Determining Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Food and Feed - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696740, 9780857090973

Determining Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Food and Feed

1st Edition

Editors: Sarah De Saeger
eBook ISBN: 9780857090973
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696740
Paperback ISBN: 9780081014943
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 7th February 2011
Page Count: 456
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Preface

Part I: Determining mycotoxins in food and feed

Chapter 1: Sampling strategies to control mycotoxins

Abstract:

1.1 Food safety and the requirements for international food trade

1.2 Principles of food and feed sampling for mycotoxin analysis

1.3 International guidance on sampling food and feed for mycotoxin analysis

1.4 Uncertainty estimation and designing sound sampling plans for mycotoxin analysis in food and feed

1.5 Quality assurance and quality control procedures in sampling and arrival of the samples at the analytical laboratory

1.6 Strengthening national food control systems

Chapter 2: Sample preparation and clean up in mycotoxin analysis: principles, applications and recent developments

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Methods used for extraction and clean up of mycotoxins from complex matrices

2.3 Recent developments

2.4 Conclusions

2.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 3: Chromatographic separation techniques for determination of mycotoxins in food and feed

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Thin-layer chromatography in mycotoxin analysis of food and feed

3.3 Gas chromatography in mycotoxin analysis of food and feed

3.4 High-performance liquid chromatography in mycotoxin analysis of food and feed

3.5 Electrophoretic separations in mycotoxin analysis of food and feed

3.6 Future trends

Chapter 4: Mass spectrometry in multi-mycotoxin and fungal spore analysis

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) methods in multi-mycotoxin analysis

4.3 Liquid chromatographic aspects of multi-mycotoxin methods

4.4 Mass spectrometric aspects of multi-mycotoxin methods

4.5 LC–MS aspects of multi-mycotoxin analysis

4.6 Future trends in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis

4.7 Conclusions

4.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 5: Immunochemical methods for rapid mycotoxin detection in food and feed

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Antibody production and characterization

5.3 Specificity of immunochemical methods for rapid mycotoxin detection in food and feed

5.4 Microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid mycotoxin detection in food and feed

5.5 Non-instrumental rapid tests for mycotoxin detection in food and feed

5.6 Conclusions and future trends

Part II: Quality assurance and official methods for determining mycotoxins in food and feed

Chapter 6: Official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Official control laboratories for determining mycotoxins in food and feed

6.3 Establishment of method performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed

6.4 Official methods for determining mycotoxins in food and feed

6.5 Literature publications of mycotoxin validation studies

6.6 Enforcement of mycotoxin regulations

6.7 Confirmation of results

6.8 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 7: Ensuring the quality of results from food control laboratories: laboratory accreditation, method validation and measurement uncertainty

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction: why accreditation can be important for laboratories

7.2 Laboratory accreditation and ISO 17025

7.3 Statistical method validation approach for ensuring the quality of results from food control laboratories

7.4 Comparison of a routine method with a reference method for validating the results from food and feed control laboratories

7.5 Measurement uncertainty in the results from food and feed control laboratories

7.6 Conclusions and future trends

Part III: Development and analysis of biomarkers for mycotoxins

Chapter 8: Developing biomarkers of human exposure to mycotoxins

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction to biomarkers of exposure

8.2 Biomarkers of exposure for aflatoxin

8.3 Biomarkers of exposure for fumonisin

8.4 Biomarkers of exposure for deoxynivalenol

8.5 Summary

Chapter 9: Developing mechanism-based and exposure biomarkers for mycotoxins in animals

Abstract:

9.1 Background

9.2 Aflatoxin B1

9.3 Deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes

9.4 Fumonisin

9.5 Ochratoxin A

9.6 Zearalenone

9.7 Future trends

9.8 Acknowledgements

Part IV: Determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed

Chapter 10: Rationale for a polyphasic approach in the identification of mycotoxigenic fungi

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Mycotoxigenic fungi

10.3 Identification methods

10.4 Molecular methods for identification

10.5 Conclusions

Chapter 11: Molecular identification of mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection and quantification using conserved genes

11.3 Polymerase chain reaction detection and quantification using anonymous DNA sequences

11.4 Polymerase chain reaction detection and quantification using mycotoxin biosynthesis pathway genes

11.5 Multistep strategies

11.6 Multiplex detection

11.7 Polymerase chain reaction-based methods

11.8 Novel technologies

11.9 Conclusion and future prospects

Chapter 12: Identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Genetic basis for secondary metabolite biosynthesis

12.3 Gene and gene cluster identification: pre-genomics

12.4 Gene and gene cluster identification: early-genomics

12.5 Gene and gene cluster identification: post-genome genomics

12.6 Future trends

12.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: DNA barcoding of toxigenic fungi: a perspective

Abstract:

13.1 DNA barcode: a new opportunity to discriminate fungi species

13.2 Future trends in DNA barcoding of fungi

13.3 Sources of further information and advice about the DNA barcode

Part V: Emerging methods for mycotoxin analysis in food and feed

Chapter 14: Emerging bio-sensing methods for mycotoxin analysis

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Biosensors as diagnostics tools in mycotoxin analysis

14.3 Lab-on-a-chip for multiplex detection

14.4 Nanomaterials and their use in biosensors for mycotoxin analysis

14.5 Electronic nose method for mycotoxin analysis

14.6 Future trends

14.7 Conclusions

14.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 15: Masked mycotoxins in food and feed: challenges and analytical approaches

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food and feed

15.3 Analysis of masked mycotoxins in food and feed

15.4 Conclusions

Chapter 16: Spectroscopic techniques for fungi and mycotoxins detection

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Spectroscopic techniques

16.3 Applications

16.4 Summary

Index


Description

Mycotoxins - toxic secondary metabolites produced by mycotoxigenic fungi – pose a significant risk to the food chain. Indeed, they may be the most hazardous of all food contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity and legislative limits on their levels in food and feed continue to be developed worldwide. Rapid and reliable methods for the determination of both mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food and feed are therefore essential. This book reviews current and emerging methods in this area.

Part one focuses on the essentials of mycotoxin determination, covering sampling, sample preparation and clean-up and key determination techniques, such as chromatographic separation, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods. Part two then goes on to describe quality assurance, official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed. Topics covered include laboratory accreditation, method validation and measurement uncertainty. The development and analysis of biomarkers for mycotoxins are discussed in part three. Individual chapters focus on detecting exposure in humans and animals. Part four is concerned with the processes involved in determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed. It also describes the identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis, as well as DNA barcoding of toxigenic fungi. Finally, part five explores some of the emerging methods for mycotoxin analysis, ranging from bio-sensing to spectroscopic techniques.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Determining mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed is a standard reference for all those concerned with reducing mycotoxin contamination in the food chain.

Key Features

  • Focuses on the essentials of mycotoxin determination, covering sampling, sample preparation, clean-up and key determination techniques
  • Documents quality assurance and official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed
  • Explores the processes of determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed including the identification of genes and gene clusters

Readership

All those concerned with reducing mycotoxin contamination in the food chain


Details

No. of pages:
456
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857090973
Hardcover ISBN:
9781845696740
Paperback ISBN:
9780081014943

About the Editors

Sarah De Saeger Editor

Professor Sarah De Saeger is based in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Ghent University, Belgium. Her current research interests include the development of innovative screening and confirmatory mycotoxin analytical methods, masked mycotoxins and sick building syndrome.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ghent University, Belgium