Digital Control Engineering

Digital Control Engineering

Analysis and Design

2nd Edition - August 21, 2012

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  • Authors: M. Sami Fadali, Antonio Visioli
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123983244

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Digital controllers are part of nearly all modern personal, industrial, and transportation systems. Every senior or graduate student of electrical, chemical or mechanical engineering should therefore be familiar with the basic theory of digital controllers. This new text covers the fundamental principles and applications of digital control engineering, with emphasis on engineering design. Fadali and Visioli cover analysis and design of digitally controlled systems and describe applications of digital controls in a wide range of fields. With worked examples and Matlab applications in every chapter and many end-of-chapter assignments, this text provides both theory and practice for those coming to digital control engineering for the first time, whether as a student or practicing engineer.

Key Features

  • Extensive Use of computational tools: Matlab sections at end of each chapter show how to implement concepts from the chapter
  • Frees the student from the drudgery of mundane calculations and allows him to consider more subtle aspects of control system analysis and design
  • An engineering approach to digital controls: emphasis throughout the book is on design of control systems. Mathematics is used to help explain concepts, but throughout the text discussion is tied to design and implementation. For example coverage of analog controls in chapter 5 is not simply a review, but is used to show how analog control systems map to digital control systems
  • Review of Background Material: contains review material to aid understanding of digital control analysis and design. Examples include discussion of discrete-time systems in time domain and frequency domain (reviewed from linear systems course) and root locus design in s-domain and z-domain (reviewed from feedback control course)
  • Inclusion of Advanced Topics
  • In addition to the basic topics required for a one semester senior/graduate class, the text includes some advanced material to make it suitable for an introductory graduate level class or for two quarters at the senior/graduate level. Examples of optional topics are state-space methods, which may receive brief coverage in a one semester course, and nonlinear discrete-time systems
  • Minimal Mathematics Prerequisites
  • The mathematics background required for understanding most of the book is based on what can be reasonably expected from the average electrical, chemical or mechanical engineering senior. This background includes three semesters of calculus, differential equations and basic linear algebra. Some texts on digital control require more


Undergraduate and graduate students in digital controls, Control engineers

Table of Contents

  • Preface



    New to this edition

    Organization of text

    Supporting material


    Chapter 1. Introduction to Digital Control


    1.1 Why digital control?

    1.2 The structure of a digital control system

    1.3 Examples of digital control system


    Chapter 2. Discrete-Time Systems


    2.1 Analog systems with piecewise constant inputs

    2.2 Difference equations

    2.3 The z-transform

    2.4 Computer-aided design

    2.5 z-Transform solution of difference equations

    2.6 The time response of a discrete-time system

    2.7 The modified z-transform

    2.8 Frequency response of discrete-time systems

    2.9 The sampling theorem


    Chapter 3. Modeling of Digital Control Systems


    3.1 ADC model

    3.2 DAC model

    3.3 The transfer function of the ZOH

    3.4 Effect of the sampler on the transfer function of a cascade

    3.5 DAC, analog subsystem, and ADC combination transfer function

    3.6 Systems with transport lag

    3.7 The closed-loop transfer function

    3.8 Analog disturbances in a digital system

    3.9 Steady-state error and error constants

    3.10 MATLAB commands


    Chapter 4. Stability of Digital Control Systems


    4.1 Definitions of stability

    4.2 Stable z-domain pole locations

    4.3 Stability conditions

    4.4 Stability determination

    4.5 Jury test

    4.6 Nyquist criterion


    Chapter 5. Analog Control System Design


    5.1 Root locus

    5.2 Root locus using MATLAB

    5.3 Design specifications and the effect of gain variation

    5.4 Root locus design

    5.5 Empirical tuning of PID controllers


    Chapter 6. Digital Control System Design


    6.1 z-Domain root locus

    6.2 z-Domain digital control system design

    6.3 Digital implementation of analog controller design

    6.4 Direct z-domain digital controller design

    6.5 Frequency response design

    6.6 Direct control design

    6.7 Finite settling time design


    Chapter 7. State–Space Representation


    7.1 State variables

    7.2 State–space representation

    7.3 Linearization of nonlinear state equations

    7.4 The solution of linear state–space equations

    7.5 The transfer function matrix

    7.6 Discrete-time state–space equations

    7.7 Solution of discrete-time state–space equations

    7.8 z-Transfer function from state–space equations

    7.9 Similarity transformation


    Chapter 8. Properties of State–Space Models


    8.1 Stability of state–space realizations

    8.2 Controllability and stabilizability

    8.3 Observability and detectability

    8.4 Poles and zeros of multivariable systems

    8.5 State–space realizations

    8.6 Duality

    8.7 Hankel realization


    Chapter 9. State Feedback Control


    9.1 State and output feedback

    9.2 Pole placement

    9.3 Servo problem

    9.4 Invariance of system zeros

    9.5 State estimation

    9.6 Observer state feedback

    9.7 Pole assignment using transfer functions


    Chapter 10. Optimal Control


    10.1 Optimization

    10.2 Optimal control

    10.3 The linear quadratic regulator

    10.4 Steady-state quadratic regulator

    10.5 Hamiltonian system


    Chapter 11. Elements of Nonlinear Digital Control Systems


    11.1 Discretization of nonlinear systems

    11.2 Nonlinear difference equations

    11.3 Equilibrium of nonlinear discrete-time systems

    11.4 Lyapunov stability theory

    11.5 Stability of analog systems with digital control

    11.6 State plane analysis

    11.7 Discrete-time nonlinear controller design

    11.8 Input-output stability and the small gain theorem


    Chapter 12. Practical Issues


    12.1 Design of the hardware and software architecture

    12.2 Choice of the sampling period

    12.3 Controller structure

    12.4 PID control

    12.5 Sampling period switching


    APPENDIX I: Table of Laplace and z-Transforms*

    APPENDIX II: Properties of the z-Transform

    APPENDIX III: Review of Linear Algebra

    A.1 Matrices

    A.2 Equality of matrices

    A.3 Matrix arithmetic

    A.4 Determinant of a matrix

    A.5 Inverse of a matrix

    A.6 Trace of a matrix

    A.7 Rank of a matrix

    A.8 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

    A.9 Partitioned matrix

    A.10 Norm of a vector

    A.11 Matrix norms

    A.12 Quadratic forms

    A.13 Singular value decomposition and pseudoinverses

    A.14 Matrix differentiation/integration

    A.15 Kronecker product



Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: August 21, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123983244

About the Authors

M. Sami Fadali

Professor and Chair of Department of Electrical & Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA. M. Sami Fadali earned a BS in Electrical Engineering from Cairo University in 1974, an MS from the Control Systems Center, UMIST, England, in 1977 and a Ph. D. from the University of Wyoming in 1980. He was an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia 1981-1983. From 1983-85, he was a Post Doctoral Fellow at Colorado State University. In 1985, he joined the Electrical Engineering Dept. at the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering. In 1994 he was a visiting professor at Oakland University and GM Research and Development Labs. He spent the summer of 2000 as a Senior Engineer at TRW, San Bernardino. His research interests are in the areas of fuzzy logic stability and control, state estimation and fault detection, and applications to power systems, renewable energy, and physiological systems

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair of Department of Electrical & Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.

Antonio Visioli

Full Professor in Control Systems at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy He received the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering from the University of Parma in 1995. From September 1994 to February 1995 he was an ERASMUS student at the Electrical and Electronic Department of the Loughborough University of Technology (now Loughborough University), UK. From September 1995 to November 2012 he was with the Department of Information Engineering (formerly, Department of Electronics for Automation) of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Brescia . In 1999 he received the Ph.D. degree in Applied Mechanics from the University of Brescia. He is a senior member of IEEE, a member of the IFAC Technical Commitee on Education, a member of the Technical Committee on Education of the IEEE Control Systems Society, a member of the subcommittees on Event-Based Control & Signal and on Industrial Automated Systems and Control of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Technical Committee on Factory Automation, and a member of the national board of Anipla (Italian Association for Automation).

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor in Control Systems, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

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