Defence from Invertebrates to Mammals: Focus on Tonic Immobility

Defence from Invertebrates to Mammals: Focus on Tonic Immobility

1st Edition - March 29, 2022

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  • Editors: Giancarlo Carli, Francesca Farabollini
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323999731
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323983044

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Defence from Invertebrates to Mammals: Focus on Tonic Immobility, Volume 273 in the Progress in Brain Research series, highlights new advances in the field. Chapters in this new release include Defensive responses in invertebrates, Introduction to defensive behavior in vertebrates, Neural circuits of fear and defensive behavior, Fear-associated factors modulating TI, Environmental, ecological and methodological factors of TI Modulation, The neuroethological approach to defense in rabbits, Neurophysiological mechanisms of TI, Neuromediators, brain areas and circuits involved in defense responses, Autonomic correlates of defense responses,  Neuroendocrine correlates of stress and TI, Pain control during TI and other immobility models, and more.

Key Features

  • Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors
  • Presents the latest release in the Progress in Brain Research series
  • Updated release includes the latest information on Defence from Invertebrates to Mammals: Focus on Tonic Immobility


Undergraduates, graduates, academics, and researchers in the field of neurology and brain research

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface
  • References
  • Chapter 1: Defensive responses in invertebrates: Evolutionary and neural aspects
  • Abstract
  • 1: Defense responses in lower invertebrates
  • 2: Defense responses in higher invertebrates
  • 3: Plasticity of defense and adaptative role of tonic immobility
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Introduction to defensive behavior in vertebrates
  • Abstract
  • 1: Ethology and biology of defense
  • 2: Motivation in defensive behavior
  • 3: Behavioral flexibility and the coping style
  • 4: The role of tonic immobility (TI) in defense
  • 5: TI as a behavioral trait of personality
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Neural circuits of fear and defensive behavior
  • Abstract
  • 1: Fear and threat perception
  • 2: Visual detection and underlying circuits
  • 3: Immobility-related defense and behavioral arrest
  • 4: Circuits underlying fear-related behavior
  • 5: Fear circuits and tonic immobility (TI)
  • 6: The avian brain organization and circuits involved in TI
  • References
  • Chapter 4: The fear hypothesis and tonic immobility (TI) modulation: Early studies in chickens
  • Abstract
  • 1: The fear hypothesis in TI response
  • 2: Fear and TI in adult animals
  • 3: The influence of rearing conditions, early life experiences and imprinting on fear-related responses
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Environmental, ecological and methodological factors of Tonic Immobility (TI) modulation
  • Abstract
  • 1: Temperature, age and induction procedures: Interactions in TI modulation
  • 2: Circadian rhythms and TI periodicity
  • 3: Habituation and sensitization of TI
  • 4: Brain lesions and TI habituation
  • 5: Ecological factors, domestication and genetic localization associated to TI
  • References
  • Chapter 6: The neuroethological approach to defense in rabbit
  • Abstract
  • 1: The neuroethological approach
  • 2: The implanted rabbit in its home cage
  • 3: The seminatural setting
  • 4: Neuroethology of TI
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in tonic immobility (TI)
  • Abstract
  • 1: Brain and muscles activity
  • 2: The influence of earlier experiences on EEG during TI
  • 3: The play-possum model
  • 4: Hippocampal electrical activity
  • 5: Spinal reflexes
  • 6: Neural structures involved in TI
  • 7: Brain metabolic activity
  • 8: Learning and memory
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Neuromediators and defensive responses including tonic immobility (TI): Brain areas and circuits involved
  • Abstract
  • 1: Serotonin (5-HT) and defensive responses including TI
  • 2: Amygdala and 5-HT receptors in TI modulation
  • 3: Acetylcholine (Ach), behavioral inhibition and TI
  • 4: Ach and the tegmental-hypothalamic-amygdala-PAG circuits of defense
  • 5: The enkephalinergic/GABAergic control of the PAG output for TI modulation
  • 6: TI and cataplexy: The role of the neuromediator orexin
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Autonomic correlates of defense responses, including tonic immobility (TI)
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Organizational and evolutionary aspects
  • 3: Coordinated heart rate and ventilatory modifications during defensive responses from fish to reptiles
  • 4: Thermoregulatory mechanisms and cardiorespiratory correlates of TI and other defense immobilities in birds
  • 5: Cardiorespiratory correlates of TI and other defense immobilities in mammals
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Neuroendocrine correlates of stress and tonic immobility
  • Abstract
  • 1: Neuroendocrine systems and acute stress response
  • 2: HPA axis, neural mechanisms and corticosteroid reactivity
  • 3: Individual variability in corticosteroid reactivity and coping style
  • 4: Individual variability in corticosteroid reactivity and defense responses including TI
  • 5: TI susceptibility in relation to corticosteroid levels
  • 6: The time-course of adrenocortical system modifications during TI in the rabbit
  • 7: HPG axis modifications in response to stress and TI
  • 8: The time-course of gonadal hormone modifications during TI, in the rabbit
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Pain control in tonic immobility (TI) and other immobility models
  • Abstract
  • 1: The thalamic gate
  • 2: The nociceptive system
  • 3: Formalin pain and TI
  • 4: Stress induced analgesia in rats
  • 5: Restraint-induced analgesia
  • 6: TI, analgesia and inflammation
  • 7: Pain control during TI in other animal species
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Tonic immobility as a survival, adaptive response and as a recovery mechanism
  • Abstract
  • 1: Immobility-related defense and survival in invertebrates and vertebrates
  • 2: Threat-sensitivity hypothesis and behavioral flexibility
  • 3: Autotomy and TI interaction
  • 4: TI as a morphological defense
  • 5: TI role in social insects' colonies
  • 6: Immobility reduces predator's attention
  • 7: Prey/predator distance and stimulus intensity in relation to the opportunity to escape
  • 8: Genetic basis of short and long TI duration in insects
  • 9: Genetic behavioral correlations of TI
  • 10: TI as a recovery mechanism from preceding disruptive experiences
  • 11: Immobility in communication of reproductive readiness
  • 12: A comparison of TI in animals with behavioral inhibition during assault in humans
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Synthesis of defense response characteristics
  • Abstract
  • 1: Tonic immobility (TI)
  • 2: Freezing
  • 3: Restraint-sustained immobility

Product details

  • No. of pages: 358
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: March 29, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323999731
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323983044

About the Serial Volume Editors

Giancarlo Carli

Giancarlo Carli began his research career when he was a medical student in Siena in November 1959. This changed his life style for ever. The head of the Institut, Cesare Bartorelli, Professor of Medical Pathology, was a neurophysiologist that had moved to the clinic, but dedicated all his efforts in recruiting excellent investigators and in collecting Italian and foreign grants to develop competitive scientific projects. Indeed, Carli had the opportunity to meet young medical doctors such as Alberto Zanchetti, Alberto Malliani and Emilio Bizzi that greatly influenced his scientific education and his mentality. Zanchetti had received a neurophysiologic training in Pisa where he had published a long series of original papers on the reticular formation of the brain stem and was motivated to pursue his work in this field. After one year of intensive training, Carli started a new project with Zanchetti on REM sleep, a sleep phase that had been recently discovered. The project, in spite of strong initial difficulties, provided new findings and interpretations about the connections between brain stem and hippocampus that were published in Science. When Carli moved to Pisa, to Pompeiano lab, they discovered that presynaptic inhibition was responsible for the block of somatosensory transmission during REM sleep. Thanks to these results on REM sleep, in 2003 Giancarlo Carli received an Award as a pioner on sleep studies by the International Society for Study of Sleep. After two additional years in Pisa, working under the supervision of Giuseppe Moruzzi, on animal hypnosis/tonic immobility, Carli moved to Baltimore where he completed his basic training on somatosensory system. In particular, Vernon B. Montcastle taught him how to record from cutaneous and deep hand receptors in monkeys and Robert LaMotte how to train monkeys to perform a psychophysical task. After two years, Carli went back to Siena University where he started his academic carrier. At the same time, Carli developed his first program on pain and tonic immobility in Pisa, where had maintained his old lab, with Louis Lefebvre, a PhD student from Universitè de Montreal. In the following years the work on pain was encouraged by Paolo Procacci, Professor of Internal Medicine at University of Firenze, John J. Bonica, Professor of Anesthesiology, University of Washington,Seattle, and by Manfred Zimmermann, Professor of Physiology ,University of Hidelberg. Carli and Zimmermann had an intense collaboration on many education activities including a class on pain to medical students at Siena. The term “animal hypnosis” and the consideration that it did not define the same phenomenon in humans stimulated the interest of Carli to attend some Congresses on human hypnosis. Martin Orne, Professor at Pennsylvania University, and Ernest Hilgard, Professor at Standford University, convinced him to join the courageous army of reserchears engaged in the field.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of Siena, Italy

Francesca Farabollini

Francesca Ietta is a researcher at the Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy. She has spent several years as research fellow at the Department of Physiology, University of Siena. In November 2000, she started the PhD program in “Cellular Physiology and Neuroimmunophysiology” at the Department of Physiology, University of Siena. During her PhD studies, she worked for two years at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mont Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada (2002-2004). She is author or co-author of 33 full-papers in indexed Scientific International Journals, 4 papers in international books, and over 50 abstracts. She gave a great contribution to carried out research projects funded by the Italian Ministry for University and Research, the Tuscany’s Environmental Department and by the European Union. She has several national and international cooperations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus of Physiology (retired), University of Siena, Italy

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