Echidnas - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080126500, 9781483150406

Echidnas

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Zoology

Authors: Mervyn Griffiths
Editors: G. A. Kerkut
eBook ISBN: 9781483150406
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 294
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Description

Echidnas, Volume 38 presents the scientific classification of the mammal echidnas. This book describes the characteristics, behavior, reproduction, embryology, anatomy, and physiology of the spiny anteaters, Tachyglossidae. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the natural history, classification, and physical characteristics of echidnas. This text then examines the food intake and digestion mechanisms of echidnas whereby the ground-up insects in the buccal cavity are permeated with saliva secreted by the sublingual, subaxillary, and parotid salivary glands. Other chapters describe various stages in the development of echidna embryos and pouch young. This book discusses as well the primary division of the central nervous system of echidnas, including the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. The final chapter deals with the similar anatomical characteristics that anteaters exhibit, and describes also their differences in the grinding techniques, forelimb anatomy, and stomach structures. This book is a valuable resource for biologists and zoologists.

Table of Contents


Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. External Anatomy, Taxonomy, and Natural History

External Features

Taxonomy

Tachyglossus Aculeatus

Distribution of the Subspecies of Tachyglossus Aculeatus

Zaglossus

Distribution of the Species of Zaglossus

Natural History

Habitats

Body temperature

Hibernation

Food and Feeding Habits

Movements

Parasites

Chapter 2. Intake of Food, Digestion, and Bodily Functions

Intake of Food

Digestion

Nitrogen excretion, N2 Retention, and Growth

Excretion

Retention

N2 excretion in Torpid Echidnas

Chapter 3. Skeleton

Early Chondrocranium

Definitive Chondrocranium

Reptilian and Mammalian Characters of the Chondrocranium

Adult Skull

Periotic Bone of the Adult Skull, Bony Labyrinth, Membranous

Labyrinth, and Ear Ossicles

Laryngeal Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Girdle

Pelvic Girdle

Chapter 4. The Central Nervous System

Anatomy of the Brain

Spinal Cord and Medulla Oblongata

The Cranial Nerves and the Motor Functions of the Brain

The Motor Nerves of the Brain

The Pyramidal Tracts

The Sensory and Co-Ordination Systems of the Brain

The Gracile and Cuneate Nuclei

The Trigeminal System

The Vlllth Nerve

The Pons Varolii

The cerebellum

The Mid-Brain

Superior Colliculi

Inferior Colliculi

The cerebral Peduncles

Pars Intercalis Encephali

The Diencephalon

The Hypothalamus

The Thalamus

The Epithalamus

The Telencephalon

The Cerebral Hemispheres

Conclusions

Chapter 5. Special Senses

The Eyes

Hearing

Chapter 6. Endocrine Glands and the Glands of the Immune System

Adrenals

Corticosteroid Secretion by the Adrenals of Tachyglossus Aculeatus

The Pituitary Gland

The Islets of Langerhans

The Thyroid Gland and other Derivatives of the Pharyngeal Pouches

The Glands of the Immune System

Chapter 7. The Reproductive Organs

The Male Sexual Organs

Spermatogenesis

Structure of the Epididymal Spermatozoon

The Number and Structure of the Spermatogonial and Somatic

Chromosomes

The Female Sexual Organs

Oogenesis

The Breeding Season

Chapter 8. Embroyology

Early Cleavage Stages

Formation of the Unilaminar Blastoderm

Formation of the Bilaminar Blastoderm

Comparison of Early Development of Tachyglossus with that in Metatheria

External Features and Embryonic Membranes of Embryos from Pouch Eggs

Comparison of the Neonatus of Tachyglossus with those of Marsupials

Chapter 9. The Mammary Glands

Anatomy

Development

Growth of the Pouch Young and the Composition of the Milk Composition of the Milk

Chapter 10. Circulatory System and Blood

The Circulatory System

Blood

Chapter 11. Affinities of the Prototheria

Appendixes

I. Anatomical Specializations

II. Iron Content of Echidna Milk

III. Kidney Function

IV. Respiration

V. Incubation Period of the Egg in the Pouch

References

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
294
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1968
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483150406

About the Author

Mervyn Griffiths

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant Paediatric and Neonatal Surgeon, Southampton General Hospital, UK

About the Editor

G. A. Kerkut