magnetization Curves

    20.5. Magnetic Materials for Operation at Varying Flux Densities

    20.6. Permanent Magnets

    Chapter 21. Nuclear Reactors

    Introduction

    21.1. The Nucleus

    21.2. Binding Energy Reviewed

    21.3. The Fission Process

    21.4. Rationalization of the Fission Process

    21.5. Energy Released in Fission

    21.6. Fissionable Materials

    21.7. Fission Products

    Chapter 22. Nuclear Reactors

    22.1. A Critical Assembly

    22.2. Interaction Rate and Neutron Flux

    22.3. Diffusion of Neutrons

    22.4. The Diffusion Equation (One-dimensional)

    22.5. The Diffusion Equation (Three-dimensional)

    22.6. Reflector

    22.7. The Diffusion Equation, Two-group Theory

    22.8. The Uranium Reactor

    22.9. Moderator Characteristics

    22.10. Nuclear Reactor Construction

    22.11. Neutron Economy

    22.12. Reactor Power and Flux

    22.13. Nuclear Reactor Control

    22.14. Excess Multiplication Factor Requirements

    22.15. Reactor Start-up. The Sub-critical Assembly

    22.16. Manufacture of Fissionable Material

    22.17. Reactor Types

    22.18. Reactor Thermal and Mechanical Problems

    Chapter 23. Radiation Measurements

    Introduction

    23.1. Radiation Detection Principles

    23.2. The Electroscope

    23.3. Photographic Emulsions

    23.4. Cloud Chambers

    23.5. Crystal Counters

    23.6. The Scintillation Detector

    23.7. The Gas-filled Detector

    23.8. Gas Amplification

    23.9. Operation of the Gas-filled Detector

    23.10. Associated Electric Circuits

    23.11. Statistics

    Chapter 24. Radiation-Induced Damage in Matter

    Introduction

    24.1. Radiation Damage Processes

    24.2. Units of Radiation Exposure

    24.3. Effects on Engineering Materials

    24.4. Radiation Effects on Living Organisms

    24.5. Radiation Effects on Man

    24.6. Radiation Environment

    24.7. Shielding of Radioactive Sources

    24.8. Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Chapter 25. Radiation Applications in Industry and Science

    Introduction

    25.1. The Basis of Application

    25.2. Inspection of Opaque Objects

    25.3. Thickness Gauging

    25.4. Observation of Parts inside an Opaque Container

    25.5. Measurement of Density of Liquids

    25.6. Indication of Liquid Level

    25.7. Soil Moisture Content and Density Measurement

    25.8. Measurement of the Wear of Moving Parts

    25.9. Metal Transfer at Contacts

    25.10. Chemical Analysis for Trace Impurities

    25.11. Isotope Dilution

    25.12. Mixing

    25.13. Washing Machine Effectiveness

    25.14. Fertilizer Utilization Studies

    25.15. Physiological Processes

    25.16. Medical Diagnosis

    25.17. Carbon Dating

    25.18. Chemical Processing

    25.19. Electron-beam Processing

    25.20. Stabilization of High-voltage Breakdown of Gaps

    25.21. Radiation Therapy

    Appendix

    Table I. Physical Constants

    Table II. Chart of the Nuclides opposite

    Table III. Periodic Table of Elements

    Table IV. Alphabetical List of the Elements

    Table V. Cross-sections for Naturally Occurring Elements

    References

    Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483149400

About the Author

J. R. Eaton

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