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Early Vascular Aging (EVA) - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128013878, 9780128016763

Early Vascular Aging (EVA)

1st Edition

New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection

Editors: Peter Nilsson Michael Olsen Stephane Laurent
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128013878
eBook ISBN: 9780128016763
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th August 2015
Page Count: 376
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Early Vascular Aging (EVA): New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection brings together the last decade of research related to the characterization of EVA, as well as the predictive power of pulse wave velocity (PWV).

The book presents a novel approach to the problem of cardiovascular disease, showing it in relation to great vessels disease and revealing a comprehensive approach to the problem of increased rigidity of the great vessels, its causes, and further consequences.

Information provided is accompanied by online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures.

Key Features

  • Introduces the latest information on early vascular aging (EVA), complete with summaries of recent evidence and guidelines for relevant risk factor control
  • Ideal reference for the study of vascular aging, pulse wave velocity, arteriosclerosis, EVA, arterial stiffness, vascular, PWV biomarkers, and cardiovascular disease
  • Contains all the relevant information available from different fields of knowledge (from basic biology to epidemiology) in regard to EVA
  • Provides evidence that leads to a new target for interventions, early vascular aging (EVA) in subjects with early onset increased arterial stiffness
  • Includes online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures


Specialists and researchers of hypertension and cardiology, preventive cardiology, diabetology and internal and general medicine, geriatricians, physiologists and experts in image medicine

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
    • References
  • Chapter 1. Historical Aspects and Biology of Aging
    • Evolutionary Traits, Genes, and the Environment Influencing Aging
    • Changes During the Twentieth Century in Life Expectancy
    • Early Life Programming Effects
    • Vascular Aging in Perspective
    • New Models and Interventions to Influence Aging
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Cellular and Molecular Determinants of Arterial Aging
    • Introduction
    • Cytoskeletal and Contractile Proteins in the Aging Arterial Wall
    • Cellular Matrix Structure in the Aging Arterial Wall
    • Proinflammatory Molecular, Cellular, and Vascular Events in the Aging Arterial Wall
    • Transcription Factors
    • Anti-Inflammatory Molecule SIRT1
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Aging Population: Challenges and Opportunities in a Life Course Perspective
    • Aging Populations—Between Decreasing Mortality and Improved Health
    • Living Longer, but with More Chronic Diseases
    • From Healthcare of Older Subjects to Life Course Approach
    • Strategies for Healthy Aging
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Population-Based Studies: Milestones on the Epidemiological Timeline
    • Introduction
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Lessons from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study
    • AGAHLS—The Cohort Profile
    • Early Determinants of Arterial Stiffness—A Life Course Approach
    • Additional Studies
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Cardiovascular Aging: Perspectives from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)
    • Introduction
    • Detecting Occult CV Disease in BLSA Participants
    • Epidemiological Studies of Genetic and Hormonal and Metabolic Risk Factors for CAD
    • Age-Associated Changes in Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and the Arterial Waveform
    • Arterial Stiffness as Early Markers for Subsequent CV Events in Asymptomatic BLSA Participants
    • Age-Associated Changes in Carotid Intimal–Medial Thickness
    • The Vascular Aging: The Link that Bridges Age to Early Atherosclerosis (The VALIDATE Study)
    • Arterial–Heart Coupling
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Changes in Peripheral Blood Pressure with Normal and Accelerated Aging
    • Introduction
    • What Induces Accelerated Vascular Aging?
    • Changes in Peripheral BP During Normal Aging
    • Changes in Peripheral BP During Accelerated Aging
    • Predictors of Diastolic Hypertension
    • Predictors of ISH in Adolescents and Young Adults
    • Predictors of ISH in Middle-Aged and the Elderly
    • The Value of Paired BP Components in Predicting CVD Risk
    • Perspectives
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Changes in Arterial Stiffness with Normal and Accelerated Aging
    • Introduction
    • A Word of Caution on Study Design
    • Chronological Aging of the Arteries
    • Accelerated Aging of the Arteries
    • Summarizing Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Changes in Central Hemodynamics, Wave Reflection, and Heart–Vessel Coupling with Normal and Accelerated Aging
    • Introduction
    • The Heart and Its Interaction with the Arterial Tree
    • Aging and Wave Reflections
    • Central Arterial Pressure
    • References
  • Chapter 10. Early Aging of Endothelial Function and Platelet–Vessel Wall Interactions
    • Introduction
    • Platelet–Vessel Wall Interactions in Hemostasis
    • Regulation of the Adhesiveness of Platelets at the Vessel Wall
    • Age-Related Changes in Platelet–Vessel Wall Interactions
    • Clinical Implications of Platelet–ECs Interactions and Drug Development
    • References
  • Chapter 11. The Cross-Talk Between the Macro- and the Microcirculation
    • Introduction
    • Small Artery in Normal and Accelerated Aging
    • Large-Artery Remodeling
    • Large-/Small-Artery Cross-Talk in Normal and Accelerated Aging
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure Variability
    • Introduction
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 13. Early Vascular Aging in the Young: Influence of Birth Weight and Prematurity
    • Introduction
    • Development of the Vasculature During Fetal Life and Early Childhood
    • Influence of Birth Weight on Blood Pressure
    • Impact of Birth Weight on Vascular Structure and Function
    • Influence of IUGR/SGA Phenotype on Arterial Structure and Function
    • Influence of Prematurity on Arterial Structure and Function
    • Influence of IUGR Versus Prematurity
    • Influence of Extreme Prematurity on Vascular Structure and Function
    • Effects of Increased “Catch-Up” Growth Patterns
    • Summary
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Age-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction and Intima–Media Thickening
    • Age-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction
    • Age-Induced Intima–Media Thickening
    • References
  • Chapter 15. Glucose Metabolism, Diabetes, and the Arterial Wall
    • Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Arterial Wall Damage
    • Preclinical Large Artery Changes in Diabetes Mellitus
    • Preclinical Large Artery Changes in the MetS and Obesity
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 16. Chronic Inflammation and Atherosclerosis
    • Age and Development of Atherosclerosis
    • Inflammation and Plaque Formation According to the Response–to–Retention Theory
    • Evidence for the Role of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis
    • The Role of Cytokines and Chemokines
    • Regulation and Resolution of Inflammation
    • Factors Increasing Vascular Aging
    • Inflammation as a Therapeutic Target
    • References
  • Chapter 17. Early and Late Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Relation to Arterial Changes
    • Introduction
    • Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections
    • Arterial Changes in Early and Predialysis CKD
    • Arterial Changes in Patients with ESRD
    • Pathogenesis of Arterial Stiffness in CKD and ESRD
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 18. Non-Hemodynamic Components of EVA: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
    • Introduction
    • Definition of PCOS
    • PCOS and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease
    • PCOS Phenotypes and Cardiometabolic Risk
    • Subclinical Arterial Disease in Women with PCOS
    • Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Women with PCOS
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 19. Impact of Arterial Aging on Early and Late Stages of Brain Damage
    • Cognitive Decline and Dementia: The Emerging Role of Arterial Aging
    • Structural Brain Changes and Arterial Aging
    • Pathophysiological Consideration
    • Therapeutic Opportunities and Research Perspectives
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 20. Telomere Biology and Vascular Aging
    • Introduction
    • Telomere Length and Cellular Senescence
    • Telomere Structure and Function
    • Measurement of Telomere Length
    • Regulation of Telomere Length
    • Endogenous Factors
    • Environmental Factors
    • Telomere Length and Vascular Aging and Disease
    • LTL, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiac Disease
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 21. Traditional Versus New Models of Risk Prediction
    • Evaluating New Risk Models
    • Screening
    • Traditional Risk Models
    • Risk Estimation Using New Markers of Subclinical Organ Damage
    • Future Research
    • References
  • Chapter 22. Imaging Biomarkers: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Stiffness as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease
    • Introduction
    • Carotid Intima–Media Thickness and CV Prognosis
    • Aortic Stiffness and CV Prognosis
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 23. Genetic Markers in Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease
    • Cardiovascular Disease—What Is the Risk?
    • Familial Syndromes—Monogenic Diseases
    • Complex Diseases—GWAS and the Search for Common Variants
    • Missing Heritability—Limitations of GWAS
    • Building on GWAS—The Future of Cardiovascular Genomics
    • Lessons Learned from GWAS—Biological Mechanisms and Pathways
    • Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 24. Vascular Aging and Cardiovascular Disease
    • Changes with Age in the Arterial Tree
    • Monitoring Vascular Aging and Detecting Accelerated Signs of Vascular Deterioration
    • Central Hemodynamic Variables and Association to CV Risk
    • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    • References
  • Chapter 25. Lifestyle Intervention: What Works?
    • Smoking
    • Diet and Nutrition
    • Obesity and Weight Loss
    • Mental, Emotional Status, and Work Stress
    • Exercise
    • Air Pollution
    • Illegal Substances
    • References
  • Chapter 26. Targeting Blood Pressure Lowering and the Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Tests for Studying the Human Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Human Hypertension
    • The Link Between the Sympathetic Nervous System and Arterial Stiffening
    • Pharmacological Modulation of Arterial Stiffness
    • Effect of Procedural Interventions on Arterial Stiffness and Sympathetic Outflow
    • Other Device-Based and Interventional Strategies for Lowering BP
    • Baroreceptor Stimulation
    • Deep Brain Stimulation
    • Carotid Body Denervation
    • Device-Guided Slow Breathing
    • Future Directions
    • References
  • Chapter 27. Targeting Central Blood Pressure Through the Macro- and Microcirculation Cross-Talk
    • Introduction
    • Effects of Drugs on Small Artery Structure and Function in Hypertension
    • Effects of Drugs on Large Artery Structure and Function in Hypertension
    • Targeting Central BP Through the Macro- and Microcirculation Cross-Talk
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 28. Treatment Aspects
    • Part I Treatment of Abnormalities in Lipid Metabolism and EVA
    • Part II Early Vascular Aging and Obesity Treatment
    • Part III Treatment of Abnormalities in Glucose Metabolism
  • Chapter 29. New Drugs Under Development for Cardiovascular Prevention
    • Introduction
    • New Molecules Targeting Isolated Systolic Hypertension
    • New Drugs for Hypertension
    • Other Possible Alternatives to Classical Drugs
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 30. Interventions to Retard Biological Aging to Be Explored
    • Introduction
    • Vascular Aging
    • Preventable Factors Leading to EVA
    • Progeria: A Model of Extreme EVA
    • Skin Aging
    • Bone Aging
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 31. Immunization, Vaccines, and Immunomodulation
    • Introduction
    • Defining the Target for Immunization and Role of Immunity in Hypertension
    • Immunization
    • Renin Immunization
    • Angiotensin I (Ang I) Vaccine
    • Ang II Vaccine
    • AT1R Vaccine
    • Safety of Anti-RAAS Vaccines
    • References
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2015
6th August 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Peter Nilsson

Peter Nilsson

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Cardiovascular Research, consultant, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University

Michael Olsen

Michael Olsen

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital

Stephane Laurent

Stephane Laurent

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hôpital Européen Georges- Pompidou, Paris, France


"... it builds on the evidence in previous chapters, eventually signing off with a discussion of possible means to retard vascular aging...a good start on the expanding field of EVA. Score: 82 - 3 Stars" --Doody's

Ratings and Reviews