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Development of the Nervous System presents a broad and basic treatment of the established and evolving principles of neural development as exemplified by key experiments and observations from past and recent times. The text is organized ontogenically. It begins with the emergence of the neural primordium and takes a chapter-by-chapter approach in succeeding events in neural development: patterning and growth of the nervous system, neuronal determination, axonal navigation and targeting, neuron survival and death, synapse formation and developmental plasticity. Finally, in the last chapter, with the construction phase nearing completion, we examine the emergence of behavior. This new edition reflects the complete modernization of the field that has been achieved through the intensive application of molecular, genetic, and cell biological approaches. It is richly illustrated with color photographs and original drawings. Combined with the clear and concise writing, the illustrations make this a book that is well suited to students approaching this intriguing field for the first time.
- Thorough survey of the field of neural development
- Concise but complete, suitable for a one semester course on upper level undergraduate or graduate level
- Focus on fundamental principles of organogenesis in the nervous system
- Integrates information from a variety of model systems, relating them to human nervous system development, including disorders of development
- Systematically develops knowledge from the description of key experiments and results
- Organized ontologically
- Carefully edited to be presented in one voice
- New edition thoroughly updated and revised to include major new findings
- All figures in full color, updated and revised
- Specific attention on revising the chapter on cognitive and behavioral development to provide a foundation and outlook towards those very fast moving areas
- Instructor website with figure bank and test questions
Neuroscience and developmental biology researchers, students, and educators -mid to upper level undergraduate bio / pre-med, and graduate and medical schools
1. Neural induction
Development and evolution of neurons
Early embryology of metazoans
Derivation of neural tissue
Interactions with neighboring tissues in making neural tissue
The molecular nature of the neural inducer
Conservation of neural induction
Interactions among the ectodermal cells in controlling neuroblast segregation
2. Polarity and segmentation
Regional identity of the nervous system
The anterior–posterior axis and hox genes
Hox gene function in the vertebrate nervous system
Signaling molecules that pattern the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates: heads or tails
Organizing centers in the developing brain
Forebrain development, prosomeres, and pax genes
Dorsal–ventral polarity in the neural tube
Dorsal neural tube and neural crest
Patterning the cerebral cortex
3. Genesis and migration
What determines the number of cells produced by the progenitors?
The generation of neurons and glia
Cerebral cortex histogenesis
Cerebellar cortex histogenesis
Molecular mechanisms of neuronal migration
Postembryonic and adult neurogenesis
4. Determination and differentiation
Transcriptional hierarchies in invariant lineages: C. elegans neurons
Spatial and temporal coordinates of determination: drosophila CNS neuroblasts
Asymmetric cell divisions and asymmetric fate
Generating complexity through cellular interactions: the drosophila retina
Specification and differentiation through cellular interactions and interactions with the local environment: the vertebrate neural crest
Competence and histogenesis: the mammalian cortex
The interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic influences in histogenesis: the vertebrate retina
Interpreting gradients and the spatial organization of cell types: spinal motor neurons
5. Axon growth and guidance
The growth cone
The dynamic cytoskeleton
What do growth cones grow on?
What provides directional information to growth cones?
Cell adhesion and labeled pathways
Chemotaxis, gradients, and local information
The midline: to cross or not to cross?
Attraction and repulsion: desensitization and adaptation
The optic pathway: getting there from here
6. Target selection
Target recognition and target entry
Slowing down and branching in the target region
Border patrol: the prevention of inappropriate targeting
Chemospecificity and ephrins
The third dimension, lamina-specific termination
Cellular and synaptic targeting
Sniffing out targets
Shifting and fine tuning of connections
7. Naturally-occurring neuron death
What does neuron death look like?
Early elimination of progenitor cells
How many differentiated neurons die?
Survival depends on the synaptic target
NGF: a target-derived survival factor
The neurotrophin family
The trk family of neurotrophin receptors
How does the neurotrophin signal reach the soma?
The p75 neurotrophin receptor can initiate cell death
Cytokines act as neuron survival factors
Hormonal control of neuron survival
Cell death requires protein synthesis
Intracellular signaling pathways that mediate survival
Intracellular signaling pathways that mediate death
Caspases: agents of death
Bcl-2 proteins: regulators of programmed cell death
Removal of dying neurons
Synaptic transmission at the target
Afferent regulation of neuron survival
Intracellular calcium mediates both survival and death
8. Synapse formation and function
What do newly formed synapses look like?
Where Do Synapses Form on the Postsynaptic Cell?
How Rapidly Are Synapses Added to the Nervous System?
The first signs of synapse function
The decision to form a synapse
The sticky synapse
Converting growth cones to presynaptic terminals
Receptor clustering and postsynaptic differentiation at the NMJ
Agrin is a transynaptic clustering signal at the NMJ
Receptor clustering signals in the CNS
Scaffold proteins and receptor aggregation in the CNS
Innervation increases receptor expression and insertion
Synaptic activity regulates receptor density
Maturation of transmission and receptor isoform transitions
Maturation of transmitter reuptake
Appearance of synaptic inhibition
Is inhibition really inhibitory during development?
9. Refinement of synaptic connections
The early pattern of connections
Functional synapses are eliminated
Many axonal arborizations are eliminated or refined
The Sensory Environment Influences Synaptic Connections
Activity Influences Synapse Elimination at the NMJ
Synapse refinement is reflected in sensory coding properties
Activity contributes to topography and the alignment of maps
Spontaneous activity and afferent refinement
Critical periods: enhanced plasticity during development
Heterosynaptic Depression and Synapse Elimination
Involvement of intracellular calcium
Calcium-activated second messenger systems
Homeostatic plasticity: the more things change, the more they stay the same
Plasticity of inhibitory connections
Synaptic influence on neuron morphology
10. Behavioral development
The first movements are spontaneous
The mechanism of spontaneous movements
More complex behavior is assembled from the integration of simple circuits
The role of activity in the emergence of coordinated behavior
Genetic determinants of behavior
Environmental determinants of behavioral development
Beginning to make sense of the world
Asking babies questions (and getting some answers!)
Hormonal control of brain gender
Singing in the brain
Genetic control of brain gender in flies
From Genome to Brain Gender in Vertebrates?
Genomic Imprinting: The Ultimate in Parental Control
Hit the Ground Learning
Learning preferences from aversions
Skill Learning: It Don’t Come Easy
Getting information from one brain to another
Molecules and Genes Index
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2012
- 25th January 2011
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
Dr. Sanes is Professor in the Center for Neural Science and Department of Biology at New York University. Named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2010 for his research in auditory central nervous system development, his research has been supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and the National Science Foundation. His lab studies synaptic plasticity and central auditory processing, and the phenomenon of hearing loss during development.
Professor, Center for Neural Science and Department of Biology, New York University, NY, USA
Dr. Reh is Professor of Biological Structure and Director of the Neurobiology and Behavior Program at the University of Washington. He is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Foundation Fighting Blindness, and of a start-up biotechnology company, Acucela. He has received several awards for his work, including the AHFMR and Sloan Scholar awards and has published over 100 journal articles, reviews and books. Funded by numerous N.I.H. and private foundation grants, his lab is focused on the development and repair of the retina, with an overall goal of understanding the cellular and molecular biology of regeneration in the eye.
Professor of Biological Structure and Director of the Neurobiology and Behavior Program, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Dr. Harris is co-chair of Cambridge Neuroscience and Director of Studies in Neuroscience. He is also Head of the Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, and is Professor of Anatomy. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 2007, he was Professor of Biology at UCSD prior to accepting a position at Cambridge. His lab is working to elucidate the cellular and molecular events that are used to push or induce cells to transition from proliferating stem cells to differentiated neurons and glia, and how particular regions of the nervous system produce the right number of neurons and the right proportions of different neuron subtypes.
Head of the Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, Professor of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, UK
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