Developing High Quality Data Models - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123751065, 9780123751072

Developing High Quality Data Models

1st Edition

Authors: Matthew West
Paperback ISBN: 9780123751065
eBook ISBN: 9780123751072
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 30th December 2010
Page Count: 408
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Developing High Quality Data Models provides an introduction to the key principles of data modeling. It explains the purpose of data models in both developing an Enterprise Architecture and in supporting Information Quality; common problems in data model development; and how to develop high quality data models, in particular conceptual, integration, and enterprise data models.

The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 provides an overview of data models and data modeling including the basics of data model notation; types and uses of data models; and the place of data models in enterprise architecture. Part 2 introduces some general principles for data models, including principles for developing ontologically based data models; and applications of the principles for attributes, relationship types, and entity types. Part 3 presents an ontological framework for developing consistent data models. Part 4 provides the full data model that has been in development throughout the book. The model was created using Jotne EPM Technologys EDMVisualExpress data modeling tool.

This book was designed for all types of modelers: from those who understand data modeling basics but are just starting to learn about data modeling in practice, through to experienced data modelers seeking to expand their knowledge and skills and solve some of the more challenging problems of data modeling.

Key Features

  • Uses a number of common data model patterns to explain how to develop data models over a wide scope in a way that is consistent and of high quality
  • Offers generic data model templates that are reusable in many applications and are fundamental for developing more specific templates
  • Develops ideas for creating consistent approaches to high quality data models


This book is intended for data management professionals with job functions that include data modeler; data architect; database designer; database application developer and application architect.

Table of Contents


Part 1 Motivations and Notations

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Some Questions about Data Models

1.2 Purpose

1.3 Target Audience

1.4 What Is a Data Model?

1.5 Why Do We Do Data Models?

1.6 Approach to Data Modeling

1.7 Structure of This Book

Chapter 2 Entity Relationship Model Basics

2.1 Oh, Its Boxes and Lines Again

2.2 Graphical or Lexical

2.3 Graphical Notations: Complexity vs. Understandability vs. Capability

2.4 Language and Notation Elements

2.5 Express-G

2.6 Notation for Instances and Classes

2.7 Layout of Data Models

2.8 Reflections

Chapter 3 Some Types and Uses of Data Models

3.1 Different Types of Data Models

3.2 Integration of Data and Data Models

3.3 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4 Data Models and Enterprise Architecture

4.1 The Business Process Model

4.2 Information Architecture

4.3 Information Operations

4.4 Organization

4.5 Methodologies and Standards

4.6 Management

4.7 Wider Infrastructure

4.8 Enterprise Architecture Mappings

4.9 The Process/Data Balance

Chapter 5 Some Observations on Data Models and Data Modeling

5.1 Limitations of Data Models

5.2 Challenges in Data Modeling

Part 2 General Principles for Data Models

Chapter 6 Some General Principles for Conceptual, Integration, and Enterprise Data Models

6.1 Data Modeling Approach

6.2 General Principles

6.3 Understanding Relationships

6.4 Principles for Data Models

6.5 Naughtiness Index

Chapter 7 Applying the Principles for Attributes

7.1 Looking for Attributes Representing Relationships

7.2 Identifiers

7.3 What Other Attributes Might You Expect?

7.4 Concluding Remarks on Attributes

Chapter 8 General Principles for Relationships

8.1 Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Batch and Product Type

8.2 Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Packed Products

8.3 An Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Ship

8.4 A Good Example of Applying the Principles for Relationships—Transfer and Storage

8.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 9 General Principles for Entity Types

9.1 An Example—Combined Entity Types

9.2 An Example—Stock

9.3 Getting Subtypes Wrong

9.4 An Example of Fixed Hierarchies—Stock Classification

9.5 Getting the Right Level of Abstraction

9.6 Impact of Using the Principles

Part 3 An Ontological Framework for Consistent Data Models

Chapter 10 Motivation and Overview for an Ontological Framework

10.1 Motivation

10.2 Ontological Foundation

10.3 A Data Model for the Ontological Foundations

10.4 Closing Remarks

Chapter 11 Spatio-Temporal Extents

11.1 Parts

11.2 Individuals and States

11.3 Inheritance of Properties by Substates

11.4 Space and Time

11.5 Ordinary Physical Objects

11.6 Levels of Reality

11.7 Activities and Events

11.8 Associations

11.9 A Data Model for Individuals

Chapter 12 Classes

12.1 What Is a Set?

12.2 Sets and Four-Dimensionalism

12.3 Some Different Kinds of Set Theory

12.4 A High Level Data Model for Classes

12.5 Properties and Quantities

12.6 Scales and Units

12.7 Kinds

12.8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 13 Intentionally Constructed Objects

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Functional Objects

13.3 Socially Constructed Objects

13.4 Ownership

13.5 Agreements

13.6 Contracts

13.7 Organizations

13.8 Product

13.9 Representation

13.10 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14 Systems and System Components

14.1 What Are Systems and System Components?

14.2 The Nature of System Components

14.3 Another Example: A Football Match

14.4 Similarities, Differences, and Relationships to Other Things

14.5 Do I Need a Separate Set of Classes for System Components?

14.6 Extending the Framework for System and System Component

14.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 15 Requirements Specification

15.1 A Process for Procurement

15.2 Requirements Specification

Chapter 16 Concluding Remarks

Part 4 The HQDM Framework Schema

Chapter 17 HQDM_Framework

17.1 Thing and Abstract Object

17.2 Class and Class of Class

17.3 Relationship and Class of Relationship

17.4 Spatio-Temporal Extent and Class of Spatio-Temporal Extent

17.5 Event, Class of Event, and Point in Time

17.6 State and Individual

17.7 Physical Object

17.8 Ordinary Physical Object

17.9 Kind of Individual and Subtypes

17.10 Kind of System and System Component

17.11 Period of Time and Possible Worlds

17.12 Physical Properties and Physical Quantities

17.13 Association

17.14 Activity

17.15 Participant

17.16 Role, Class of Activity, and Class of Association

17.17 System

17.18 System Component

17.19 Installed Object

17.20 Biological Object

17.21 Ordinary Biological Object

17.22 Biological System

17.23 Person

17.24 Biological System Component

17.25 Intentionally Constructed Object

17.26 Functional Object

17.27 Ordinary Functional Object

17.28 Functional System

17.29 Socially Constructed Object

17.30 Party

17.31 Organization and Language Community

17.32 Employment

17.33 Organization Component and Position

17.34 Money

17.35 Ownership

17.36 Transfer of Ownership

17.37 Socially Constructed Activity

17.38 Class of Socially Constructed Activity

17.39 Agreement

17.40 Contract

17.41 Offer and Acceptance of Offer

17.42 Sale of Goods

17.43 Sales Product, Product Brand, and Sales Product Version

17.44 Offering

17.45 Sign and Pattern

17.46 Requirement and Requirement Specification

Appendix: A Mapping between the HQDM Schema and ISO 15926-2



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Morgan Kaufmann
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About the Author

Matthew West

Matthew West spent over 20 years as a leading data modeler for Shell where he was a key technical contributor to data modeling and data management standards and their application. Matthew was responsible for Shell's Downstream Data Model. He currently serves as the Director of Information Junction, a data architecture and analysis consultancy in the UK. He is also a key contributor to ISO 15926 (Lifecycle integration of process data) and ISO 8000 (Data and Information Quality). Matthew is a Visiting Professor at the University of Leeds

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Information Junction, UK


"This guide to developing high quality data models provides practical instruction in understanding the core principle of data modeling and creating accurate models from complex databases. The work is divided into four sections covering the basics of data model types and uses, general principles for data model components and an ontological framework for consistent data models. A final section presents a complete, standards compliant data model created with the Jotne EPM Technology EDMVisusalExpress data modeling tool. Numerous illustrations, charts and sample programming code are included throughout the work and access to additional online content, including the sample data model, is provided. West is an experienced data modeler working in the energy field."--Book News, Reference & Research

"Overall, the book is a helpful guide for those who wish to go deep into the art of developing high quality data models. Readers will appreciate: how West connects data models with EA and business processes; the ontological approach, which offers a framework for formal, generic, and consistent models; the efficient use of diagrams for explaining the notions; and the philosophical concepts discussed throughout the text. The book is highly technical. Although it does not directly address people from academia, it will be very useful for related courses, especially those that deal with IT and business processes. Finally, the book highlights the importance of quality in data modeling for decision making."--Computing