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Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444626165, 9780444626103

Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing

1st Edition

Editors: Patrick T. Moseley Jurgen Garche
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626165
eBook ISBN: 9780444626103
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 23rd October 2014
Page Count: 492
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Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in ‘real time’. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen is the only solution for long-term storage systems to provide energy during extended periods of low wind speeds or solar insolation. Future electricity grid design has to include storage systems as a major component for grid stability and for security of supply. The technology of systems designed to achieve this regulation of the supply of renewable energy, and a survey of the markets that they will serve, is the subject of this book. It includes economic aspects to guide the development of technology in the right direction.

Key Features

  • Provides state-of-the-art information on all of the storage systems together with an assessment of competing technologies
  • Features detailed technical, economic and environmental impact information of different storage systems
  • Contains information about the challenges that must be faced for batteries and hydrogen-storage to be used in conjunction with a fluctuating (renewable energy) power supply


An invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts and a much-needed text for the increasing number of students in this field world-wide. The general standard of knowledge in this area currently is low, and this book fills that need with rich content and strategies

Table of Contents

    <li>Foreword by Dr. Derek Pooley</li> <li>Preface</li> <li>Part I. Introduction - Renewable Energies, Markets and Storage Technology Classification<ul><li>Chapter 1. The Exploitation of Renewable Sources of Energy for Power Generation<ul><li>1.1. Energy and Society</li><li>1.2. Energy and Electricity</li><li>1.3. The Role of Energy Storage</li><li>1.4. International Comparisons</li><li>1.5. Types and Applications of Energy&#xA0;Storage</li><li>1.6. Commercialization of Energy Storage</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 2. Classification of Storage Systems<ul><li>2.1. Introduction and Motivation</li><li>2.2. Flexibility Options</li><li>2.3. Different Types of Classifications</li><li>2.4. Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 3. Challenges of Power Systems<ul><li>3.1. Power System Requirements</li><li>3.2. The Role of Storage Systems for Future Challenges in the Electrical Network</li><li>3.3. Demand-Side Management and Other Alternatives to Storage Systems</li><li>3.4. Supply of Reserve Power</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 4. Applications and Markets for Grid-Connected Storage Systems<ul><li>4.1. Introduction</li><li>4.2. Frequency Control</li><li>4.3. Self-supply</li><li>4.4. Uninterruptible Power Supply</li><li>4.5. Arbitrage/Energy Trading</li><li>4.6. Load Leveling/Peak Shaving</li><li>4.7. Other Markets and Applications</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 5. Existing Markets for Storage Systems in Off-Grid Applications<ul><li>5.1. Different Sources of Renewable Energy</li><li>5.2. Impact of the User</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 6. Review of the Need for Storage Capacity Depending on the Share of Renewable Energies<ul><li>6.1. Introductory Remarks</li><li>6.2. Selected Studies with German Focus</li><li>6.3. Selected Studies with European Focus</li><li>6.4. Discussion of Study Results</li><li>6.5. Conclusions</li><li>Abbreviations</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part II. Storage Technologies<ul><li>Chapter 7. Overview of Nonelectrochemical Storage Technologies<ul><li>7.1. Introduction</li><li>7.2. &#x2018;Electrical&#x2019; Storage Systems</li><li>7.3. &#x2018;Mechanical&#x2019; Storage Systems</li><li>7.4. &#x2018;Thermoelectric&#x2019; Energy Storage</li><li>7.5. Storage Technologies at the Concept Stage</li><li>7.6. Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 8. Hydrogen Production from Renewable Energies&#x2014;Electrolyzer Technologies<ul><li>8.1. Introduction</li><li>8.2. Fundamentals of Water Electrolysis</li><li>8.3. Alkaline Water Electrolysis</li><li>8.4. PEM Water Electrolysis</li><li>8.5. High-Temperature Water Electrolysis</li><li>8.6. Manufacturers and Developers of Electrolyzers</li><li>8.7. Cost Issues</li><li>8.8. Summary</li><li>Acronyms/Abbreviations</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 9. Large-Scale Hydrogen Energy Storage<ul><li>9.1. Introduction</li><li>9.2. Electrolyzer</li><li>9.3. Hydrogen Gas Storage</li><li>9.4. Reconversion of the Hydrogen into Electricity</li><li>9.5. Cost Issues: Levelized Cost of Energy</li><li>9.6. Actual Status and Outlook</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 10. Hydrogen Conversion into Electricity and Thermal Energy by Fuel Cells: Use of H<sub>2</sub>-Systems and Batteries<ul><li>10.1. Introduction</li><li>10.2. Electrochemical Power Sources</li><li>10.3. Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage Systems</li><li>10.4. Energy Flow in the Hydrogen Energy Storage System</li><li>10.5. Demonstration Projects</li><li>10.6. Case Study: A General Energy Storage System Layout for Maximized Use of Renewable Energies</li><li>10.7. Case Study of a PV-Based System Minimizing Grid Interaction</li><li>10.8. Conclusions</li><li>10.9. Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 11. PEM Electrolyzers and PEM Regenerative Fuel Cells Industrial View<ul><li>11.1. Introduction</li><li>11.2. General Technology Description</li><li>11.3. Electrical Performance and&#xA0;Lifetime</li><li>11.4. Necessary Accessories</li><li>11.5. Environmental Issues</li><li>11.6. Cost Issues</li><li>11.7. Actual Status</li><li>11.8. Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 12. Energy Carriers Made from Hydrogen<ul><li>12.1. Introduction</li><li>12.2. Hydrogen Production and&#xA0;Distribution</li><li>12.3. Methane</li><li>12.4. Methanol</li><li>12.5. Dimethyl Ether</li><li>12.6. Fischer&#x2013;Tropsch Synfuels</li><li>12.7. Higher Alcohols and Ethers</li><li>12.8. Ammonia</li><li>12.9. Conclusion and Outlook</li><li>Abbreviations</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 13. Energy Storage with Lead&#x2013;Acid Batteries<ul><li>13.1. Fundamentals of Lead&#x2013;Acid Technology</li><li>13.2. Electrical Performance and&#xA0;Aging</li><li>13.3. Battery Management</li><li>13.4. Environmental Issues</li><li>13.5. Cost Issues</li><li>13.6. Past/Present Applications, Activities and Markets</li><li>Acronyms and Initialisms</li><li>Symbols</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 14. Nickel&#x2013;Cadmium and Nickel&#x2013;Metal Hydride Battery Energy Storage<ul><li>14.1. Introduction</li><li>14.2. Ni-Cd and Ni-MH Technologies</li><li>14.3. Electrical Performance and&#xA0;Lifetime and Aging Aspects</li><li>14.4. Environmental Considerations</li><li>14.5. Actual Status</li><li>14.6. Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 15. High-Temperature Sodium Batteries for Energy Storage<ul><li>15.1. Fundamentals of&#xA0;High-Temperature Sodium Battery Technology</li><li>15.2. Electrical Performance and&#xA0;Aging</li><li>15.3. Battery Management</li><li>15.4. Environmental Issues</li><li>15.5. Cost Issues</li><li>15.6. Current Status</li><li>15.7. Concluding Remarks</li><li>Acronyms and Initialisms</li><li>Symbols and Units</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 16. Lithium Battery Energy Storage: State of the Art Including Lithium&#x2013;Air and Lithium&#x2013;Sulfur Systems<ul><li>16.1. Energy Storage in Lithium Batteries</li><li>16.2. Electrical Performance, Lifetime, and Aging</li><li>16.3. Accessories</li><li>16.4. Environmental Issues</li><li>16.5. Cost Issues</li><li>16.6. State of the Art</li><li>Abbreviations and Symbols</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 17. Redox Flow Batteries<ul><li>17.1. Introduction</li><li>17.2. Flow Battery Chemistries</li><li>17.3. Cost Considerations</li><li>17.4. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 18. Metal Storage/Metal Air (Zn, Fe, Al, Mg)<ul><li>18.1. General Technical Description of the Technology</li><li>18.2. Electrical Performance, Lifetime, and Aging Aspects</li><li>18.3. Necessary Accessories</li><li>18.4. Environmental Issues</li><li>18.5. Cost Issues (Today, in 5<span style=" padding-top:0.3em; padding-left:0.25em" title="hsp=&quot;0.25&quot;"><span style="font-size:0pt">&#xA0;</i></i>years, and in 10<span style=" padding-top:0.3em; padding-left:0.25em" title="hsp=&quot;0.25&quot;"><span style="font-size:0pt">&#xA0;</i></i>years)</li><li>18.6. Actual Status</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 19. Electrochemical Double-layer Capacitors<ul><li>19.1. Technical Description</li><li>19.2. Electrical Performance, Lifetime, and Aging Aspects</li><li>19.3. Accessories</li><li>19.4. Environmental Issues</li><li>19.5. Cost Issues</li><li>19.6. Actual Status</li><li>Symbols and Units</li><li>Abbreviations and Acronyms</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part III. System Aspects<ul><li>Chapter 20. Battery Management and Battery Diagnostics<ul><li>20.1. Introduction</li><li>20.2. Battery Parameters&#x2014;Monitoring and&#xA0;Control</li><li>20.3. Battery Management of&#xA0;Electrochemical Energy Storage&#xA0;Systems</li><li>20.4. Battery Diagnostics</li><li>20.5. Implementation of Battery Management and Battery Diagnostics</li><li>20.6. Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 21. Life Cycle Cost Calculation and Comparison for Different Reference Cases and Market Segments<ul><li>21.1. Motivation</li><li>21.2. Methodology</li><li>21.3. Reference Cases</li><li>21.4. Example Results</li><li>21.5. Sensitivity Analysis</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 22. &#x2018;Double Use&#x2019; of Storage Systems<ul><li>22.1. Introduction</li><li>22.2. Uninterruptible Power Supply Systems</li><li>22.3. Electric Vehicle Batteries&#x2014;Vehicle to Grid</li><li>22.4. Photovoltaic Home Storage</li><li>22.5. Second Life of Vehicle Batteries</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


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© Elsevier 2015
23rd October 2014
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About the Editors

Patrick T. Moseley

Patrick T. Moseley

Pat was awarded a Ph. D. for crystal structure analysis in 1968 by the University of Durham, U.K., and a D. Sc. for research publications in materials science, by the same university, in 1994. He worked for 23 years at the Harwell Laboratory of the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority where he brought a background of crystal structure and materials chemistry to the study of lead-acid and other varieties of battery, thus supplementing the traditional electrochemical emphasis of the subject.

From1995 he was Manager of Electrochemistry at the International Lead Zinc Research Organization in North Carolina and Program Manager of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium. In 2005 he also became President of the Consortium.

Dr. Moseley was one of the editors of the Journal of Power Sources for 25 years from 1989 to 2014. In 2008 he was awarded the Gaston Planté medal by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA

Jurgen Garche

Jurgen Garche

Prof. Dr. Jürgen Garche has more than 40 years of experience in battery and fuel cell research & development. In his academic career the focus was on material research. Thereafter, he worked on and directed cell and system development of conventional (LAB, NiCd, NiMH) and advanced (Li-Ion, NaNiCl2, Redox-Flow) batteries. His experience includes also fuel cells (mainly low temperature FCs) and supercaps. He established the battery & FC division of the ZSW in Ulm (Germany), an industry related R&D institute with about 100 scientists and technicians. His interest in battery safety goes back to the work with the very large battery safety testing center of the ZSW. In 2004 he founded the FC&Battery consulting office FCBAT; furthermore he is a senior professor at Ulm University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fuel Cell and Battery Consulting, Ulm, Germany

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