Durum Wheat Chemistry and Technology

Durum Wheat Chemistry and Technology

2nd Edition - January 1, 2012

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  • Author: Michael Sissons
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128104323

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The most extensive and comprehensive reference on durum wheat chemistry and technology ever available, this ambitious update to the first edition covers more diverse and interesting topics in a new expanded format. Forty-six contributors, each highly experienced and recognized as world authorities on durum wheat, provide the latest developments in scientific research and technology. All aspects of durum wheat are covered, from agronomy and the chemical composition of the grain, to the latest industrial approaches to processing durum wheat, as well as food safety and quality assurance issues. Expanded to include new topics like functional pasta, grain safety, and biotechnology, along with practical and applied information including a table of uses for specific carbohydrates, descriptions of improved laboratory techniques, and international comparisons of HACCP experiences, Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition is a must-have reference for professionals, students, and researchers inside and outside the field who want to learn about durum wheat technology and chemistry. New and Revised Topics Include: Agronomy of durum wheat production Pasta made from non-traditional raw materials: technological and nutritional aspects Grain safety assurance, including impacts on durum wheat trading Origin and distribution of durum wheat genetic diversity in the world Genetics and breeding of durum wheat Insect and mite pests and diseases of durum wheat Kernel components of technological value Vitamins, minerals, and nutritional value of durum wheat Durum wheat milling Manufacture of pasta products Other traditional durum derived products Methods used to assess and predict quality of durum wheat, semolina, and pasta Grading factors impacting on durum wheat and processing quality Grain safety assurance including impacts on durum wheat trading Marketing perspectives in the durum wheat trade Special Features: Detailed figures outlining the processes used to manufacture durum products International comparisons of HACCP experiences Table of uses for specific carbohydrates Descriptions of improved laboratory techniques Extensive bibliography An Essential Reference For: Scientists and researchers in agriculture and plant biology Professionals in the food industry who are processing durum wheat (millers, pasta makers, grain handling companies, and grain buyers) Government regulators Food scientists and technologists developing products using durum wheat Plant breeders University lecturers in agricultural science and plant biology Professionals who market wheat Nutritionists and medical practitioners interested in the impacts of food ingredients on human healthStudents Scientific libraries and their patrons

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Origin and Distribution of Durum Wheat Genetic Diversity in the World
    Alessandro Bozzini, Jacques David, and Vincenzo Natoli
    Evolution and Classification of Wheats
    A Common Ancestral Genome for Grasses
    Polyploidization: A Common Evolutionary Feature in Triticeae
    Classification of Wheats Within a Polyploid Series
    Diploid Progenitors of Wild Polyploid Wheats
    Domestication and Differentiation
    Crop Cereal Emergence During the Neolithic Period
    The Diploid Einkorn
    Wild Tetraploids and Domestication
    Dissemination of Cultivated Emmer and Landrace Differentiation
    Rise of the Modern T. turgidum subsp. durum and Others with Free-Threshing Subspecies
    Durum Wheat Evolution Under Modern Genetic Improvement
    DNA Marker Analysis of Modern Wheats
    Bread Wheat and Hexaploid Forms
    Sources of Genetic Diversity for Breeding
    Role of Wild and Primitive Wheats
    Genetic Variability in Traditional Durum Wheat Landraces
    Genetic Variability in the Elite Germplasm

    Chapter 2. Genetics and Breeding of Durum Wheat
    John M. Clarke, Enzo Deambrogio, Raymond A. Hare, and Pierre Roumet
    Overview of Breeding
    North America
    Other Programs
    Breeding Objectives
    Yield and Agronomic Traits
    Resistance to Abiotic Stresses
    Resistance to Diseases and Insects
    End-Use and Nutritional Quality
    Other Traits
    Breeding Methodology
    Doubled Haploids
    Genetic Diversity and New Traits
    Marker-Assisted Selection
    Genetic Progress
    Grain Yield
    End-Use Quality
    Future Prospects

    Chapter 3. Agronomy of Durum Wheat Production
    Cynthia Ann Grant, Natale Di Fonzo, and Michele Pisante
    Environment of Production Area
    Cultivar Selection
    Crop Rotation
    Tillage System
    Seeding Date
    Seeding Rate
    Weed Control
    Disease Control
    Control of Insect Pests
    Nutrient Management
    Precision Agriculture
    Environmental Considerations

    Chapter 4. Diseases of Durum Wheat
    Myriam R. Fernandez and Ron E. Knox
    Specific Diseases
    Fusarium Head Blight
    Leaf Spots
    Root and Crown/Foot Rot
    Kernel Discoloration
    Loose Smut
    Bacterial Black Chaff and Bacterial Leaf Streak
    Powdery Mildew
    Pre- and Postharvest Infections and Disorders
    Chemical Control of Diseases
    Biological Control of Diseases
    Micronutrients and Diseases
    Marker-Assisted Selection
    Challenges and Future Needs

    Chapter 5. Insect and Mite Pests of Durum Wheat
    Pasquale Trematerra and James Throne
    Insect Pests
    Internal Feeders
    External Feeders
    Mite Pests
    Pest Management

    Chapter 6. Kernel Components of Technological Value
    Domenico Lafiandra, Stefania Masci, Mike Sissons, Emmie Dornez, Jan A. Delcour, Christophe M. Courtin, and Maria Fiorenza Caboni
    Protein Content
    Kernel Proteins
    Starch Structure and Composition
    Durum Wheat Starch vs. Common Wheat Starch
    Role of Starch in Influencing Dough and Pasta Quality
    Changes in Starch During Pasta Processing
    Starch Degradation in Pasta During Enzymic Digestion
    Nonstarch Polysaccharides and Enzymes that Hydrolyze Them
    Arabinogalactan Peptide
    Durum Wheat Lipids
    Composition of Grain Lipids
    Polar Lipids

    Chapter 7. Vitamins, Minerals, and Nutritional Value of Durum Wheat
    Cynthia Grant, Francesco Cubadda, Marina Carcea, Norberto E. Pogna, and Laura Gazza
    Vitamin Content
    Mineral Composition
    Dietary Fiber
    Other Nutritional Compounds in Durum Wheat
    Effect of Processing and Cooking on Nutritive Value
    Practices to Increase Nutritional Quality
    Durum Wheat and Celiac Disease
    Genetic, Biological, and Immunologic Aspects of CD
    Prolamins as Immunostimulatory Agents in CD
    Therapy for CD in Relation to Durum Wheat

    Chapter 8. Durum Wheat Milling
    Wolfgang Gruber and Ashok Sarkar
    Durum Milling Process
    Reception of Grain
    Milling Machines
    Grinding Stages in Durum Milling
    Flow Sheet Technology for Durum Milling
    Other Systems in the Mill
    Handling of Finished Products
    Blending and Storage of Semolina
    Safety and Hygiene of Product
    Product Analysis
    Milling Quality Requirements for Other Durum-Wheat End Products
    Durum Wheat Flour for Bread
    Durum Wheat Flour for Yellow Alkaline Noodles
    Durum Wheat Flour for Chapatti
    Sheeted Products

    Chapter 9. Manufacture of Pasta Products
    Claudio M. Pollini, Francesco Pantò, Antonio Nespoli, Mike Sissons, and Joel Abecassis
    Raw Materials for Pasta Production
    Pasta-Dough Formation, Extrusion, and Shaping on an Industrial scale
    Raw Material Dosing
    Hydration and Mixing-Kneading
    Extrusion and Shaping of Pasta
    Physicochemical Changes During Pasta-Dough Formation and Extrusion and Implications for Pasta Quality
    Pasta Drying Technology
    Technological Principles of Pasta Drying
    Moisture Transfer During Drying
    Phase Transition and Checking
    Long-Cut Pasta Dryer Design and Technology
    Short-Cut Pasta Dryer Design and Technology
    Impact of Drying Conditions on Pasta Characteristics
    Physicochemical Changes During Pasta Drying and Implications for Pasta Quality
    Effects of Drying Temperature on Starch and Protein Components

    Chapter 10. Other Traditional Durum-Derived Products
    Joel Abecassis, Bernard Cuq, Gaetano Boggini, and Hacène Namoune
    Durum Wheat Products from Grains
    Other Durum Grain Products
    Semolina Agglomeration in the Form of Couscous
    Couscous Attributes of Quality
    Raw Materials for Couscous Production
    Couscous Processing
    Durum Wheat Products from Baking
    Durum Wheat Bread
    Diverse Durum Breads
    Durum Pastry

    Chapter 11. Pasta Made from Nontraditional Raw Materials: Technological and Nutritional Aspects
    Emanuele Marconi and Maria Cristina Messia
    Reasons for Using Nontraditional Raw Materials in Pasta Making
    Improvement of Nutritional Properties
    Use of Local Raw Materials
    Production of Gluten-Free Pasta
    Valorization of Cereal and Noncereal By-Products
    Development of Tailor-Made and Functional Foods
    Use, Recovery, or Valorization of Ancient, Obsolete, or Underutilized Wheats and Pseudocereals
    Pasta Making: Formulations and Processing
    Balanced Formulations
    Modification of Traditional Processing Technologies or Adoption of Alternative Technologies

    Chapter 12. Methods Used to Assess and Predict Quality of Durum Wheat, Semolina, and Pasta
    Mike Sissons, Joël Abecassis, Brian Marchylo, and Raimondo Cubadda
    Wheat Quality Methods
    Test Weight
    Weight per Thousand Kernels
    Hard Vitreous Kernel Count
    Moisture Content
    Sprout Damage
    Ash Content
    Protein Content
    Gluten Strength
    Wheat Yellow Pigment Content
    Semolina Milling Quality Assessment
    Definitions and Influencing Factors
    Methods for Assessing Durum Milling Quality
    Pasta Quality Assessment
    Pasta Quality Evaluation Tests
    Laboratory Pasta-Making Tests
    Instrumental Methods to Determine Pasta Cooking Quality Other Methods
    Emerging Small-Scale, Rapid Quality-Prediction Methods
    Biochemical Tests to Predict Gluten Quality
    Glutenin-to-Gliadin Ratio and Percentage of Unextractable Polymeric Protein
    Allelic Variation as an Indicator of Gluten Quality
    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations to Predict Quality from Grain or Wholemeal
    Image Analysis to Assess Quality
    Antibodies to Assess Quality
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Chapter 13. Grading Factors Impacting Durum Wheat Processing Quality
    James E. Dexter and Maria Grazia D’egidio
    Factors Affecting Edibility
    Fusarium Damage
    Factors Affecting Processing
    Test Weight
    Dockage and Foreign Material
    Protein Content
    Wheat of Other Classes
    Hard Vitreous Kernels
    Frost Damage and Immaturity
    Weathering and Mildew
    Sprout Damage
    Heat Damage
    Smudge and Black Point
    Shrunken and Broken Kernels
    Insect Damage During Kernel Maturation

    Chapter 14. Grain Safety Assurance, Including Impacts on Durum Wheat Trading
    Thomas W. Nowicki, Randall M. Clear, Eugene J. Gawalko, and Michelangelo Pascale
    Historical Perspective on Grain Safety Assurance
    Major Food Safety Issues for Durum Wheat Marketing
    Grain Safety Hazards
    Major Issues
    Key Factors and Trends
    Increasing Awareness and Knowledge About Food Safety
    Laboratory Capabilities for Trace-Level Measurement of Toxic Substances
    Food Safety Regulations and Controls
    Communication of Food Safety Incidents
    Trade Irritations
    Marketing Realities Concerning Food Safety
    Types of Customer Demands
    HACCP Programs
    The Analytical Process
    Measurement Error
    Major Challenges
    Basic Elements, Objectives, and Strategies of Grain Safety Assurance
    Grain Safety Assurance in Canada
    Fate and Retention of Mycotoxins in Wheat upon Processing

    Chapter 15. Marketing Perspectives in the Durum Wheat Trade
    Roberto Ranieri, Graham Worden, María Laura Seghezzo, and Cindy Mills
    Worldwide Marketing of Durum Wheat
    The United States
    Other Producers
    Other Factors Influencing Marketing and Pricing

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing and AACC International Press 2012
  • Published: January 1, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing and AACC International Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128104323

About the Author

Michael Sissons

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