Corrosion Control in the Oil and Gas Industry

Corrosion Control in the Oil and Gas Industry

1st Edition - October 15, 2013

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  • Author: Sankara Papavinasam
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123973061
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123970220

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Description

The effect of corrosion in the oil industry leads to the failure of parts. This failure results in shutting down the plant to clean the facility. The annual cost of corrosion to the oil and gas industry in the United States alone is estimated at $27 billion (According to NACE International)—leading some to estimate the global annual cost to the oil and gas industry as exceeding $60 billion. In addition, corrosion commonly causes serious environmental problems, such as spills and releases. An essential resource for all those who are involved in the corrosion management of oil and gas infrastructure, Corrosion Control in the Oil and Gas Industry provides engineers and designers with the tools and methods to design and implement comprehensive corrosion-management programs for oil and gas infrastructures. The book addresses all segments of the industry, including production, transmission, storage, refining and distribution.

Key Features

  • Selects cost-effective methods to control corrosion
  • Quantitatively measures and estimates corrosion rates
  • Treats oil and gas infrastructures as systems in order to avoid the impacts that changes to one segment if a corrosion management program may have on others
  • Provides a gateway to more than 1,000 industry best practices and international standards

Readership

Corrosion Engineers, Production Engineers, Inspection Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Pipeline Operators, Pipeline Construction Contractors, Pipeline Designers, Pipeline Drafters, Integrity Managers, Regulators, Facility Engineers, Plant Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Reviewers

    Chapter 1. The Oil and Gas Industry

    Abstract

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Energy from hydrocarbons

    1.3 What are hydrocarbons?

    1.4 Hydrocarbon sources

    1.5 History of the oil and gas industry

    1.6 Regulations

    1.7 The significance and impact of corrosion in the oil and gas industry

    References

    Chapter 2. Oil and Gas Industry Network

    Abstract

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Drill pipe

    2.3 Casing

    2.4 Downhole tubular

    2.5 Acidizing pipe

    2.6 Water generators and injectors

    2.7 Gas generators (Teritiary recovery)

    2.8 Open mining

    2.9 In situ production

    2.10 Wellhead

    2.11 Production pipelines

    2.12 Heavy crude oil pipelines

    2.13 Hydrotransport pipelines

    2.14 Gas dehydration facilities

    2.15 Oil separators

    2.16 Recovery centers (Extraction plants)

    2.17 Upgraders

    2.18 Lease tanks

    2.19 Waste water pipelines

    2.20 Tailing pipelines

    2.21 Transmission pipelines

    2.22 Compressor stations

    2.23 Pump stations

    2.24 Pipeline accessories

    2.25 Oil tankers

    2.26 Liquid natural gas (LNG) transportation

    2.27 Transportation by railcars

    2.28 Transportation by trucks

    2.29 Gas storage

    2.30 Oil storage tanks

    2.31 Refineries

    2.32 Product pipelines

    2.33 Terminals

    2.34 City gate and local distribution centers

    2.35 Compressed natural gas (CNG)

    2.36 Diluent pipelines

    2.37 High vapor pressure pipelines

    2.38 CO2 pipelines

    2.39 Hydrogen pipelines

    2.40 Ammonia pipelines

    2.41 Biofuel infrastructure

    Bibliography

    References

    Chapter 3. Materials

    Abstract

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Properties of metals and alloys

    3.3 Types of metals and alloys

    3.4 Classification of metals and alloys

    3.5 Non-metals

    References

    Chapter 4. The Main Environmental Factors Influencing Corrosion

    Abstract

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Flow

    4.3 Oil phase

    4.4 Water (Brine or Aqueous) phase

    4.5 CO2

    4.6 H2S

    4.7 O2

    4.8 Sand and solids

    4.9 Microorganisms

    4.10 Pressure

    4.11 Temperature

    4.12 pH

    4.13 Organic acids

    4.14 Mercury

    References

    Chapter 5. Mechanisms

    Abstracts

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Electrochemical nature of corrosion

    5.3 General corrosion

    5.4 Galvanic corrosion

    5.5 Pitting corrosion

    5.6 Intergranular corrosion

    5.7 Selective leaching (Dealloying)

    5.8 Deposition corrosion

    5.9 Crevice corrosion

    5.10 Cavitation-corrosion

    5.11 Mechanical forces

    5.12 Fretting corrosion

    5.13 Underdeposit corrosion

    5.14 Microbiologically influenced corrosion

    5.15 High temperature corrosion

    5.16 Corrosion fatigue

    5.17 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.18 The hydrogen effect

    5.19 Liquid metal cracking (LMC) or liquid metal embrittlement (LME)

    5.20 Corrosion under protective coating and corrosion under insulation (CUI)

    5.21 Stray current corrosion

    5.22 Telluric current corrosion

    5.23 Alternating current (AC) corrosion

    5.24 Top-of-the-line corrosion (TLC)

    Bibliography

    References

    Chapter 6. Modeling – Internal Corrosion

    Abstract

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Hydrogen effects

    6.3 General corrosion of carbon steel

    6.4 Pitting corrosion of CRAS

    6.5 Localized pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    6.6 Erosion-corrosion

    6.7 Microbiologically influenced corrosion

    6.8 Scaling

    6.9 High-temperature corrosion

    6.10 Top-of-the-line corrosion (TLC)

    References

    Chapter 7. Mitigation – Internal Corrosion

    Abstract

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Pigging

    7.3 Drying

    7.4 Corrosion inhibitors

    7.5 Biocides

    7.6 Scale inhibitors

    7.7 Wax and asphaltene inhibitors

    7.8 Hydrate inhibitors

    7.9 Internal coatings and linings

    7.10 Cathodic protection

    7.11 Process optimization

    References

    Chapter 8. Monitoring – Internal Corrosion

    Abstract

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Laboratory measurement

    8.3 Field monitoring

    8.4 Field inspection

    References

    Chapter 9. Mitigation – External Corrosion

    Abstract

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Coatings

    9.3 Cathodic protection

    References

    Chapter 10. Modeling – External Corrosion

    Abstract

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Modeling corrosion control

    10.3 Modeling corrosion

    References

    Chapter 11. Monitoring – External Corrosion

    Abstracts

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Holiday detection

    11.3 Above-ground monitoring techniques

    11.4 Remote monitoring

    11.5 In-line inspection

    11.6 Hydrostatic testing

    11.7 Below-ground inspection

    References

    Chapter 12. Measurements

    Abstracts

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Types of measurement

    12.3 Measured properties

    12.4 Precautions in using measured data for corrosion control

    References

    Chapter 13. Maintenance

    Abstracts

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Equipment

    13.3 Workforce

    13.4 Data

    13.5 Communication

    13.6 Associated activities

    References

    Chapter 14. Management

    Abstract

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Risk assessment

    14.3 Risk management

    14.4 Corrosion risks

    14.5 Activities of corrosion management

    References

    Appendix I. Abbreviations

    Keywords

    Appendix II. Unit Conversions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1020
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2013
  • Published: October 15, 2013
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123973061
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123970220

About the Author

Sankara Papavinasam

Dr. Papavinasam is President of CorrMagnet Consulting Inc. He has 20 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. He has led several joint industry projects with more than 50 companies developing new corrosion solutions and insights to manage internal corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion, and external corrosion of oil and gas industry. He has published over 100 papers, contributed to 5 book chapters, developed 3 software products, and received 2 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

CorrMagnet Consulting Inc.

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