Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128020050, 9780128020548

Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications

1st Edition

Editors: Kazutami Sakamoto Robert Lochhead Howard Maibach Yuji Yamashita
eBook ISBN: 9780128020548
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128020050
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 27th March 2017
Page Count: 854
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Description

Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications covers the fundamental aspects of cosmetic science that are necessary to understand material development, formulation, and the dermatological effects that result from the use of these products. The book fulfills this role by offering a comprehensive view of cosmetic science and technology, including environmental and dermatological concerns.

As the cosmetics field quickly applies cutting-edge research to high value commercial products that have a large impact in our lives and on the world's economy, this book is an indispensable source of information that is ideal for experienced researchers and scientists, as well as non-scientists who want to learn more about this topic on an introductory level.

Key Features

  • Covers the science, preparation, function, and interaction of cosmetic products with skin
  • Addresses safety and environmental concerns related to cosmetics and their use
  • Provides a graphical summary with short introductory explanation for each topic
  • Relates product type performance to its main components
  • Describes manufacturing methods of oral care cosmetics and body cosmetics in a systematic manner

Readership

Chemical engineers, chemists, physical chemists and cosmetic chemists in cosmetics research and development, dermatologists, toxicologists

Table of Contents

Part I. General View of Cosmetic Science and Technology

Chapter 1. General Aspects of Cosmetics in Relation to Science and Society: Social, Cultural, Science, and Marketing Aspects

  • 1.1. Cosmetic Science and Society
  • 1.2. The Establishment of Humans and Society
  • 1.3. Society and the Foundation of Cosmetic Culture
  • 1.4. The Culture of Cosmetics and Establishment of Cosmetic Philosophy: A Case Study in Japan
  • 1.5. Progress of Scientific Technology and History of the Cosmetics Industry in Japan
  • 1.6. Science, Technology, and Social Demands
  • 1.7. Science, Technology, and Marketing

Chapter 2. Global Cosmetic R&D Trends Unveiled From Past IFSCC Award-Winning Papers

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. The International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists
  • 2.3. Tracing the History of Articles Presented at IFSCC Congresses/Conferences
  • 2.4. Trends Interpreted From Award-Winning Papers
  • 2.5. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Basic Physical Sciences for the Formulation of Cosmetic Products

  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. The Basic Sciences of Cleansing

Chapter 4. Scouting to Meet Unmet Needs

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Value of Technology Scouting
  • 4.3. Technology Scout
  • 4.4. Scouting Organization
  • 4.5. Organizational Scouting Models
  • 4.6. Scouting Function
  • 4.7. General Scouting Process
  • 4.8. Challenges
  • 4.9. Front-end Homework/Creation of the “Needs” Brief
  • 4.10. Scouting Resources
  • 4.11. Why Do You Need It?
  • 4.12. Conclusions

Chapter 5. New Aspects of Cosmetics and Cosmetic Science

  • 5.1. The Scope of Cosmetic Science
  • 5.2. Technologies That Support Cosmetic Science
  • 5.3. Functions of the Skin
  • 5.4. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Psychology of Cosmetic Behavior

  • 6.1. Prehistory of Cosmetics
  • 6.2. History of Cosmetics
  • 6.3. Psychology of Skin Care
  • 6.4. Psychology of Makeup
  • 6.5. Psychology of Fragrance
  • 6.6. Cosmetic Behavior as an Emotion Control Device

Chapter 7. Dermatological Benefits of Cosmetics

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Skin Care Products
  • 7.3. Antiwrinkle and Antiaging Agents
  • 7.4. Acne Cosmetics
  • 7.5. Hair Growth Agent
  • 7.6. Antiperspirants and Deodorants
  • 7.7. Makeup Products
  • 7.8. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Development of Cosmetics and Intellectual Property Rights

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. The Need for Intellectual Property Rights
  • 8.3. What Is an Intellectual Property Right?
  • 8.4. Chapter I Patent Law
  • 8.5. Chapter II Design Patent Law
  • 8.6. Chapter III Trademark Law
  • 8.7. Chapter IV Copyrights
  • 8.8. Chapter V Unfair Competition Prevention Law
  • 8.9. Chapter VI Cooperative Research and Development Agreement in Research and Development of Cosmetics
  • 8.10. In Conclusion

Chapter 9. Regulations on Cosmetics

  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Regulations on Cosmetics per Region
  • 9.3. Labeling
  • 9.4. Cosmetics Ingredient Restrictions
  • 9.5. Closing Remarks

Part II. Fundamental Resources for Cosmetics

Chapter 10. Introduction to Cosmetic Materials

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Purposes of Cosmetic Materials
  • 10.3. Precautions on Choosing and Using Cosmetic Ingredients
  • 10.4. Future Challenges in Cosmetics Material Development
  • 10.5. Closing Remarks

Chapter 11. Nomenclature of Ingredients

  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. History
  • 11.3. INCI Basics
  • 11.4. Botanical Names
  • 11.5. INCI Names and CAS
  • 11.6. INCI Names and CosIng
  • 11.7. Applying for an INCI Name
  • 11.8. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Water

  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Basic Physical Properties and Biological Roles of Water
  • 12.3. Cell Membranes and Water
  • 12.4. The Skin and Water
  • 12.5. Conclusions

Chapter 13. The Use of Polymers in Cosmetic Products

  • 13.1. Rheology Modifiers
  • 13.2. Precise Molecular Tailoring for Simultaneous Enablement of Contrasting Qualities
  • 13.3. Polymers That Modify Surfaces
  • 13.4. Transfer-Resistant Color Cosmetics
  • 13.5. Film-Forming Polymers in Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
  • 13.6. Hair-Conditioning Polymers
  • 13.7. Polymers for the Treatment of Skin
  • 13.8. Polymers as Controlled Release Matrices
  • 13.9. Dendritic Polymers
  • 13.10. Polymeric Antimicrobials and Bacteriostats
  • 13.11. Environmental and Ecological Considerations
  • 13.12. Summary

Chapter 14. Powders and Inorganic Materials

  • 14.1. History of Powders in Cosmetics
  • 14.2. Powders Used in Cosmetics
  • 14.3. Conclusions

Chapter 15. Surfactants

  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. Characteristics and Classification of Surfactants
  • 15.3. Micellization of Surfactants
  • 15.4. Solubility of Surfactants
  • 15.5. Adsorption of Surfactants
  • 15.6. Mixed Surfactant Systems
  • 15.7. Conclusions

Chapter 16. Emollients

  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Types of Emollients
  • 16.3. Evaluation of Emollients
  • 16.4. The Future of Emollients

Chapter 17. Bioactive Ingredients: Benefits of Cosmetics Stimulated Through Biological Aspects

  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. Development Directions of Bioactive Ingredients
  • 17.3. Overview of Pigmented Spots
  • 17.4. Overview of Antiaging Focusing on Wrinkling
  • 17.5. Conclusions

Chapter 18. Fragrance

  • 18.1. Introduction
  • 18.2. Natural Products
  • 18.3. Aroma Chemicals
  • 18.4. Fragrance Creation and Duplication
  • 18.5. Polarity
  • 18.6. Fragrance Applications
  • 18.7. Physical Chemistry of Aroma Chemicals
  • 18.8. Encapsulation and Controlled Release
  • 18.9. Antibacterial Effects of Essential Oils
  • 18.10. Malodor
  • 18.11. Safety and Regulatory Concerns
  • 18.12. The Regulation of Fragrance
  • 18.13. Natural, Green, Organic, and Sustainable Fragrances
  • 18.14. Fragrance and the Mind
  • 18.15. The Fragrance Brief
  • 18.16. Conclusions
  • 18.17. A Basic Fragrance Library

Chapter 19. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

  • 19.1. Introduction
  • 19.2. Chemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
  • 19.3. Proteins and Amino Acids as Biochemical Compounds
  • 19.4. Amino Acids in Cosmetics
  • 19.5. Peptides in Cosmetics
  • 19.6. Proteins in Cosmetics
  • 19.7. Conclusions

Chapter 20. Botanical Ingredients

  • 20.1. Introduction
  • 20.2. Botanical Substances
  • 20.3. Regulations Regarding Botanical Substances
  • 20.4. Organic Cosmetics
  • 20.5. The Effectiveness of Botanical Substances
  • 20.6. The Future and Challenges in Botanical Substance Development
  • 20.7. Closing Remarks

Chapter 21. Functional Materials for Hair

  • 21.1. Introduction
  • 21.2. Functional Materials for Hair Shampoos
  • 21.3. Co-Washing/Conditioning Washing/Cleansing Conditioners
  • 21.4. Mild Shampoos
  • 21.5. Alternatives for Sulfates
  • 21.6. Pre-Damage/Pre-Shampoos
  • 21.7. Conditioners
  • 21.8. Interactions With Hair
  • 21.9. Hair Damage and Its Causes
  • 21.10. Conditioning Polymers: Silicone Oils and Derivatives
  • 21.11. Silicone-Free Alternatives
  • 21.12. Leading Global Hair Care Market Trends
  • 21.13. New Age of Connectivity
  • 21.14. Products Having “Free-From” Claims
  • 21.15. Botanical/Herbal Ingredients
  • 21.16. Sun Care–Inspired Solutions: Ultraviolet Protection
  • 21.17. Skin Care–Inspired Solutions: Antipollution/Reconstruction
  • 21.18. Color Statements/Protection/Renewal
  • 21.19. Antiaging
  • 21.20. Scalp Protecting
  • 21.21. Sensorial Experience: Long-Lasting Fragrance
  • 21.22. Sustainable Solutions: Use of Natural/Renewable Ingredients/New Product Forms
  • 21.23. Consumer Needs and Drivers
  • 21.24. Conclusions

Chapter 22. Nanotechnology in Cosmetics

  • 22.1. Introduction
  • 22.2. Skin Structure and Function
  • 22.3. Major Nanocosmeceutical Applications
  • 22.4. Nanoparticles Used in Cosmetics
  • 22.5. Toxicity of Nanoparticles
  • 22.6. Safety Requisites for a Blooming Beauty
  • 22.7. Nanomaterials and the EU Cosmetics Regulations
  • 22.8. Nanocosmeceuticals in Market
  • 22.9. Future Trends in Nanocosmeceuticals
  • 22.10. Conclusions

Part III. Physicochemical Aspects and Formulations

Chapter 23. Wetting and Surface Characterization

  • 23.1. Introduction
  • 23.2. Wetting on the Flat Surfaces
  • 23.3. Wetting on Rough Surfaces
  • 23.4. Super Water- and Oil-Repellent Surfaces Resulting From Fractal Structure
  • 23.5. Wetting Phenomena in Cosmetic Science and Technology
  • 23.6. Future Perspectives on the Wetting Technologies in Cosmetics

Chapter 24. Molecular Structure and Phase Behavior of Surfactants

  • 24.1. Introduction
  • 24.2. Notations in Phase Diagram
  • 24.3. Phase Diagram in Surfactant System
  • 24.4. Self-Organized Structure
  • 24.5. Anionic Surfactants
  • 24.6. Cationic Surfactants
  • 24.7. Nonionic Surfactants
  • 24.8. Sugar-Based Surfactants
  • 24.9. Conclusions

Chapter 25. Lamellar Gel Network

  • 25.1. Introduction
  • 25.2. Unique Advantages of Lamellar Gel Networks
  • 25.3. α-Gel
  • 25.4. Cetostearyl Alcohol
  • 25.5. Surfactants for Lamellar Gel Networks
  • 25.6. Multiphase Network Structure
  • 25.7. Lamellar Gel (Lβ) Phase
  • 25.8. Bulk Water Phase
  • 25.9. Oil Phase
  • 25.10. Fatty Alcohol Hydrated Crystal
  • 25.11. Stability of Lamellar Gel Network
  • 25.12. Formulation Spaces of Various Lamellar Gel Networks
  • 25.13. Summary

Chapter 26. Polymer–Surfactant Interactions

  • 26.1. Introduction
  • 26.2. Homopolymer–Ionic Surfactant Systems Show Association
  • 26.3. Polyelectrolyte–Surfactant Systems May Show Two-Step Association
  • 26.4. Amphiphilic Polymer Self-assembly
  • 26.5. Phase Separation Is Common for Polymer–Surfactant Mixtures
  • 26.6. Gels: Thermal Gelation, Chemical Gels, and Microgel Particles
  • 26.7. Surfactant–Polyelectrolyte Mixtures at Interfaces

Chapter 27. Rheology of Cosmetic Formulations

  • 27.1. Introduction
  • 27.2. Rheological Parameters and Their Measurements
  • 27.3. Surfactant Solutions, Their Micellar Structures and Rheological Properties
  • 27.4. Surfactant Solutions and Additives
  • 27.5. Microemulsions
  • 27.6. Emulsions
  • 27.7. Hydrogels and Organogels
  • 27.8. Foams
  • 27.9. Liquid Crystals

Chapter 28. Emulsion and Emulsification Technology

  • 28.1. Introduction
  • 28.2. Definition and Classification of Emulsion
  • 28.3. Properties of Surfactant on Emulsification
  • 28.4. Selection of Emulsifier Suitable for Applications: Hydrophile–Lipophile Balance Number
  • 28.5. Hydrophile–Lipophile Balance Number of Oil (Required HLB Number)
  • 28.6. Destabilizing Factors of Emulsions and Their Handling Methods
  • 28.7. Emulsification Methods
  • 28.8. Conclusion

Chapter 29. Microemulsions and Nano-emulsions for Cosmetic Applications

  • 29.1. Introduction
  • 29.2. Microemulsions
  • 29.3. Nano-emulsions
  • 29.4. Cosmetic Applications of Microemulsions and Nano-emulsions
  • 29.5. Microemulsion and Nano-emulsion Components
  • 29.6. Percutaneous Absorption of Actives From Microemulsions and Nano-emulsions
  • 29.7. Conclusions

Chapter 30. Effect of Molecular Assembly for Emulsion and Gel Formulations

  • 30.1. Introduction
  • 30.2. Formation and the Characterization of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals and α-Gels
  • 30.3. Molecular Assembly and Emulsion
  • 30.4. Liquid Crystal Emulsification
  • 30.5. Application of Molecular Assemblies to Functional Cosmetics
  • 30.6. Conclusions

Chapter 31. Liposomes for Cosmetics

  • 31.1. Introduction
  • 31.2. Property of Phospholipids
  • 31.3. Liposomes
  • 31.4. Liposome Formation Conditions
  • 31.5. Morphology of Liposomes
  • 31.6. Stability of Liposomes
  • 31.7. Effectiveness of Liposome Formulations
  • 31.8. Cutaneous Absorption of Liposome Formulations
  • 31.9. Closing Remarks

Chapter 32. Skin Care Cosmetics

  • 32.1. Introduction
  • 32.2. Functions of Skin Care Cosmetics
  • 32.3. Structuring Components and Technology of Skin Care Cosmetics
  • 32.4. Solubilization
  • 32.5. Ultrafine Emulsification
  • 32.6. Emulsions
  • 32.7. Emulsification
  • 32.8. Recent Progress of Oil-in-Water Emulsification in Skin Care Cosmetics
  • 32.9. Conclusion

Chapter 33. Body Care Cosmetics

  • 33.1. Introduction
  • 33.2. Body Cleansers
  • 33.3. Mildness to Skin and Sensory Feeling
  • 33.4. Foaming Technology
  • 33.5. Reconsideration for Satisfying Both Detergency and Skin Mildness
  • 33.6. Conclusion

Chapter 34. Makeup Cosmetics

  • 34.1. Introduction
  • 34.2. Types and Characteristics of Foundations
  • 34.3. Makeup Finishes
  • 34.4. Other Factors
  • 34.5. Conclusion

Chapter 35. Ultraviolet Care Cosmetics

  • 35.1. Importance of Sun Care Cosmetics
  • 35.2. Sunscreen Agents
  • 35.3. Required Functionality as Sun Care Cosmetics
  • 35.4. Evaluation and Declaration of Sunscreen Capacity for Cosmetics
  • 35.5. Summary

Chapter 36. Hair Care Cosmetics

  • 36.1. Functions of Hair Care Cosmetics
  • 36.2. Shampoos
  • 36.3. Hair Conditioners
  • 36.4. Hair Styling Products
  • 36.5. Hair Coloring Products
  • 36.6. Permanent Hair Waving Products
  • 36.7. Conclusions

Chapter 37. Sensory Measurement—Evaluation and Testing of Cosmetic Products

  • 37.1. Introduction—Why Sensory Analysis?
  • 37.2. Haptic—Sensory Fundamentals
  • 37.3. Application of Sensory for Cosmetics
  • 37.4. Influence of Raw Material Formulation on the Sensor
  • 37.5. Procedures and General Factors Influencing Sensory Test Methods
  • 37.6. Methods
  • 37.7. Focus Test Requirements of the Descriptive Profile Test
  • 37.8. Future Outlook

Chapter 38. Structural Analysis of Formulations

  • 38.1. Introduction
  • 38.2. Colloidal Dispersion System
  • 38.3. Characterization of Colloids
  • 38.4. Micelles
  • 38.5. Liquid Crystals
  • 38.6. Emulsions
  • 38.7. Conclusion

Chapter 39. Increasing Productivity by Reducing Carbon Footprint in Cosmetics Processing

  • 39.1. Introduction
  • 39.2. Understanding the Nature and Effects of Variables
  • 39.3. The Principle of Less Is More
  • 39.4. Low-Energy Emulsification
  • 39.5. Different Ways to Carry Out Low-Energy Emulsification
  • 39.6. The Importance of Finding the Z-Point
  • 39.7. An Example of “Less Is More” Low-Energy Emulsification Processing
  • 39.8. Low-Energy Emulsification to Prevent Batch Failure, Improve Product Quality, and Save Energy
  • 39.9. Using Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance Method to Find Optimal Surfactant Combinations for Emulsification
  • 3.10. Solubilization Method in Low-Surfactant Emulsification
  • 39.11. Other Applications of “Less Is More” Principle and Low-Energy Emulsification
  • 39.12. Conclusions

Part IV. Physiological and Dermatological Aspects

Chapter 40. Structure and Function of Skin From a Cosmetic Aspect

  • 40.1. Introduction
  • 40.2. Role of the Skin
  • 40.3. Fundamental Structure of the Skin
  • 40.4. Epidermis
  • 40.5. Dermis
  • 40.6. Appendages
  • 40.7. Regional Variation of the Skin
  • 40.8. Barrier Functions of the Skin
  • 40.9. Conclusions

Chapter 41. Skin Lipids

  • 41.1. Introduction
  • 41.2. Lipids in Skin
  • 41.3. Epidermal Lipid Synthesis
  • 41.4. Skin Surface Lipid
  • 41.5. Lipid Mediators
  • 41.6. Lipids in Cosmetics
  • 41.7. Barrier Care (Repair) Using Cosmetics to Improve Skin Disease

Chapter 42. Structural Aspects of Stratum Corneum

  • 42.1. Introduction
  • 42.2. X-ray Diffraction Study on Stratum Corneum
  • 42.3. Highly Sensitive Detection of Minute Structural Change on Applying Chemical Agents
  • 42.4. Penetration Route of Hydrophilic Molecules in Stratum Corneum
  • 42.5. Penetration Route of Hydrophobic Molecules in Stratum Corneum
  • 42.6. Behavior of Water in Stratum Corneum
  • 42.7. Water Regulation Mechanism in Stratum Corneum at the Molecular Level

Chapter 43. Skin Aging

  • 43.1. Difference Between Aging and Senescence
  • 43.2. Senescence From the Molecular Level to the Systemic Level
  • 43.3. Progress and Issues in Senescence Research
  • 43.4. Chronic Inflammation and Senescence
  • 43.5. Sirtuin and Resveratrol
  • 43.6. Strategies in Research on Skin Aging
  • 43.7. Issues to be Resolved and Future Considerations

Chapter 44. Melanogenesis

  • 44.1. Introduction
  • 44.2. Instances of Skin-Lightening QDs Developed in Japan
  • 44.3. Conclusions

Chapter 45. Sensitive Skin

  • 45.1. Introduction
  • 45.2. Assessment of Sensitive Skin
  • 45.3. Conclusions

Chapter 46. Skin Penetration

  • 46.1. Introduction
  • 46.2. A Little Bit About History
  • 46.3. Skin Structure/Properties
  • 46.4. Factors Affecting the Skin Barrier
  • 46.5. Assessing the Skin Barrier
  • 46.6. Overcoming the Skin Barrier
  • 46.7. Skin Penetration
  • 46.8. Evaluation of Skin Penetration
  • 46.9. Future Directions

Chapter 47. Effects of Air Pollution on Skin: Dermatologic Options

  • 47.1. Introduction
  • 47.2. Materials and Methods
  • 47.3. Results
  • 47.4. Discussion
  • 47.5. Conclusions and Future Considerations

Chapter 48. Hair Physiology (Hair Growth, Alopecia, Scalp Treatment, etc.)

  • 48.1. Introduction
  • 48.2. Basic Concepts, Hair Biology, Cause of Hair Loss, and Treatments
  • 48.3. Hair Growth–Promoting Compounds
  • 48.4. Light-Emitting Diodes, Lasers, and Other Cosmetic Surgeries
  • 48.5. Growth Factor Cocktail, Cell Culture Media Injection, and Platelet-Rich Plasma
  • 48.6. Hair Transplantation
  • 48.7. Future Treatment in Cosmetics: Regeneration of Hair Follicles by Autologous Cell-Based Therapy for Hair Loss
  • 48.8. Summary and Future Directions

Chapter 49. Clinical Evaluation and Instrumental Techniques in Dermatology

Chapter 50. Safety Evaluation

  • 50.1. Introduction
  • 50.2. What Is Safety?
  • 50.3. How Should We Consider the Safety of Cosmetics and Their Ingredients?
  • 50.4. To What Extent We Should Assure the Safety of Cosmetics?
  • 50.5. Process of Safety Evaluation
  • 50.6. Implementation of Safety Tests
  • 50.7. Reevaluation After Launch
  • 50.8. Conclusion

Chapter 51. Safety Assessment of Cosmetic Ingredients

  • 51.1. Introduction
  • 51.2. Toxicological Study
  • 51.3. Current Update
  • 51.4. International Test Guidelines
  • 51.5. International Trends in Regulatory Use for Cosmetics
  • 51.6. Conclusion

Details

No. of pages:
854
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128020548
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128020050

About the Editor

Kazutami Sakamoto

Kazutami Sakamoto is a professor of Faculty of Pharmacy at Chiba Institute of Science since April, 2010. He is also an adjunct professor of Dept. of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science & Technology, at Tokyo University of Science. He has graduated the master program of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering at Tohoku University in 1971 after finishing undergraduate program at the same university. He has received the diploma of Ph. D. from Faculty of Science at Tohoku University in 1980. In 1971 he has joined the Central Research Laboratories of Ajinomoto Co., Inc as a research chemist and spent most of his professional carrier with the company till 2003. During his time with Ajinomoto, Dr. Sakamoto has long been engaged in the development of the Ajinomoto's functional chemical products especially cosmetic ingredients. He also has conducted many basic researches in the area of colloid and interfacial chemistry and skin science. In 2003 he has retired from Ajinomoto and joined to Shiseido Research Center as a Resident Special Technical Advisor and spent three years to consult creation and promotion of Shiseido's new R&D projects. After then he has worked for Seiwa kasei Co. LTD. as a director of R&D. Along with industrial carrier, Dr. Sakamoto has been active in research and educations at Universities as Yokohama National University, Shinsyu University then Tokyo University of Science as an adjunct professor. After retiring from industry in 2008, he has been expanding academic activities.

Dr. Sakamoto has elucidated extensive research on the physicochemical properties of aminoacid based chiral molecules especially at their self assembled conditions since late 1970s. His explorations of chiral self assemblies including micelles, lyotropic liquid crystals are one of the pioneering studies in 1970s. Discovery of lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal formed by acylamino acid as a chiral surfactant is a good example of them. Never ending his curiosity on the structure and functions of chiral assembly led him to create chiral mesoporous silica as a solid matter which was templated from chiral lyotropic liquid crystal formed by acylamino acid as a soft matter. His study “Self Organization of Amino Acid Based Chiral Surfactants: Evaluation of Organized Structures and Interactions with Biological System” was awarded by Japan Oils Chemists' Society in 2005. He has been actively participating many international conferences as an invited speaker during recent 10 years. Dr. Sakamoto was a Chairman of Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry at The Chemical Society of Japan for 2007-2008.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Fellow of the Chemical Society of Japan, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiba Institute of Science, Choshi-city, Chiba, Japan

Robert Lochhead

Dr Lochhead's industrial career spanned 25 years- 4 years with the Nobel Division of I.C.I , 10 years with Unilever Research and 11 years with the Specialty Polymer and Chemicals Division of BFGoodrich.

After this career as an industrial scientist and research manager, Dr Lochhead joined the University of Southern Mississippi as an Associate Professor in 1990. He has chaired the Department of Polymer Science since 1993 and raised it to School status. The department has been ranked third in the nation for Polymers and it is ranked 5th in the USA for Engineering (various) and 18th in the Nation for Engineering. More than $2billion in capital has been invested in the Mississippi Polymer Industry, creating 42 new companies and 10,000 new jobs.

Dr. Lochhead serves as Principal Investigator of the NSF funded 'Multinational Partnership to Incite Innovation', Director of The Institute for Formulation Science and the National Formulation Science Laboratory, and Director of the School of Polymers and High Performance Materials at the University of Southern Mississippi. The National Formulation Science Laboratory is located on a 523 acre site in Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

Dr. Lochhead is the author of about 300 scientific papers and 18 Patents, some for polymers that are used extensively in our industry. Since 1995, his students have won 9 best paper awards at National Meetings.

Bob Lochhead served as President of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 1994 and he currently serves again in that capacity. He was President of the International Association of Formulation Chemists in 2000. He was the 2000 recipient of the Maison G. De Navarre Medal; the highest honor in the Arts and Sciences of Cosmetics, and also the SCC National Merit Award, 2006. Lochhead also serves on the INCI committee.

Accelerating Innovation for formulated products that depend upon fundamentals of polymer science and surface/colloid science. The work is supported by NSF and a number of well known global companies.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Polymers and High Performance Materials, The Univ. of Southern Mississipi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA

Howard Maibach

Dr. Howard Maibach is an expert in contact and occupational dermatitis and sees patient at the Environmental Dermatosis Clinic, which is part of the Dermatology Clinic. His specialty is dermatotoxicology, or skin exposure toxicity; allergies and skin disorders; and dermatopharmacology or the study of medications for skin disorders.

Maibach has been on the editorial board of more than 30 scientific journals and is a member of 19 professional societies including the American Academy of Dermatology, San Francisco Dermatological Society and the Internal Commission on Occupation Health. He is a professor in the Department of Dermatology at UCSF.

To make an appointment with Maibach, patients need a referral from a primary care doctor or dermatologist.

Dr. Howard Maibach has written and lectured extensively on dermatotoxicology (the toxicity to man from skin exposure) and dermatopharmacology (the treatment of skin diseases). His current research programs include defining the chemical-biologic faces of irritant dermatitis and the study of percutaneous penetration.

When Dr. Maibach is not in the lab conducting research or in the classroom teaching, he is seeing patients at the Environmental Dermatoses Clinic (of the Dermatology Clinic), mostly providing second opinions on allergic contact dermatitis.

Dr. Maibach has been on the editorial boards of over 30 scientific journals and is a member of 19 professional societies including the American Academy of Dermatology, San Francisco Dermatological Society, and the International Commission on Occupational Health.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA

Yuji Yamashita

Bayreuth University, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry, and Earth Sciences

Ph.D, Doctor of Science

Affiliations and Expertise

Chiba Institute of Science, 3 Shiomicho, Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan