Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Structures

Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Structures

1st Edition - February 15, 2016

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  • Editor: Amir Poursaee
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423812
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782424024

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Corrosion of reinforcing steel is now recognized as the major cause of degradation of concrete structures in many parts of the world. Despite this, infrastructure expenditure is being unreasonably decreased by sequestration and the incredible shrinking discretionary budget. All components of our infrastructure including highways, airports, water supply, waste treatment, energy supply, and power generation require significant investment and are subjected to degradation by corrosion, which significantly reduces the service life, reliability, functionality of structures and equipment, and safety. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Structures provides a comprehensive review of the subject, in addition to recent advances in research and technological developments, from reinforcing materials to measurement techniques and modelling. This book contains not only all the important aspects in the field of corrosion of steel reinforced concrete but also discusses new topics and future trends. Part One of the book tackles theoretical concepts of corrosion of steel in concrete structures. The second part moves on to analyse the variety of reinforcing materials and concrete, including stainless steel and galvanized steel. Part Three covers measurements and evaluations, such as electrochemical techniques and acoustic emission. Part Four reviews protection and maintenance methods, whilst the final section analyses modelling, latest developments and future trends in the field. The book is essential reading for researchers, practitioners and engineers who are involved in materials characterisation and corrosion of steel in concrete structures.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive coverage on a broad range of topics related to the corrosion of steel bars in concrete
  • Discusses the latest measuring methods and advanced modeling techniques
  • Reviews the range of reinforcing materials and types of concrete


Researchers, practitioners and engineers who are involved in materials characterisation and corrosion of steel in concrete structures. The book will also be essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate-level courses in infrastructure corrosion.

Table of Contents

    • Related titles
    • List of contributors
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering
    • Preface
    • Part One. Theoretical concepts of corrosion of steelin concrete structures
      • 1. An introduction to corrosion of engineering materials
        • 1.1. Introduction—the ubiquitous nature of corrosion
        • 1.2. Thermodynamics are on the side of corrosion
        • 1.3. Kinetics are on the side of the metals
        • 1.4. Forms of corrosion
        • 1.5. A brief history of corrosion of reinforcing steel
        • 1.6. The magnitude of the corrosion issue in general
        • 1.7. The magnitude of the corrosion issue specifically related to RC structures
        • 1.8. Conclusion
      • 2. Corrosion of steel in concrete structures
        • 2.1. Introduction
        • 2.2. Passivation/depassivation
        • 2.3. Chloride-induced corrosion
        • 2.4. Carbonation-induced corrosion
        • 2.5. Mechanism of corrosion in reinforced concrete
        • 2.6. The influence of concrete parameters on rebar corrosion
        • 2.7. Corrosion products
        • 2.8. Macrocell and microcell corrosion
        • 2.9. Corrosion under load
    • Part Two. Different reinforcing materials and concrete
      • 3. Corrosion of prestress and post-tension reinforced-concrete bridges
        • 3.1. Introduction
        • 3.2. Materials
        • 3.3. Overview of corrosion mechanisms
        • 3.4. Overview of corrosion failures and current corrosion problems
        • 3.5. Cathodic protection
        • 3.6. Closing remarks
      • 4. Corrosion of stainless steel in concrete
        • 4.1. Rationale for the use of stainless alloys as reinforcing bars in chloride-contaminated environments
        • 4.2. Experience to date with stainless rebar in the field
        • 4.3. Available grades of stainless rebar
        • 4.4. Experimental corrosion tests for stainless rebar
        • 4.5. Results to date on corrosion behaviour of stainless rebar
        • 4.6. Conclusions
      • 5. Corrosion of epoxy-coated steel in concrete
        • 5.1. Introduction
        • 5.2. Use
        • 5.3. Current specifications
        • 5.4. Specification changes
        • 5.5. Manufacture
        • 5.6. Fabrication
        • 5.7. Field handling
        • 5.8. Corrosion research
        • 5.9. Changes in agency specification of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel
        • 5.10. Summary
        • 5.11. Sources of further information
      • 6. Galvanized steel reinforcement
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. Galvanized reinforcement
        • 6.3. Laboratory studies
        • 6.4. Field studies
        • 6.5. Design and fabrication
        • 6.6. Applications of galvanized reinforcement
        • 6.7. Future trends
        • 6.8. Summary
        • 6.9. Further information
      • 7. Effect of different concrete materials on the corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel
        • 7.1. Introduction
        • 7.2. Chloride ingress resistance
        • 7.3. Carbonation resistance
        • 7.4. Future trends
        • 7.5. Conclusions
      • 8. Effect of using recycled materials in concrete on the corrosion of the steel bars
        • 8.1. Recycled materials in concrete
        • 8.2. Effect of recycled materials in concrete on reinforcing steel corrosion
        • 8.3. Effect of recycled aggregates in concrete on reinforcing steel corrosion
        • 8.4. Concluding remarks
    • Part Three. Measurements and evaluations
      • 9. Corrosion measurement and evaluation techniques of steel in concrete structures
        • 9.1. Introduction
        • 9.2. Half-cell potential technique
        • 9.3. Linear polarization resistance (LPR)
        • 9.4. Galvanostatic pulse technique
        • 9.5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
        • 9.6. Cyclic polarization
        • 9.7. Cyclic voltammetry (CV)
        • 9.8. Corrosion sensors for field monitoring
      • 10. Acoustic emission monitoring for corrosion damage detection and classification
        • 10.1. Overview of the acoustic emission technique
        • 10.2. Mechanism of corrosion detection using AE
        • 10.3. Case studies for corrosion detection using AE
        • 10.4. Corrosion classification using AE
        • 10.5. Special considerations and potential applications in the field
        • 10.6. Special considerations for wireless sensing
        • 10.7. Summary
      • 11. Assessing a concrete's resistance to chloride ion ingress using the formation factor
        • 11.1. Introduction
        • 11.2. Background
        • 11.3. Experimental techniques
        • 11.4. Microstructural parameters
        • 11.5. Specifying formation factor
        • 11.6. Conclusions
    • Part Four. Protection, modeling and future trends
      • 12. Corrosion protection methods of steel in concrete
        • 12.1. Cathodic protection
        • 12.2. Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE)
        • 12.3. Inhibitors
      • 13. Modeling corrosion of steel in concrete
        • 13.1. Introduction
        • 13.2. Kinetics of steel corrosion in concrete
        • 13.3. Theoretical/numerical modeling of corrosion current density
        • 13.4. Environmental conditions and material/chemical properties of concrete around steel reinforcement
        • 13.5. Empirical models and other practical approaches for predicting corrosion current density
        • 13.6. Conclusions
      • 14. Future trends in research on reinforcement corrosion
        • 14.1. Introduction
        • 14.2. Processes leading to reinforcement corrosion
        • 14.3. Corrosion onset and chloride threshold
        • 14.4. Corrosion propagation
        • 14.5. Modelling of service life
        • 14.6. Additional preventive measures
        • 14.7. Repair techniques
        • 14.8. Corrosion measurement techniques
        • 14.9. Final comments
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 312
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: February 15, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423812
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782424024

About the Editor

Amir Poursaee

Dr. Poursaee is an assistant professor in Glenn Department of Civil Engineering at Clemson University. He received his BS in Materials Engineering from the University of Tehran and his MS and PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Waterloo, Canada. His primary areas of research include corrosion and electrochemical behaviors of metals specifically steel bars in reinforced concrete structures, concrete materials, structural health monitoring, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. Prior to joining Clemson University, Dr. Poursaee worked as research assistant professor at Purdue University for three years and as senior engineer for more than ten years in different fields of materials engineering including corrosion, quality control, NDE and failure analysis. Dr. Poursaee has published more than 30 peer-reviewed papers, monographs, book and book chapters. He is a registered professional engineer in Ontario, Canada and serves as a member of the editorial board of the Advances in Civil Engineering Materials (ACEM) Journal, published by the ASTM.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, USA

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