Direct Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Advanced Biofuels

Direct Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Advanced Biofuels

1st Edition - May 19, 2015

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  • Editor: Michael Himmel
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595928
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595898

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'Direct Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Advanced Biofuels' is a stylized text that is rich in both the basic and applied sciences. It provides a higher level summary of the most important aspects of the topic, addressing critical problems solved by deep science. Expert users will find new, critical methods that can be applied to their work, detailed experimental plans, important outcomes given for illustrative problems, and conclusions drawn for specific studies that address broad based issues. A broad range of readers will find this to be a comprehensive, informational text on the subject matter, including experimentalists and even CEOs deciding on new business directions.

Key Features

  • Describes an important new field in biotechnology, the consolidated conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to advanced fuels
  • Up-to-date views of promising technologies used in the  production of advanced biofuels
  • Presents the newest ideas, well-designed experiments, and outcomes
  • Provides outstanding illustrations from NREL and contributing researchers
  • Contains contributions from leaders in the field that provide numerous examples and insights into the most important aspects of the topic


Biochemists, molecular biologists, chemists, and microbiologists working to understand the fundamental problems associated with biomass conversion research, but also chemical and mechanical engineers working to design new conversion processes for advanced biofuels. DOE and other government staff looking for expert advice in the field of Biofuels production

Table of Contents

    • Foreword
    • Part 1. Direct Microbial Conversion ofBiomass to Advanced Biofuels
      • Chapter 1. Feedstock Engineering and Biomass Pretreatments: New Views for a Greener Biofuels Process
        • Feedstock Engineering Aiming to Provide More Pretreatable and Digestable Biomass
        • In Planta Engineering for Reduced Recalcitrance Traits
        • Mild and Green Pretreatments of Biomass for Lower Toxicity in Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates and Solid Residues
        • A New Concept of Tailored Chemoprocessing for Individual Microorganisms
        • Building Unified Chemobiomass Databases and Libraries of Chemicals
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 2. Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis in Microorganisms
        • Introduction
        • Microbiology and Hydrocarbon Products
        • Enzymes and Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis
        • Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase (Formerly Decarbonylase)
        • Alpha Olefins via Cytochrome P450
        • Alpha Olefins via a Polyketide-Type Pathway
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 3. Perspectives on Process Analysis for Advanced Biofuel Production
        • Introduction
        • Aerobic Bioprocess
        • Aerobic Bioprocess Discussion
        • Anaerobic Bioprocess
        • Consolidated Bioprocessing
        • Data Gaps, Uncertainties, and Research Needs
        • Conclusion
    • Part 2. Biomass Structure andRecalcitrance
      • Chapter 4. Tailoring Plant Cell Wall Composition and Architecture for Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Biofuels
        • Biomass Feedstocks are Already an Abundant Resource
        • Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biomass
        • Biochemical, Chemical and Pyrolytic Conversion Pathways Provide Alternative Routes to Fuels
        • Tailoring Biomass for Downstream Conversion Processes
        • Adding Value to Plant Biomass Through Modification of Lignin
        • Redesigning Cellulose Microfibrils for Ease of Disassembly
        • Modification of Accessory Proteins for Altering Cellulose Microfibril Structure
        • Modifying Xylan Composition and Architecture in the Interstitial Space
        • Modulating Gene Expression Networks to Alter Lignin and Carbohydrate Composition and Architecture
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 5. Processive Cellulases
      • Chapter 6. Bacterial AA10 Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases Enhance the Hydrolytic Degradation of Recalcitrant Substrates
        • Substrate Recalcitrance and Cellulase Mixtures
        • Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 7. New Insights into Microbial Strategies for Biomass Conversion
        • Introduction
        • Distinct Enzyme Synergy Paradigms in Cellulolytic Microorganisms
        • New Cellulose Digestion Strategies Promoting Interspecies Synergism
        • Future Perspective
      • Chapter 8. New Paradigms for Engineering Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes
        • Introduction
        • Engineering of Single Enzymes
        • Cellulosome Engineering
        • Multifunctional Enzyme Design
        • Cell Wall-Anchored Paradigms
        • Reflections and Perspectives
    • Part 3. Fuels from Fungi and Yeast
      • Chapter 9. Expression of Fungal Hydrolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Introduction
        • Cellulose and Hemicellulose Structure and Hydrolysis
        • Expression of Fungal Cellulases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Expression of Xylan Hydrolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Expression of Mannan Hydrolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Discussion
      • Chapter 10. Identification of Genetic Targets to Improve Lignocellulosic Hydrocarbon Production in Trichoderma reesei Using Public Genomic and Transcriptomic Datasets
        • Background
        • Materials and Methods
        • Results and Discussions
        • Conclusions and Perspectives
      • Chapter 11. Production of Ethanol from Engineered Trichoderma reesei
        • Introduction
        • Trichoderma reesei Produce Ethanol from Biomass Sugars
        • The pH during Fermentation Affects Ethanol Yield
        • Sugar Used during Growth Phase Affects Xylose Fermentation
        • Direct Conversion of Cellulose to Ethanol
        • Enhancing Ethanol Synthesis by Metabolic Engineering
        • Discussion
      • Chapter 12. Remaining Challenges in the Metabolic Engineering of Yeasts for Biofuels
        • Introduction—Yeasts as the Catalyst for Biomass Consumption and Biofuel Production
        • Metabolic Engineering—An Overview
        • Enzyme and Pathway Engineering
        • Gene Expression Engineering
        • Engineering the Metabolic Network—Classical Strain Engineering and Systems Biology
        • Computational Tools—Predictive Models for Metabolic Engineering
        • Beyond Glucose
        • Beyond Bioethanol
        • Beyond Current Capability
        • Beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Beyond Current Yield, Titers, and Production Rates
        • Conclusion
    • Part 4. Fuels from Bacteria
      • Chapter 13. New Tools for the Genetic Modification of Industrial Clostridia
        • Introduction
        • Transfer of Exogenous Genetic Material
        • Clostridial Vector Systems
        • Forward Genetics by Random Mutagenesis
        • Reverse Genetics
        • Other Advanced Genetic Tools
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 14. Outlook for the Production of Butanol from Cellulolytic Strains of Clostridia
        • Introduction
        • Cellulolytic Clostridia and the Cellulosome
        • Microbial n-Butanol- and Isobutanol-Producing Pathways
        • Progress toward Butanol CBP in Cellulolytic Clostridia
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 15. Influence of Particle Size on Direct Microbial Conversion of Hot Water-Pretreated Poplar by Clostridium thermocellum
        • Introduction
        • Materials and Methods
        • Results
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 16. Clostridium thermocellum: Engineered for the Production of Bioethanol
        • Biotechnological Interest in Clostridium thermocellum
        • C. thermocellum Characteristics
        • Ecology and Isolates
        • Physiology, Metabolism, and Ethanol Tolerance
        • Genome Sequences
        • Transcriptomics and Proteomics
        • C. thermocellum Genetic Tools and Metabolic Engineering
        • Outlook
      • Chapter 17. Omics Approaches for Designing Biofuel Producing Cocultures for Enhanced Microbial Conversion of Lignocellulosic Substrates
        • Introduction
        • Synergistic Cocultures for Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Substrates
        • Predicting Synergistic Cocultures
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 18. Engineering Synthetic Microbial Consortia for Consolidated Bioprocessing of Ligonocellulosic Biomass into Valuable Fuels and Chemicals
        • Introduction
        • Engineering Single Microorganisms to Enable CBP
        • Engineered Synthetic Microbial Consortia for CBP
        • Emerging Methods for Designing and Regulating Synthetic Microbial Consortia
        • Concluding Remarks
      • Chapter 19. A Route from Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Depolymerization and Decarboxylation of Microbially Produced Polyhydroxybutyrate
        • Introduction
        • Experimental Section
        • Results and Discussion
        • Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 422
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: May 19, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595928
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595898

About the Editor

Michael Himmel

Affiliations and Expertise

Group Manager, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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