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Durum Wheat Chemistry and Technology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781891127656, 9780128104323

Durum Wheat Chemistry and Technology

2nd Edition

Author: Michael Sissons
eBook ISBN: 9780128104323
Published Date: 1st January 2012
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Origin and Distribution of Durum Wheat Genetic Diversity in the World
Alessandro Bozzini, Jacques David, and Vincenzo Natoli
Evolution and Classification of Wheats
A Common Ancestral Genome for Grasses
Polyploidization: A Common Evolutionary Feature in Triticeae
Classification of Wheats Within a Polyploid Series
Diploid Progenitors of Wild Polyploid Wheats
Domestication and Differentiation
Crop Cereal Emergence During the Neolithic Period
The Diploid Einkorn
Wild Tetraploids and Domestication
Dissemination of Cultivated Emmer and Landrace Differentiation
Rise of the Modern T. turgidum subsp. durum and Others with Free-Threshing Subspecies
Durum Wheat Evolution Under Modern Genetic Improvement
DNA Marker Analysis of Modern Wheats
Bread Wheat and Hexaploid Forms
Sources of Genetic Diversity for Breeding
Role of Wild and Primitive Wheats
Genetic Variability in Traditional Durum Wheat Landraces
Genetic Variability in the Elite Germplasm

Chapter 2. Genetics and Breeding of Durum Wheat
John M. Clarke, Enzo Deambrogio, Raymond A. Hare, and Pierre Roumet
Overview of Breeding
North America
Other Programs
Breeding Objectives
Yield and Agronomic Traits
Resistance to Abiotic Stresses
Resistance to Diseases and Insects
End-Use and Nutritional Quality
Other Traits
Breeding Methodology
Doubled Haploids
Genetic Diversity and New Traits
Marker-Assisted Selection
Genetic Progress
Grain Yield
End-Use Quality
Future Prospects

Chapter 3. Agronomy of Durum Wheat Production
Cynthia Ann Grant, Natale Di Fonzo, and Michele Pisante
Environment of Production Area
Cultivar Selection
Crop Rotation
Tillage System
Seeding Date
Seeding Rate
Weed Control
Disease Control
Control of Insect Pests
Nutrient Management
Precision Agriculture
Environmental Considerations

Chapter 4. Diseases of Durum Wheat
Myriam R. Fernandez and Ron E. Knox
Specific Diseases
Fusarium Head Blight
Leaf Spots
Root and Crown/Foot Rot
Kernel Discoloration
Loose Smut
Bacterial Black Chaff and Bacterial Leaf Streak
Powdery Mildew
Pre- and Postharvest Infections and Disorders
Chemical Control of Diseases
Biological Control of Diseases
Micronutrients and Diseases
Marker-Assisted Selection
Challenges and Future Needs

Chapter 5. Insect and Mite Pests of Durum Wheat
Pasquale Trematerra and James Throne
Insect Pests
Internal Feeders
External Feeders
Mite Pests
Pest Management

Chapter 6. Kernel Components of Technological Value
Domenico Lafiandra, Stefania Masci, Mike Sissons, Emmie Dornez, Jan A. Delcour, Christophe M. Courtin, and Maria Fiorenza Caboni
Protein Content
Kernel Proteins
Starch Structure and Composition
Durum Wheat Starch vs. Common Wheat Starch
Role of Starch in Influencing Dough and Pasta Quality
Changes in Starch During Pasta Processing
Starch Degradation in Pasta During Enzymic Digestion
Nonstarch Polysaccharides and Enzymes that Hydrolyze Them
Arabinogalactan Peptide
Durum Wheat Lipids
Composition of Grain Lipids
Polar Lipids

Chapter 7. Vitamins, Minerals, and Nutritional Value of Durum Wheat
Cynthia Grant, Francesco Cubadda, Marina Carcea, Norberto E. Pogna, and Laura Gazza
Vitamin Content
Mineral Composition
Dietary Fiber
Other Nutritional Compounds in Durum Wheat
Effect of Processing and Cooking on Nutritive Value
Practices to Increase Nutritional Quality
Durum Wheat and Celiac Disease
Genetic, Biological, and Immunologic Aspects of CD
Prolamins as Immunostimulatory Agents in CD
Therapy for CD in Relation to Durum Wheat

Chapter 8. Durum Wheat Milling
Wolfgang Gruber and Ashok Sarkar
Durum Milling Process
Reception of Grain
Milling Machines
Grinding Stages in Durum Milling
Flow Sheet Technology for Durum Milling
Other Systems in the Mill
Handling of Finished Products
Blending and Storage of Semolina
Safety and Hygiene of Product
Product Analysis
Milling Quality Requirements for Other Durum-Wheat End Products
Durum Wheat Flour for Bread
Durum Wheat Flour for Yellow Alkaline Noodles
Durum Wheat Flour for Chapatti
Sheeted Products

Chapter 9. Manufacture of Pasta Products
Claudio M. Pollini, Francesco Pantò, Antonio Nespoli, Mike Sissons, and Joel Abecassis
Raw Materials for Pasta Production
Pasta-Dough Formation, Extrusion, and Shaping on an Industrial scale
Raw Material Dosing
Hydration and Mixing-Kneading
Extrusion and Shaping of Pasta
Physicochemical Changes During Pasta-Dough Formation and Extrusion and Implications for Pasta Quality
Pasta Drying Technology
Technological Principles of Pasta Drying
Moisture Transfer During Drying
Phase Transition and Checking
Long-Cut Pasta Dryer Design and Technology
Short-Cut Pasta Dryer Design and Technology
Impact of Drying Conditions on Pasta Characteristics
Physicochemical Changes During Pasta Drying and Implications for Pasta Quality
Effects of Drying Temperature on Starch and Protein Components

Chapter 10. Other Traditional Durum-Derived Products
Joel Abecassis, Bernard Cuq, Gaetano Boggini, and Hacène Namoune
Durum Wheat Products from Grains
Other Durum Grain Products
Semolina Agglomeration in the Form of Couscous
Couscous Attributes of Quality
Raw Materials for Couscous Production
Couscous Processing
Durum Wheat Products from Baking
Durum Wheat Bread
Diverse Durum Breads
Durum Pastry

Chapter 11. Pasta Made from Nontraditional Raw Materials: Technological and Nutritional Aspects
Emanuele Marconi and Maria Cristina Messia
Reasons for Using Nontraditional Raw Materials in Pasta Making
Improvement of Nutritional Properties
Use of Local Raw Materials
Production of Gluten-Free Pasta
Valorization of Cereal and Noncereal By-Products
Development of Tailor-Made and Functional Foods
Use, Recovery, or Valorization of Ancient, Obsolete, or Underutilized Wheats and Pseudocereals
Pasta Making: Formulations and Processing
Balanced Formulations
Modification of Traditional Processing Technologies or Adoption of Alternative Technologies

Chapter 12. Methods Used to Assess and Predict Quality of Durum Wheat, Semolina, and Pasta
Mike Sissons, Joël Abecassis, Brian Marchylo, and Raimondo Cubadda
Wheat Quality Methods
Test Weight
Weight per Thousand Kernels
Hard Vitreous Kernel Count
Moisture Content
Sprout Damage
Ash Content
Protein Content
Gluten Strength
Wheat Yellow Pigment Content
Semolina Milling Quality Assessment
Definitions and Influencing Factors
Methods for Assessing Durum Milling Quality
Pasta Quality Assessment
Pasta Quality Evaluation Tests
Laboratory Pasta-Making Tests
Instrumental Methods to Determine Pasta Cooking Quality Other Methods
Emerging Small-Scale, Rapid Quality-Prediction Methods
Biochemical Tests to Predict Gluten Quality
Glutenin-to-Gliadin Ratio and Percentage of Unextractable Polymeric Protein
Allelic Variation as an Indicator of Gluten Quality
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations to Predict Quality from Grain or Wholemeal
Image Analysis to Assess Quality
Antibodies to Assess Quality
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Chapter 13. Grading Factors Impacting Durum Wheat Processing Quality
James E. Dexter and Maria Grazia D’egidio
Factors Affecting Edibility
Fusarium Damage
Factors Affecting Processing
Test Weight
Dockage and Foreign Material
Protein Content
Wheat of Other Classes
Hard Vitreous Kernels
Frost Damage and Immaturity
Weathering and Mildew
Sprout Damage
Heat Damage
Smudge and Black Point
Shrunken and Broken Kernels
Insect Damage During Kernel Maturation

Chapter 14. Grain Safety Assurance, Including Impacts on Durum Wheat Trading
Thomas W. Nowicki, Randall M. Clear, Eugene J. Gawalko, and Michelangelo Pascale
Historical Perspective on Grain Safety Assurance
Major Food Safety Issues for Durum Wheat Marketing
Grain Safety Hazards
Major Issues
Key Factors and Trends
Increasing Awareness and Knowledge About Food Safety
Laboratory Capabilities for Trace-Level Measurement of Toxic Substances
Food Safety Regulations and Controls
Communication of Food Safety Incidents
Trade Irritations
Marketing Realities Concerning Food Safety
Types of Customer Demands
HACCP Programs
The Analytical Process
Measurement Error
Major Challenges
Basic Elements, Objectives, and Strategies of Grain Safety Assurance
Grain Safety Assurance in Canada
Fate and Retention of Mycotoxins in Wheat upon Processing

Chapter 15. Marketing Perspectives in the Durum Wheat Trade
Roberto Ranieri, Graham Worden, María Laura Seghezzo, and Cindy Mills
Worldwide Marketing of Durum Wheat
The United States
Other Producers
Other Factors Influencing Marketing and Pricing


The most extensive and comprehensive reference on durum wheat chemistry and technology ever available, this ambitious update to the first edition covers more diverse and interesting topics in a new expanded format. Forty-six contributors, each highly experienced and recognized as world authorities on durum wheat, provide the latest developments in scientific research and technology. All aspects of durum wheat are covered, from agronomy and the chemical composition of the grain, to the latest industrial approaches to processing durum wheat, as well as food safety and quality assurance issues. Expanded to include new topics like functional pasta, grain safety, and biotechnology, along with practical and applied information including a table of uses for specific carbohydrates, descriptions of improved laboratory techniques, and international comparisons of HACCP experiences, Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition is a must-have reference for professionals, students, and researchers inside and outside the field who want to learn about durum wheat technology and chemistry.

New and Revised Topics Include:

  • Agronomy of durum wheat production
  • Pasta made from non-traditional raw materials: technological and nutritional aspects
  • Grain safety assurance, including impacts on durum wheat trading
  • Origin and distribution of durum wheat genetic diversity in the world
  • Genetics and breeding of durum wheat
  • Insect and mite pests and diseases of durum wheat
  • Kernel components of technological value
  • Vitamins, minerals, and nutritional value of durum wheat
  • Durum wheat milling
  • Manufacture of pasta products
  • Other traditional durum derived products
  • Methods used to assess and predict quality of durum wheat, semolina, and pasta
  • Grading factors impacting on durum wheat and processing quality
  • Grain safety assurance including impacts on durum wheat trading
  • Marketing perspectives in the durum wheat trade

Special Features:

  • Detailed figures outlining the processes used to manufacture durum products
  • International comparisons of HACCP experiences
  • Table of uses for specific carbohydrates
  • Descriptions of improved laboratory techniques
  • Extensive bibliography

An Essential Reference For:

  • Scientists and researchers in agriculture and plant biology
  • Professionals in the food industry who are processing durum wheat (millers, pasta makers, grain handling companies, and grain buyers)
  • Government regulators
  • Food scientists and technologists developing products using durum wheat
  • Plant breeders
  • University lecturers in agricultural science and plant biology
  • Professionals who market wheat
  • Nutritionists and medical practitioners interested in the impacts of food ingredients on human health
  • Scientific libraries and their patrons


1st January 2012
eBook ISBN:

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About the Author

Michael Sissons