Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081011287, 9780081012277

Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting

1st Edition

Materials, Technologies, Optimization and Case Studies

Editors: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal Claes Granqvist Bjørn Jelle Giuseppe Vanoli Nicola Bianco Jarek Kurnitski
eBook ISBN: 9780081012277
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081011287
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 23rd January 2017
Page Count: 632
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Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting:Materials, Technologies, Optimization and Case Studies provides essential knowledge for civil engineers, architects, and other professionals working in the field of cost-effective energy efficient building retrofitting.

The building sector is responsible for high energy consumption and its global demand is expected to grow as each day there are approximately 200,000 new inhabitants on planet Earth. The majority of electric energy will continue to be generated from the combustion of fossil fuels releasing not only carbon dioxide, but also methane and nitrous oxide. Energy efficiency measures are therefore crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of the building sector.

Energy efficient building retrofitting needs to not only be technically feasible, but also economically viable. New building materials and advanced technologies already exist, but the knowledge to integrate all active components is still scarce and far from being widespread among building industry stakeholders.

Key Features

  • Emphasizes cost-effective methods for the refurbishment of existing buildings, presenting state-of-the-art technologies
  • Includes detailed case studies that explain various methods and Net Zero Energy
  • Explains optimal analysis and prioritization of cost effective strategies


Researchers and engineers working in architecture, construction, civil engineering and the refurbishment of buildings, and materials science

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Chapter 1. Introduction to Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Building Retrofitting
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Sustainable Development and Energy Production
    • 1.2 Building Energy Efficiency and Energy Retrofitting
    • 1.3 Financing Aspects Regarding Energy Retrofitting in Europe
    • 1.4 The Importance of Socioeconomic Aspects
    • 1.5 Outline of the Book
    • References
  • Part I: Materials and Technologies
    • Chapter 2. Methodologies for Selection of Thermal Insulation Materials for Cost-Effective, Sustainable, and Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Thermal Insulation Materials
      • 2.3 Environmental and Economic Assessment of Thermal Insulation Materials
      • 2.4 Advancements in the Field of Building Materials Applied for the Energy Upgrade of Buildings
      • 2.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Phase Change Materials for Application in Energy-Efficient Buildings
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Phase Change Materials in General
      • 3.3 State-of-the-Art Phase Change Materials
      • 3.4 Phase Change Materials in Building Applications
      • 3.5 Future Research Opportunities
      • 3.6 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Reflective Materials for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting of Roofs
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 White Reflective Materials
      • 4.3 Colored Reflective Materials
      • 4.4 Retroreflective Materials
      • 4.5 Thermochromic Materials
      • 4.6 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Solar Air Collectors for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Types of SACS
      • 5.3 Unglazed SAC Numerical Model
      • 5.4 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
      • 5.5 Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Cost-Effective Energy Retrofitting and Nearly- and Net-Zero Energy Building Design
      • 6.3 Photovoltaic Products for Buildings
      • 6.4 Conclusions: Potentialities and Challenges
      • References
  • Part II: Optimization
    • Chapter 7. Measurement and Verification Models for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature for Measurement and Verification Terms
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Fundamental Principles of Measurement and Verification
      • 7.3 Measurement and Verification Protocols & Standards
      • 7.4 Measurement and Verification Options
      • 7.5 Drivers for and Barriers Against M&V
      • 7.6 Innovative Methods for Cost-Effective M&V: An Overview
      • 7.7 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 8. A Cost-Effective Human-Based Energy-Retrofitting Approach
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Why Should Occupants’ Awareness Play a Key Role in Building Energy Saving?
      • 8.3 Human–Building System Interaction: Active and Passive Roles of Occupants
      • 8.4 Typical Occupants’ Attitudes Playing a Key Role in Energy Need
      • 8.5 Occupants’ Behavior in Building Thermal Energy Dynamic Simulation
      • 8.6 Occupant Behavior Towards Energy Saving in Buildings
      • 8.7 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 9. An Overview of the Challenges for Cost-Effective and Energy-Efficient Retrofits of the Existing Building Stock
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Challenges in Building Energy Retrofitting
      • 9.3 Optimization Approaches for the Design of Building Energy Retrofit
      • 9.4 Building Energy Retrofit and Sustainability
      • 9.5 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Smart Heating Systems for Cost-Effective Retrofitting
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Technology
      • 10.3 Case Studies and Lessons Learned
      • 10.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting the Energy Behavior of a Building Category: A Powerful Tool for Cost-Optimal Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 11.1 Introduction and Literature Review: Surrogate Models in Building Applications
      • 11.2 Methodology: Predicting the Energy Behavior of a Building Category by ANNs
      • 11.3 Application: An Office Case Study
      • 11.4 Integration of the ANNs in Optimization Procedures to Optimize Energy Retrofit Design
      • 11.5 Summary of the Main Novelties, Outcomes, and Conclusions
      • References
  • Part III: Case Studies
    • Chapter 12. Cost-Effectiveness of Retrofitting Swedish Buildings
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 12.1 The Swedish Building Stock
      • 12.2 Method
      • 12.3 Potentials and Costs for Energy Conservation
      • 12.4 Determinants of Cost Efficiency
      • 12.5 Conclusions
      • Appendix
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Cost-Efficient Solutions for Finnish Buildings
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Simulation Study for a Finnish 1960s Apartment Building
      • 13.3 Practical Renovation Case Study in a Finnish 1980s Apartment Building
      • 13.4 Economic and Environmental Advantages of a Nearly Zero-Energy Renovation in a Finnish 1970s Apartment Building Compared to Traditional Renovation
      • 13.5 Conclusions Based on the Presented Case Studies
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Cost-Effective District-Level Renovation: A Russian Case Study
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Analyzed Cases
      • 14.3 Renovation Costs
      • 14.4 Discussion and Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Cost-Effective Energy and Indoor Climate Renovation of Estonian Residential Buildings
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Methods
      • 15.3 Results
      • 15.4 Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Cost-Effective Energy Refurbishment of Prefabricated Buildings in Serbia
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 16.1 Introduction: Energy Refurbishment of the Residential Buildings
      • 16.2 New Belgrade’s Residential Blocks—Global State and Energy Consumption
      • 16.3 Project Approach and Methodology
      • 16.4 Current State of the Two Case Study Buildings
      • 16.5 Simulation Results of the Energy Optimization: Comparative Analysis
      • 16.6 Integrated Architectural Measures
      • 16.7 Economic Analysis and Results
      • 16.8 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Cost-Effective Refurbishment of Residential Buildings in Austria
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Building Stock and Refurbishment
      • 17.3 Cost-Effective Calculation Model
      • 17.4 Research Sample
      • 17.5 Sensitivity of the Building and Cost Parameters
      • 17.6 Findings, Discussion, and Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Cost-Effective Energy Retrofitting of Buildings in Spain: An Office Building of the University of the Basque Country
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 The Case Study. Building Description
      • 18.3 Analysis of the Real Energy Performance. Monitoring Study
      • 18.4 Assessment of Effects of Energy Renovation. Energy Simulations
      • 18.5 Overall Improvements, Experiences, and Lessons Learned
      • 18.6 Future Trends
      • 18.7 Recommendations and Sources of Further Information
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Cost-Effective Refurbishment of Italian Historic Buildings
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction: The Energy Refurbishment of Historical Building Stock
      • 19.2 Cost-Effective EEMs, Suitable for Buildings Protected as Cultural Goods
      • 19.3 Presentation of the Case Studies
      • 19.4 Modeling and Investigation: Discussion and Results
      • 19.5 Conclusions and Future Trends
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Index


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About the Editor

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal is a Senior Researcher in the C-TAC Research Centre at the University of Minho, Portugal. He has authored almost 300 publications, including 96 in ISI Web of Science-WoS and 92 on Scopus. Having received 798 citations in WoS (h-index=15) and 1125 citations on Scopus (h-index=18). He has a SCI Platinum h=30 the highest in the field of civil in Portugal. He has also been the Lead Editor of 14 international books, with more than 500 contributors from 52 countries in the five continents.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Minho

Claes Granqvist

Claes Goran Granqvist is a Senior Professor of Solid State Physics at the Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. His research is focused on optical and electrical properties of materials, especially thin films for energy efficiency and solar energy utilization. Professor Granqvist has been a member of the CEI-Europe Faculty since 2002.

Affiliations and Expertise

Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden

Bjørn Jelle

Bjørn Petter Jelle is a Professor in the Department of Civil and Transport Engineering at Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet, Norway. He has over 85 publications with research interests including building physics, material science and technology, accelerated climate ageing experimental investigations, solar radiation and solar cells/photovoltaics, among others.

Affiliations and Expertise

Norges TekniskNaturvitenskapelige Universitet, Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norway

Giuseppe Vanoli

Giuseppe Peter Vanoli is an Associate Professor at Universita degli Studi Del Sannio, Italy with research interests that include energy efficiency in buildings, heating and refrigeration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dipartimento Di Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi Del Sannio, Italy

Nicola Bianco

Professor Nicola Bianco is an Associate Professor of Applied Thermodynamics, in the Facolta’ di Ingegneria dell'Universita’ degli studi di Napoli Federico II, since 2005. He has been in charge of research projects funded by the Ente Nazionale per l'Energia e l'Ambiente (ENEA), Ministero dell'Universita’, Regione Campania. He has been the author or the co-author of more than 100 scientific papers published in international journals and presented at national and international conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Jarek Kurnitski

Jarek Kurnitski is a Professor in Energy Performance of Buildings and Indoor Climate at Tallinn University of Technology. Since April 2012 Jarek is the leader of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings nZEB research group at TUT. From 2009 to the end of 2012 he was Senior Lead in the Energy Programme for SITRA, the Finnish Innovation Fund.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Structural Design, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia