Electronics of Microwave Tubes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955586, 9780323153515

Electronics of Microwave Tubes

1st Edition

Authors: W Kleen
eBook ISBN: 9780323153515
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1958
Page Count: 374
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Electronics of Microwave Tubes presents the fundamentals of microwave tubes. This book explains, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the effects governing the operation of microwave tubes used in telecommunications, including tubes in circuits, properties of resonant circuits, and delay lines used as tube elements.

Other topics covered include electron motion in static fields; exchange of power between electron streams and periodic electric fields; and ballistic treatment of electron bunching in regions free from radio-frequency fields. The diodes and grid-controlled tubes; modulation of electron streams by traveling waves in the absence of static transverse fields; and interaction between electron beams and traveling waves in crossed electric and magnetic fields are also elaborated. This text likewise discusses the practical applications of microwave tubes; microwave resonant circuits; delay lines; and electron beams and electron guns.

This publication is a good reference for students, physicists, and engineers interested in the field of microwave tubes.

Table of Contents


Units and Sign Conventions

Principal Symbols and Notation

1. The Scope of Microwave Electronics

1.1 Definitions

1.2 Microwave Tubes and Microwave Accelerators

1.3 Some Fundamental Differences in Treatment between Microwave Tubes and Microwave Accelerators

2. Electron Motion in Static Fields

2.1 Transit Angle

2.2 Equations of Motion

2.3 Transit Times in Electrostatic Fields in the Absence of Space Charge

2.4 Transit Times in Space-Charge Fields

2.5 Motion in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

2.5.1 Plane Parallel System

2.5.2 Cylindrical System

2.5.3 The "Cut-off" Characteristic

2.5.4 Busch's Theorem

3. Currents in Microwave Tubes

3.1 General

3.2 The Induced Current

3.3 The Convection Current

3.4 The Total Current

3.5 Qualitative Examination of the Currents in a Triode

3.6 The Llewellyn-Peterson Equations

3.6.1 The Diode with Initial Velocities

3.6.2 Method of Calculation

4. Exchange of Power between Electron Streams and Periodic Electric Fields

4.1 General Principles

4.2 Exchange of Power with Stationary Periodic Fields

4.3 Exchange of Power with Progressive Periodic Fields

4.4 Conclusion

5. Velocity Modulation in Stationary Fields

5.1 Linear Modulation

5.2 Nonlinear Modulation

6. Ballistic Treatment of Electron Bunching in Regions Free from Radio-Frequency Fields

6.1 General

6.2 Sinusoidal Modulation; Field-Free Drift Space

6.3 Sinusoidal Velocity Modulation; Drift Space with a Homogeneous Retarding Field

6.4 Nonsinusoidal Velocity Modulation; Field-Free Drift Space

7. Use of Stationary Fields for Extracting Power from the Beam

7.1 General

7.2 Linear Conditions

7.3 Nonsinusoidal Convection Current

8. Diodes and Grid-Controlled Tubes

8.1 General

8.2 The Saturated Diode

8.3 The Space-Charge-Limited Diode

8.4 Discussion of the A.C. Admittances of the Space-Charge-Limited Diode

8.5 Application of the Expressions Obtained to Grid-Controlled Tubes

8.6 Total Emission Damping

9. Phase Selection

9.1 General

9.2 Devices Using Phase Selection

10. Modulation of Electron Streams by Traveling Waves in the Absence of Static Transverse Fields

10.1 The Problem

10.2 Basic Calculations

10.3 General Discussion

10.4 A Single Beam and a Line

10.5 Two Electron Beams without a Delay Line

10.6 A Beam in a Dielectric Medium of Non-zero Conductivity

10.7 Fundamentals of the Field Theory of Electron Beams

10.8 Space-Charge Waves in Electron Beams Having a Distribution of Velocities

11. Free Space-Charge Waves

11.1 General

11.2 Electron Streams as Transmission Lines

11.3 Space-Charge Waves in Regions Free from Static Fields

11.4 Space-Charge Waves in Static Accelerating Fields where ν = Rzu

11.5 Space-Charge Waves in Space-Charge-Limited Diodes

11.6 Space-Charge Waves in Axially Symmetric Systems in the Absence of Static Fields

11.7 Transformations in Electron Beams

11.8 Power in Free Space-Charge Waves

12. Interaction between Electron Beams and Traveling Waves in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

12.1 Definitions

12.2 The Traveling Wave Magnetron

12.2.1 Qualitative Introduction

12.2.2 Electron Trajectories

12.2.3 Alternating Current and Propagation Constant

12.3 Electron-Wave and Resistive Wall Magnetrons

13. Classification of Microwave Tubes

13.1 Space-Charge Controlled Tubes

13.2 Transit-Time Tubes. Summary

13.3 Drift-Space Tubes

13.4 Growing-Wave Tubes

13.5 Characteristic Differences between Traveling-Wave Tubes and Traveling-Wave Magnetrons

13.6 The Backward-Wave Oscillator

14. Practical Applications of Microwave Tubes 169

14.1 Summary

14.2 Tubes for Microwave Links

14.3 Microwave Tubes in Radar

14.4 Microwave Tubes for uhf Television Broadcasting

14.5 Microwave Tubes for Beyond-the-Horizon Transmission

14.6 Microwave Tubes for Linear Accelerators

14.7 Microwave Tubes for Communication Systems Using Circular Wave Guide

15. The Tube as a Circuit Element

15.1 Available Power of a Generator

15.2 Power Gain

15.3 Efficiency

15.4 Available Noise Power and Noise Temperature

15.5 Noise Figure

15.6 Bandwidth, Group Transit Time, Phase Distortion

15.7 The Amplifier Tube Regarded as a Four-Pole

15.8 The Gain-Bandwidth Product: a Figure of Merit for Tubes

15.9 Transmitter Power, Bandwidth, Noise Figure, and Range in Microwave Transmission Systems

15.10 The Rieke Diagram

15.11 Oscillator Hysteresis

15.12 Crystal Mixers

16. Noise

16.1 Fundamental Ideas

16.2 Noise in a Saturated Diode

16.3 Total Emission Noise

16.4 Noise in Space-Charge Limited Diodes for Small Transit Angles

16.5 Noise in Grid-Controlled Tubes

16.5.1 Theory

16.5.2 Characteristic Noise Quantities for Grid-Controlled Tubes

16.5.3 The Noise Figure of Grid-Controlled Tubes

16.5.4 Transformations of Noisy Four-Terminal Networks

16.6 Fluctuations in Electron Beams

16.7 Gas Discharges as Noise Generators

17. Microwave Resonant Circuits

17.1 General Properties

17.2 Quality Factor and Circuit Efficiency

17.3 Measurement of Quality Factor and Admittance at Resonance

17.4 Coaxial Line Resonators

17.4.1 Resonant Frequency

17.4.2 Circuit Losses at Resonance

17.4.3 Bandwidth

17.5 Capacitively Loaded Cavity Resonators

18. Delay Lines

18.1 General Properties

18.2 Classification of Delay Lines

18.3 Differences between Delay Lines and Ordinary Wave Guides

18.4 Fundamental Delay Line Equations

18.5 Homogeneous Delay Lines

18.5.1 The Sheath Helix

18.5.2 Parallel-Plate Delay Line

18.5.3 Karp Circuit

18.6 Inhomogeneous Delay Lines

18.6.1 Various Forms of the Inhomogeneous Delay Lines

18.6.2 Equivalent Circuits

18.6.3 Wave Propagation in Lines of Periodic Structure

18.6.4 General Method of Analyzing Periodic Delay Lines

18.6.5 Analysis of a Plane Periodic Delay Line

18.6.6 Analysis of a Corrugated Circular Wave Guide

18.6.7 The Tape Helix as a Periodic Delay Line

18.7 Closed Ring Periodic Delay Lines

18.7.1 General Properties

18.7.2 Analysis of a Closed Ring Delay Line

18.7.3 Dispersion Curves and Modes of a Traveling-Wave Magnetron

19. Electron Beams and Electron Guns 311

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Electron Motion

19.3 Beams in Field-Free Space

19.4 Beams in Homogeneous Magnetic Fields

19.5 Beams in Periodic Magnetic Fields

19.6 Electron Guns General

19.7 Pierce Guns

19.7.1 Plane-Parallel System, Strip Beam

19.7.2 Electron Guns with Axial Symmetry

19.8 Other Types of Electron Gun

19.9 Ion Trapping

Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1958
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

W Kleen