Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities

Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities

Strategies and Technologies toward Achieving Sustainability in Energy Generation and Supply

1st Edition - November 1, 2012

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  • Editors: Nasir El Bassam, Marcia Schlichting, Daniele Pagani
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123971784
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123977731

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Energy is directly related to the most critical economic and social issues which affect sustainable development such as mobility, food production, environmental quality, regional and global security issues. Two-thirds of the new demand will come from developing nations, with China accounting for 30%. Without adequate attention to the critical importance of energy to all these aspects, the global, social, economic and environmental goals of sustainability cannot be achieved. Indeed the magnitude of change needed is immense, fundamental and directly related to the energy produced and consumed nationally and internationally. Today, it is estimated that more than two billion people worldwide lack access to modern energy resources. Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities provides various options and case studies related to the potential of renewable energies along with their environmental, economic and social dimensions.

Key Features

  • Case studies provide you with solutions to for future decentralized energy supply
  • Expanded coverage over previous work in the field to include coverage of rural and urban communities
  • Provides new solutions for future decentralized energy supply


Energy Engineering Professionals

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Chapter One. Scope of the Book

    1.1 Distributed Energy Generation

    1.2 Distributed Energy Supply

    1.3 Community Power

    1.4 Off-Grid Systems


    Chapter Two. Restructuring Future Energy Generation and Supply

    2.1 Basic Challenges

    2.2 Current Energy Supplies

    2.3 Peak Oil

    2.4 Availability of Alternative Resources


    Chapter Three. Road Map of Distributed Renewable Energy Communities

    3.1 Energy and Sustainable Development

    3.2 Community Involvement

    3.3 Facing the Challenges

    3.4 The Concept of FAO, UN Integrated Energy Communities (IEC)

    3.5 Global Approach

    3.6 Basic and Extended Needs

    3.7 Typical Electricity Demands

    3.8 Single and Multiple-Phase Island Grid

    3.9 Regional Implementation


    Further Reading

    Chapter Four. Planning of Integrated Renewable Communities

    4.1 Scenario 1

    4.2 Scenario 2

    4.3 Case Study I: Implementation of Ief Under Climatic Conditions of Central Europe

    4.4 Case study II: Arid and semi-arid regions


    Chapter Five. Determination of Community Energy and Food Requirements

    5.1 Modeling Approaches

    5.2 Data Acquisition

    5.3 Determination of Energy and Food Requirements

    5.4 Energy Potential Analysis

    5.5 Data Collection and Processing for Energy Utilization

    5.6 Wind Energy

    5.7 Biomass


    Chapter Six. Energy Basics, Resources, Global Contribution and Applications

    6.1 Basics of Energy

    6.2 Global Contribution

    6.3 Resources and Applications


    Chapter Seven. Solar Energy

    7.1 Photovoltaic

    7.2 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP)

    7.3 Solar Thermal Collectors

    7.4 Solar Cookers and Solar Ovens


    Chapter Eight. Wind Energy

    8.1 Global Market

    8.2 Types of Wind Turbines

    8.3 Small Wind Turbines

    8.4 Google Superhighway, USA


    Chapter Nine. Biomass and Bioenergy

    9.1 Characteristics and Potentials

    9.2 Solid Biofuels

    9.3 Charcoal

    9.4 Briquettes

    9.5 Pellets

    9.6 Biogas

    9.7 Ethanol

    9.8 Bio-oils

    9.9 Conversion Systems to Heat, Power and Electricity

    9.10 Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

    9.11 Steam Technology

    9.12 Gasification

    9.13 Pyrolysis

    9.14 Methanol

    9.15 Synthetic Oil

    9.16 Fuel Cells

    9.17 The Stirling Engine

    9.18 Algae

    9.19 Hydrogen


    Further Reading

    Chapter Ten. Hydropower

    10.1 Hydroelectricity

    10.2 Microhydropower Systems

    10.3 Turbine Types

    10.4 Potential for Rural Development


    Chapter Eleven. Marine Energy

    11.1 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

    11.2 Technologies

    11.3 Ocean Tidal Power

    11.4 Ocean Wave Power

    11.5 Environmental and Economic Challenges


    Chapter Twelve. Geothermal Energy

    12.1 Origin of Geothermal Heat

    12.2 Geothermal Electricity

    12.3 Types of Geothermal Power Plants


    Chapter Thirteen. Energy Storage, Smart Grids and Electric Vehicles

    13.1 Energy Storage

    13.2 Smart Grids

    13.3 Electric Vehicles


    Chapter Fourteen. Current Distributed Renewable Energy Rural and Urban Communities

    14.1 Rural Community Jühnde

    14.2 Wildpoldsried, the 100% Emissions Free Town

    14.3 Roadmap to Renewable Energy in Remote Communities in Australia

    14.4 “Iraq Dream” Homes

    14.5 Danish Distributed Integrated Energy Systems for Communities

    14.6 Renewables in Africa

    14.7 Renewables in India

    14.8 Distributed Renewable Energy and Solar Oases for Deserts and Arid Regions: Desertec Concept

    14.9 The Vatican City


    Further Reading

    Chapter Fifteen. Ownership, Citizens Participation and Economic Trends

    15.1 Community Ownership

    15.2 The Danish Ownership Model

    15.3 Economic Trends


    Appendix 1: Glossary

    Regional Definitions

    Appendix Two: Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Appendix Three: Conversion Factors

    Units and Conversions

    Appendix Four: Inventory of PV systems for sustainable rural development

    Appendix Five: Project “SOLARTECH SUD,” Solar Eco-Village Zarzis - Djerba Tunisia

    Appendix Six: Solar Park Vechelde (Kraftfeld Vechelde GmbH & Co. KG)

    Appendix Seven: Solar Laundry, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, India

    Appendix Eight: Manual and/or solar powered water treatment system



    Color Plate


Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: November 1, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123971784
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123977731

About the Editors

Nasir El Bassam

Prof. Dr. N. El Bassam is the founder and director of the International Research Centre for Renewable Energy (IFEED), Germany, India and USA; Chairperson at World Council of Renewable Energy (WCRE) Scientific Advisory Board, Federal Association of Regenerative Mobility, and Vice President of the Climate Protection Agency North Germany; Chairman of the Working Group Sustainable Rural Energy Network (SREN), FAO, United Nations, Rome; ); Program Head of the Projects wind energy and Concentrating Solar Power for Power (CSP) Supply and Seawater Desalination Middle East and North Africa (DESERTEC). He coordinates the Centre activities, technology transfer of and the co-operation in national and international organizations (UN, EU, and Club of Rome), the integration and application of renewable energy resources available in various regions for electricity, water and food supply with aims of empowering the countryside. El Bassam is well-known as Poverty Researcher, in this context he initiated the strategy and project “Empowering Urban Cities and Rural Habitats in Africa” which considered as a Marshal Plan for sustainable economic development and combating Poverty, migration, and Depopulation of urban cities and Rural Communities worldwide. He contributes as an editor in the journals: International Journal “Sustainability Science, Springer Scientific Publishing Services; Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and the American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (AJEAS). El Bassam published 12 books, authored numerous publications, and received several awards

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder and Director, International Research Centre for Renewable Energy (IFEED)

Marcia Schlichting

Ms. Schlichting is Editor for the International Research Centre for Renewable Energy and International Secretary. Ms. Schlichting has an Associate Degree in Applied Science, Water, and Wastewater Technology and has conducted laboratory research in the field of filtration and purification.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, International Research Centre for Renewable Energy and International Secretary

Daniele Pagani

Daniele Pagani is an Engineer with international mindset and good capacity of combining multidisciplinary projects at Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Denmark and responsible for Sustainable Mobility, Founder Road2home.eu.

Affiliations and Expertise

Sustainable Mobility, Founder Road2home.eu.

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