Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128008799, 9780128011515

Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements

1st Edition

Editors: Patricia Hester
eBook ISBN: 9780128011515
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128008799
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 3rd January 2017
Page Count: 646
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Description

Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements examines the production of eggs from their development to human consumption. Chapters also address consumer acceptance, quality control, regulatory aspects, cost and risk analyses, and research trends.

Eggs are a rich source of macro- and micronutrients which are consumed not only by themselves, but also within the matrix of food products, such as pastas, cakes, and pastries. A wholesome, versatile food with a balanced array of essential nutrients, eggs are a stable of the human diet. Emerging strategies entail improvements to the composition of eggs via fortification or biological enrichment of hen's feed with polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins, or minerals. Conversely, eggs can be a source of food-borne disease or pollutants that can have effects on not only human health, but also egg production and commercial viability.

Written by an international team of experts, the book presents a unique overview of the biology and science of egg production, nutrient profiling, disease, and modes for increasing their production and quality. Designed for poultry and food scientists, technologists, microbiologists, and workers in public health and the food and egg industries, the book is valuable as an industrial reference and as a resource in academic libraries.

Key Features

  • Focuses on the production and food science aspects of eggs
  • Includes a broad range of microbial contaminants, their risks, and prevention, as well as non-microbial contaminant risks
  • Presents analytical techniques for practical application

Readership

Designed for poultry and food scientists, technologists, food industry workers, microbiologists, public health workers. It is valuable as an industrial reference book and also for academic libraries that cover the domains of food production, poultry conglomerates or food science

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Section I: Introduction
    • Chapter 1: Chicken Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Origin of the egg producing chicken
      • Management systems for egg production
      • Global production and consumption
      • Egg components
      • Value for human nutrition and health
      • Manipulation of egg nutrients
      • Measures to ensure egg food safety
      • Measures to maintain egg quality
      • Challenges
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Quail Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Worldwide production and consumption
      • Quail species and life cycle
      • Egg characteristics
      • Egg production
      • Common disease and food safety issues
      • Enhancing production and egg composition
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Duck Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Regional preferences and production statistics
      • Duck layer breeds
      • Stages of growth and egg production
      • Feed requirements
      • Duck egg physical characteristics
      • Nutrient composition of duck eggs
      • Production systems
      • Processed duck egg products
      • The regulatory environment in the United States
      • Disease and food safety issues
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4: Guinea Fowl, Goose, Turkey, Ostrich, and Emu Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Eggs in the human diet
      • Guinea fowl eggs
      • Goose eggs
      • Turkey eggs
      • Ostrich eggs
      • Emu eggs
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
  • Section II: Management and Housing
    • Chapter 5: Steroid Hormones and Female Energy Balance: Relation to Offspring Primary Sex Ratio
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Potential mechanisms of primary sex ratio bias in birds
      • The relationship of egg sex with gonadal sex steroid hormones
      • Relationship of egg sex with female parental stress, corticosterone, and physical parameters of the egg
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Breeder Hen Influence on Nutrient Availability for the Embryo and Hatchling
      • Abstract
      • Nutrients deposited in the chicken egg
      • Nutrient assimIlation into the egg by the breeder hen
      • Nutrient retrieval by the embryo and hatchling
      • Influence of breeder hen diet on nutrient availabilty to the embryo and hatchling
      • Influence of breeder hen condition and the embryo’s metabolism on nutrient availabilty
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Effect of Lighting and Photoperiod on Chicken Egg Production and Quality
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The physiology: overview of the reproductive axis and its control by light
      • Lighting paradigms and their impact on egg laying
      • Light spectrum
      • Lighting’s effect on egg weight and quality
      • Lighting effects on hen welfare
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods to assess light quality
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 8: Enrichments in Cages
      • Abstract
      • The political environment
      • Europe
      • South and central america and asia
      • The united states
      • The nest area
      • Perches
      • Scratch pad and foraging area
      • Nail trimmers
      • How much space do hens need in large enriched cages?
      • Do pullets need enrichments too?
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: Commercial Free-Range Egg Production Practices
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Defining free-range
      • Free-range chicken egg production methods
      • Free-range chicken egg characteristics
      • Free-range duck egg production
      • Assessment of free-range eggs
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Organic Farming and Mineral Content of Chicken Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mineral content of hen’s eggs and factors affecting its nutritive value
      • Effect of organic rearing system on egg mineral content
      • Hazardous heavy metal residues in organic rearing system
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Controlling Feather Pecking and Cannibalism in Egg Laying Flocks
      • Abstract
      • Cannibalism
      • Feather pecking
      • Impact of coping style on feather pecking behavior
      • The behavioral phenotypes of feather pecking
      • Risk factors for developing feather pecking
      • The importance of litter in the environment
      • Access to perches
      • Feeding and watering
      • Use of space
      • Access to outdoors and range
      • Lighting, temperature, and air quality
      • Environmental enrichment
      • Applicability to other commercial egg laying species
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods to assess feather pecking behavior
      • Conclusions
  • Section III: Food Safety
    • Chapter 12: Effects of Temperature and Storage Conditions on Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The aging egg
      • The aging hen
      • Storing table eggs
      • Storing hatching eggs
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 13: The Eggshell Microbial Activity
      • Abstract
      • The eggshell and membranes
      • Microbial contaminants of eggshell
      • Microbial contamination of eggshell
      • Factors affecting microbial activity
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 14: Effects of Propolis on Eggshell
      • Abstract
      • Description of propolis
      • Antimicrobial effects of propolis
      • Use of propolis to extend the shelf life of eggs
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: The Eggshell Proteome Yields Insight Into Its Antimicrobial Protection
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Eggshell structure
      • Antimicrobial molecules and their mechanisms
      • Future challenges
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 16: Shell Egg Pasteurization
      • Abstract
      • Egg washing
      • Thermal pasteurization
      • Nonthermal pasteurization
      • Surface pasteurization of shell eggs
      • Rapid cooling
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Effects of Gamma Radiation for Microbiological Control in Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Background information on radiation
      • Irradiation of food
      • Irradiation of eggs
      • Other uses of gamma irradiation in food
      • Legislation
      • Consumer perception
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
  • Section IV: Composition of Eggs
    • Chapter 18: Cholesterol in Chicken Eggs: Still a Dietary Concern for Some
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Meta-analyses versus observational studies: groups versus individuals
      • Cholesterol in chicken eggs: why it should still be a target for reduction
      • Other evidence of Inter-individual variability in cholesterol homeostasis in humans
      • Cholesterol content has been decreasing in eggs from American flocks
      • Egg cholesterol contents: perspectives on analytical techniques and reporting data
      • Experimental approaches to egg cholesterol reduction
      • What does the future hold with regard to reducing egg cholesterol?
      • Phosphatidylcholine content of eggs: a new concern with regard to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis?
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 19: Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids in Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Chicken eggs
      • Carotenoids in eggs and their analysis
      • Effect of feed composition on egg carotenoids
      • Carotenoids in organic eggs
      • Effect of cooking and processing on egg carotenoids
      • Egg carotenoids and human health
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Vitamins in Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Fat soluble vitamins
      • Water soluble vitamins
      • Vitamin levels in eggs from alternative egg production
      • Sensory, functional property, and toxicity
      • Relative to recommended daily allowances
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
  • Section V: Use of Eggs
    • Chapter 21: Economic and Cultural Aspects of the Table Egg as an Edible Commodity
      • Abstract
      • Egg production trends
      • Egg consumption trends
      • Availability of eggs
      • Technology, innovation, and geographics
      • Culture, lifestyle, and food traditions
      • Consumer attitudes
      • Purchaser preferences
      • Consumer misconceptions
      • Global trade
      • Marketing: competition, trends, and strategies
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 22: Use of Hen Egg White Lysozyme in the Food Industry
      • Abstract
      • Lysozyme extraction and purification from egg albumen
      • Structure and mode of action
      • Current research and applications in the food industry
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 23: Function and Separation of Ovotransferrin from Chicken Egg
      • Abstract
      • Structure of ovotransferrin
      • Use of ovotransferrin and its derived peptides
      • Separation of ovotransferrin
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 24: The Use of Egg and Egg Products in Pasta Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Production process of fresh and dried egg pasta
      • The role of eggs on pasta quality
      • The role of eggs in gluten-free pasta products
      • Use of non-chicken eggs in pasta production
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical techniques for the determination of egg content and quality in pasta
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 25: The Eggshell and Its Commercial and Production Importance
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Role of the eggshell
      • Eggshell composition and structure
      • Eggshell formation
      • The mutual relationship between the organic and inorganic matrix of the eggshell
      • Factors influencing eggshell quality
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods for measuring shell quality
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 26: Nutraceutical Egg Products
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Development of novel nutraceutical egg products with omega-3 fatty acid rich oils
      • Nutritional composition and potential health benefits of nutraceutical egg products
      • Sensory quality and consumer acceptability of nutraceutical egg products
      • Market for nutraceutical egg products fortified with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
      • Strategies for improvement of nutraceutical egg products
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
  • Section VI: Improving Production
    • Chapter 27: Use of Dietary Probiotics to Improve Laying Hen Performance
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Probiotics as a feed additive for laying hens
      • Egg laying performance
      • Egg weight
      • Feed utilization
      • Shell quality traits
      • Internal egg quality traits
      • Egg composition
      • Biological mechanism of probiotics
      • Impact of stress on intestinal microbiota balance in laying hens
      • Other egg laying species
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical techniques
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 28: Improving Performance Traits of Laying Hens with Vitamin C
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Physiological role of vitamin C
      • Stressors
      • The effect of vitamin C on performance traits
      • Supplemental vitamin C in Japanese quail and other breeds of chickens
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 29: Modifying Protein in Feed
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Importance of protein in laying hen diets
      • Symptoms of deficiencies and excesses of protein
      • Importance of protein for growth and egg production
      • Protein impact on egg composition and size
      • Dietary protein influence in other species of poultry
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical techniques for feed protein and amino acids
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 30: Improving Egg Production and Hen Health with Calcium
      • Abstract
      • Egg formation
      • Calcium
      • Vitamin D
      • Phosphorus
      • Avian bone
      • Osteoporosis
      • Relationship between egg production traits and osteoporosis
      • Strategies to improve bone strength and egg production in laying hens
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 31: Use of Ginseng in Animal Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Ginseng in animal production
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 32: Preventive Measures for Avoiding the Deleterious Effects of Heat Stress on Egg Production and Quality
      • Abstract
      • Production responses to heat stress
      • Coping mechanisms used by hens to ameliorate heat stress
      • Environmental manipulation to ameliorate heat stress
      • Managing feed to ameliorate heat stress
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
  • Section VII: Improving Composition
    • Chapter 33: Supplemental Linseed on Egg Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Linseed as an ingredient for laying hen diets
      • Antinutritional factors
      • Dietary linseed, linseed meal, and linseed oil on production performance of laying hens
      • Effect on interior egg quality
      • Effect on egg shell quality
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 34: Supplemental Flax and Impact on n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Egg lipids
      • Modifying the egg lipid profile
      • Omega-6 (n−6) and omega-3 (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs
      • Human requirement of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
      • Metabolism of dietary fat in laying hens and origin of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs
      • Dietary sources for n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment
      • Nutritional value of flaxseed
      • Influence of form and type of flaxseed and antioxidants on egg n−3 fatty acid incorporation
      • Effects on yolk fatty acids of eggs from hens consuming flax
      • Effects of feeding flax to laying hens on production and egg quality
      • Sensory aspects and oxidative stability of eggs from hens consuming flax
      • Human clinical studies on eggs from hens fed flax
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 35: Supplemental Fish Oil and its Impact on n−3 Fatty Acids in Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Fatty acid composition
      • Cholesterol level
      • Oxidative stability
      • Sensory properties
      • Hen performance
      • Human health benefits
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 36: Microalgal Feed Supplementation to Enrich Eggs with Omega-3 Fatty Acids
      • Abstract
      • Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids
      • Microalgae as an alternative n−3 longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acid source
      • Enrichment of eggs from laying hens
      • Analytical methods
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 37: Supplemental Iodine
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: is iodine deficiency still a worldwide problem?
      • The role of iodine in poultry metabolism and iodine requirements
      • Iodine content of eggs compared with other foods
      • The influence of iodine supplementation on laying hen performance
      • The effect of supplemental iodine on egg traits and egg content (iodine transfer)
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical techniques: brief overview of iodine determination methods
      • Conclusions
  • Section VIII: Preserving Eggs
    • Chapter 38: Pickling Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pertinent safety parameters
      • Regulations and safety concerns
      • Pickled egg production
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 39: Sodium Chloride Preservation in Duck Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Role of sodium chloride in preservation and characteristics of salted eggs
      • Salting processes of duck egg
      • Changes in chemical composition of egg white and yolk during salting
      • Change in physicochemical and rheological properties during salting
      • Alternative uses of salted egg
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 40: Inorganic Elements in Preserved Egg
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The processing principles of preserved egg
      • The processing methods of preserved egg
      • Elements and distribution characteristic in preserved egg
      • Recommended daily intake of minerals used in preserved egg
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
  • Section IX: Adverse Nonmicrobial Contaminants
    • Chapter 41: The Effect of Estrogens on Egg-Laying Performance
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Chickens
      • Quail
      • Ducks
      • Guinea fowl, geese, and other less common birds
      • Wild birds
      • Estrogen effects on egg quality
      • Estrogen effects on human health
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 42: Antimicrobial Residues in Table Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Antimicrobials residues in eggs
      • Distribution of antimicrobials residues in egg yolk and albumen
      • Fluoroquinolones: enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in table eggs
      • Chlortetracycline residues in table eggs
      • Sulfanilamide residues in table eggs
      • The effect of processing on antimicrobial residues
      • Applicability to other egg laying species
      • Analytical techniques
      • Drug residues and antimicrobial resistance
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 43: Nitrofuran Veterinary Drug Residues in Chicken Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Chemical structure, metabolism, and bioavailability
      • Mutagenic and toxic effects
      • Regulatory framework on the prohibition of nitrofuran use
      • Monitoring nitrofurans in food and by-products
      • Nitrofuran drug residues in chicken eggs
      • Nitrofuran drug residues in chicken egg products
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical techniques
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 44: Anthelmintic Benzimidazoles in Eggs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • General characteristics of anthelmintic benzimidazoles
      • Presence of anthelmintic benzimidazoles in eggs
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods for the determination of anthelmintic benzimidazoles in eggs
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 45: Flame Retardants in Wild Bird Eggs and in Relation to Eggs in the Human Food Supply
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Toxicological impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on avian eggs
      • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild bird eggs
      • Flame retardants in eggs of the human food supply
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical method for measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 46: Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Chicken Eggs
      • Summary
      • Chemical and toxicological properties
      • Origins
      • Transport into the food chain
      • Toxic effects, tissue distribution, and bioavailability
      • Regulations
      • An overview of recent data on contaminant levels in eggs
      • Dioxin crisis in poultry
      • Strategies for improvement and intervention methods
      • Analytical techniques
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 47: Influence of Plant Toxins on Laying Hen Performance and Egg Quality
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Alkaloids
      • Glycosides
      • Proteins, amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and nitriles
      • Lipids
      • Phenolic compounds
      • Other toxins
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
  • Section X: Microbial or Parasitic Contaminants
    • Chapter 48: Salmonella and Impact on Egg Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: Salmonella Enteritidis and the egg industry
      • Salmonella and commercial egg production
      • Analytical methods for Salmonella in poultry and eggs
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 49: Colibacillosis and Its Impact on Egg Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of avian pathogenic E. coli
      • Pathology
      • Entry routes for avian pathogenic E. coli
      • The immune response of the host
      • Bacterial virulence factors in the counterattack
      • Virulence gene profiles
      • Antimicrobial resistance
      • Zoonotic potential
      • Control strategies of avian colibacillosis
      • Additional strategies for improvement
      • Analytical techniques and infection models
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 50: Mycoplasmosis in Egg Laying Flocks
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mycoplasmas
      • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
      • Live attenuated vaccines
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 51: Avian Influenza Virus and Newcastle Disease Virus
      • Abstract
      • Avian influenza
      • Newcastle disease
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 52: Infectious Bronchitis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Trophism of infectious bronchitis strains
      • Effects of infectious bronchitis virus on production and egg quality
      • Effects of infectious bronchitis virus on the oviduct of the laying hen
      • Effectiveness of vaccination in preventing adverse effects of infectious virus on the hen
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods for viral isolation and identification
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 53: Coccidiosis in Egg Laying Poultry
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Life cycle and biology
      • Etiology
      • Management
      • Chemotherapy
      • Vaccination
      • Vaccination or chemotherapy in egg laying stock?
      • Turkeys and game birds
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 54: Mycotoxin Impact on Egg Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Main toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins
      • Occurrence of mycotoxins in poultry feeds
      • Toxicological effects of mycotoxins in laying hens
      • Aflatoxins
      • Fumonisins
      • Trichothecenes
      • Zearalenone
      • Ochratoxin A
      • Residues of mycotoxins in eggs
      • Prevention of mycotoxicoses
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Detection and measurement of mycotoxins
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 55: Parasites in Laying Hen Housing Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Life cycles of selected pests
      • Effect of habitat complexity on pest infestations
      • Parasite management options
      • Strategies for improvement
      • Analytical methods
      • Conclusions
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
646
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128011515
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128008799

About the Editor

Patricia Hester

Patricia (Scotti) Hester, Professor of Animal Science

Purdue University School of Agriculture

Area of Expertise: Physiology, Poultry

Education: B.S. and Ph.D., North Carolina State University

Visiting Professorships: Cuddy International, Canada; University of Guelph, Canada

Currently Teaching ANSC 44500 - Commercial Poultry Management and ANSC 53500 (BMS 52800) - Avian Physiology

Awards and Honors:

Past President Poultry Science Association

(2010) Poultry Welfare Research Award. Poultry Science Association.

(2009) Fellow. Poultry Science Association.

(2009) Outstanding Alumni Award. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University.

(2004) Helene Cecil Leadership Award. Poultry Science Association.

Memberships in academic, professional, and scholarly societies

Gamma Sigma Delta

Phi Kappa Phi

Poultry Science Association (U.S.A.)

The World's Poultry Science Association- life time member

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST)

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1982-1983

American Society for Gravitational Biology

American Poultry Historical Society- life time member

Professor Hester has published extensively as well as presented at numerous relevant meetings and conferences. Her course evaluation rates are consistently 4.6 on a 5 point scale

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Awards

A focused, one-volume resource on the key aspects of a globally important food source