Corrosion Control in the Oil and Gas Industry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123970220, 9780123973061

Corrosion Control in the Oil and Gas Industry

1st Edition

Authors: Sankara Papavinasam
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123970220
eBook ISBN: 9780123973061
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 15th October 2013
Page Count: 1020
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The effect of corrosion in the oil industry leads to the failure of parts. This failure results in shutting down the plant to clean the facility. The annual cost of corrosion to the oil and gas industry in the United States alone is estimated at $27 billion (According to NACE International)—leading some to estimate the global annual cost to the oil and gas industry as exceeding $60 billion. In addition, corrosion commonly causes serious environmental problems, such as spills and releases. An essential resource for all those who are involved in the corrosion management of oil and gas infrastructure, Corrosion Control in the Oil and Gas Industry provides engineers and designers with the tools and methods to design and implement comprehensive corrosion-management programs for oil and gas infrastructures. The book addresses all segments of the industry, including production, transmission, storage, refining and distribution.

Key Features

  • Selects cost-effective methods to control corrosion
  • Quantitatively measures and estimates corrosion rates
  • Treats oil and gas infrastructures as systems in order to avoid the impacts that changes to one segment if a corrosion management program may have on others
  • Provides a gateway to more than 1,000 industry best practices and international standards


Corrosion Engineers, Production Engineers, Inspection Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Pipeline Operators, Pipeline Construction Contractors, Pipeline Designers, Pipeline Drafters, Integrity Managers, Regulators, Facility Engineers, Plant Engineers

Table of Contents





Chapter 1. The Oil and Gas Industry


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Energy from hydrocarbons

1.3 What are hydrocarbons?

1.4 Hydrocarbon sources

1.5 History of the oil and gas industry

1.6 Regulations

1.7 The significance and impact of corrosion in the oil and gas industry


Chapter 2. Oil and Gas Industry Network


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Drill pipe

2.3 Casing

2.4 Downhole tubular

2.5 Acidizing pipe

2.6 Water generators and injectors

2.7 Gas generators (Teritiary recovery)

2.8 Open mining

2.9 In situ production

2.10 Wellhead

2.11 Production pipelines

2.12 Heavy crude oil pipelines

2.13 Hydrotransport pipelines

2.14 Gas dehydration facilities

2.15 Oil separators

2.16 Recovery centers (Extraction plants)

2.17 Upgraders

2.18 Lease tanks

2.19 Waste water pipelines

2.20 Tailing pipelines

2.21 Transmission pipelines

2.22 Compressor stations

2.23 Pump stations

2.24 Pipeline accessories

2.25 Oil tankers

2.26 Liquid natural gas (LNG) transportation

2.27 Transportation by railcars

2.28 Transportation by trucks

2.29 Gas storage

2.30 Oil storage tanks

2.31 Refineries

2.32 Product pipelines

2.33 Terminals

2.34 City gate and local distribution centers

2.35 Compressed natural gas (CNG)

2.36 Diluent pipelines

2.37 High vapor pressure pipelines

2.38 CO2 pipelines

2.39 Hydrogen pipelines

2.40 Ammonia pipelines

2.41 Biofuel infrastructure



Chapter 3. Materials


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Properties of metals and alloys

3.3 Types of metals and alloys

3.4 Classification of metals and alloys

3.5 Non-metals


Chapter 4. The Main Environmental Factors Influencing Corrosion


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Flow

4.3 Oil phase

4.4 Water (Brine or Aqueous) phase

4.5 CO2

4.6 H2S

4.7 O2

4.8 Sand and solids

4.9 Microorganisms

4.10 Pressure

4.11 Temperature

4.12 pH

4.13 Organic acids

4.14 Mercury


Chapter 5. Mechanisms


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Electrochemical nature of corrosion

5.3 General corrosion

5.4 Galvanic corrosion

5.5 Pitting corrosion

5.6 Intergranular corrosion

5.7 Selective leaching (Dealloying)

5.8 Deposition corrosion

5.9 Crevice corrosion

5.10 Cavitation-corrosion

5.11 Mechanical forces

5.12 Fretting corrosion

5.13 Underdeposit corrosion

5.14 Microbiologically influenced corrosion

5.15 High temperature corrosion

5.16 Corrosion fatigue

5.17 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.18 The hydrogen effect

5.19 Liquid metal cracking (LMC) or liquid metal embrittlement (LME)

5.20 Corrosion under protective coating and corrosion under insulation (CUI)

5.21 Stray current corrosion

5.22 Telluric current corrosion

5.23 Alternating current (AC) corrosion

5.24 Top-of-the-line corrosion (TLC)



Chapter 6. Modeling – Internal Corrosion


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Hydrogen effects

6.3 General corrosion of carbon steel

6.4 Pitting corrosion of CRAS

6.5 Localized pitting corrosion of carbon steel

6.6 Erosion-corrosion

6.7 Microbiologically influenced corrosion

6.8 Scaling

6.9 High-temperature corrosion

6.10 Top-of-the-line corrosion (TLC)


Chapter 7. Mitigation – Internal Corrosion


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Pigging

7.3 Drying

7.4 Corrosion inhibitors

7.5 Biocides

7.6 Scale inhibitors

7.7 Wax and asphaltene inhibitors

7.8 Hydrate inhibitors

7.9 Internal coatings and linings

7.10 Cathodic protection

7.11 Process optimization


Chapter 8. Monitoring – Internal Corrosion


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Laboratory measurement

8.3 Field monitoring

8.4 Field inspection


Chapter 9. Mitigation – External Corrosion


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Coatings

9.3 Cathodic protection


Chapter 10. Modeling – External Corrosion


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Modeling corrosion control

10.3 Modeling corrosion


Chapter 11. Monitoring – External Corrosion


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Holiday detection

11.3 Above-ground monitoring techniques

11.4 Remote monitoring

11.5 In-line inspection

11.6 Hydrostatic testing

11.7 Below-ground inspection


Chapter 12. Measurements


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Types of measurement

12.3 Measured properties

12.4 Precautions in using measured data for corrosion control


Chapter 13. Maintenance


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Equipment

13.3 Workforce

13.4 Data

13.5 Communication

13.6 Associated activities


Chapter 14. Management


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Risk assessment

14.3 Risk management

14.4 Corrosion risks

14.5 Activities of corrosion management


Appendix I. Abbreviations


Appendix II. Unit Conversions




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About the Author

Sankara Papavinasam

Dr. Papavinasam is President of CorrMagnet Consulting Inc. He has 20 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. He has led several joint industry projects with more than 50 companies developing new corrosion solutions and insights to manage internal corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion, and external corrosion of oil and gas industry. He has published over 100 papers, contributed to 5 book chapters, developed 3 software products, and received 2 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

CorrMagnet Consulting Inc.


"An essential resource for all those who are involved in the corrosion management of oil and gas infrastructure…provides engineers and designers with the tools and methods to design and implement comprehensive corrosion-management programs for oil and gas infrastructures…addresses all segments of the industry, including production, transmission, storage, refining and distribution."--Rivista Italiana della Saldatura, May-June 2014