Controlled Atmospheres for Heat Treatment

Controlled Atmospheres for Heat Treatment

The Pergamon Materials Engineering Practice Series

1st Edition - January 1, 1984

Write a review

  • Author: R. Nemenyi
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483153971

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Controlled Atmospheres for Heat Treatment describes the reaction complexities in heat treatment of metals under controlled atmosphere. Organized into 13 chapters, this book begins with the methods and classifications of heat treatment in controlled atmospheres. This topic is followed by the most popular atmospheres of heat treatment, namely, nitrogen and vacuum. The subsequent chapters deal with the components of heat treatment atmospheres, such as exogas, nitrogen base of monogas, endogas, and ammonia. The discussion then shifts to special gas atmospheres, including steam and those produced by cracking organic liquids. This book also covers several heat treatment processes, such as annealing, hardening, tempering, and heat treatment of powder metallurgical products in controlled atmospheres. A chapter describes the common methods used in protective gas techniques. The concluding chapter presents some dangers associated with controlled atmospheres and their corresponding technical safety precautions.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Heat Treatment in Controlled Atmospheres

    1.1 Interaction Between Metals and Gas Atmospheres

    1.2 Gaseous Constituents of Controlled Atmospheres

    1.2.1 Oxygen

    1.2.2 Nitrogen

    1.2.3 Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide

    1.2.4 Hydrogen

    1.2.5 Water Vapor

    1.2.6 Hydrocarbons

    1.3 Chemical Effects of the Individual Atmosphere Constituents on Metals and Alloys

    1.3.1 Equilibrium Conditions between Controlled Atmospheres and Metals

    1.3.2 Interpretation of the Equilibrium Constant and Its Application in Controlled-Atmosphere Technology

    1.3.3 Oxidation

    1.3.4 Calculation of Principal Oxidizing Reactions

    1.3.5 Decarburizing Reactions

    1.3.6 Calculations for Reactions Involving Decarburization

    1.3.7 Reactions Resulting in Sulphide Formation

    1.3.8 Controlled Oxidation Effects

    1.4 Interchange of Elements Between Atmosphere and Metals and Alloys

    2 Methods of Heat Treatment in Controlled Atmospheres and the Principal Atmospheres Employed

    2.1 Principal Controlled Atmospheres

    2.1.1 Endogas Atmospheres

    2.1.2 Exogas Atmospheres

    2.1.3 Prepared Nitrogen Base or Monogas Atmospheres

    2.1.4 Resume of the Chemistry of Atmosphere Preparation

    2.1.5 Dissociated Ammonia

    2.2 Controlled Atmosphere Generating Plant

    2.3 Main Characteristics of Controlled Atmospheres

    2.3.1 Composition, Dew Point and Fields of Application

    2.3.2 Relative Usage of Protective Atmospheres

    2.3.3 Relative Costs of Producing Protective Atmospheres

    2.4 Classification of Annealing Treatments Carried out in Controlled Atmospheres

    2.4.1 Bright Annealing

    2.4.2 Reducing Annealing

    2.4.3 Scale-Free Annealing

    2.4.4 Low-scale Annealing

    2.5 Classification of Atmospheres According to Their Effects

    2.5.1 Inert Atmospheres

    2.5.2 Neutral Atmospheres

    2.5.3 Active Gas Atmospheres

    3 Inert-Gas Atmospheres and Vacuum

    3.1 Argon and Helium

    3.2 Nitrogen

    3.3 Hydrogen

    3.4 Vacuum as an Atmosphere

    4 Exogas Atmospheres

    4.1 Properties of Exogas Atmospheres

    4.2 Construction and Operation of Exothermic Gas Generators

    4.2.1 Oxygen Removal

    4.2.2 Sulphur Removal

    4.3 Advantages, Disadvantages and Typical Applications of Exothermic-Base Atmospheres

    4.4 Production of Exothermic-Base Atmospheres from Hydrocarbons

    5 Prepared Nitrogen-Base or Monogas Atmospheres

    5.1 Properties

    5.2 Prepared Nitrogen-Base or Monogas Generators

    5.2.1 Modern Methods of Monogas Production

    5.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Prepared Nitrogenbase or Monogas Atmospheres and Typical Applications

    5.3.1 Applicability as a Function of Temperature

    5.3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Monogas

    5.4 Limitations on the Application of Monogas

    5.5 Evaluation of Monogas

    6 Endogas Atmospheres

    6.1 Theoretical Considerations

    6.2 Fuel Gas Bases for Endogas Production

    6.2.1 Natural Gas

    6.2.2 Propane

    6.2.3 Town Gas

    6.2.4 Hydrocarbon-Steam Reaction

    6.3 Design and Operation of Endogas Generators

    6.3.1 Catalysts

    6.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Endogas Atmospheres and Fields of Application

    6.5 Production of Endogas from Liquid Hydrocarbons

    6.6 Exo-endogas Atmospheres

    7 Ammonia-Base Atmospheres

    7.1 Types of Ammonia-Base Atmospheres

    7.2 Properties of Atmospheres Obtained by the Dissociation of Ammonia

    7.3 Design and Operation of Ammonia Crackers

    7.3.1 Cylinder Battery

    7.3.2 Preparation of Controlled, Protective Atmospheres from Liquid Ammonia

    7.3.3 Auxiliary Equipment

    7.3.4 Safety Precautions

    7.3.5 Handling of Protective Atmospheres Consisting of H2 + N2

    7.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Dissociated/Cracked Ammonia and Typical Applications

    7.5 Burnt Ammonia

    7.5.1 The "Nitroneal" Process

    8 Special Gas Atmospheres

    8.1 Steam Atmospheres

    8.1.1 Steam Generating Plant

    8.1.2 Advantages of Steam Treating

    8.2 Gas Atmospheres Prepared by Cracking Organic Liquids

    8.2.1 Principles of Preparation

    8.2.2 Organic Liquids used to Prepare Controlled Atmospheres

    8.2.3 Operating Conditions of the Equipment

    8.2.4 Controlled Atmospheres Produced Externally

    9 Heat-Treatment Furnaces and Heat-Treatment Processes

    9.1 Selection of a Gas Atmosphere

    9.2 Annealing of Acid and Heat-Resistant Steels

    9.3 Heat Treatment of Electrical, Silicon Steels

    9.4 Patenting of Steel Wire

    9.5 Hardening of High-Speed Steels

    9.6 Heat Treatment of Malleable Cast Iron

    9.6.1 Heat Treatment of White-Heart Malleable Cast Iron

    9.6.2 Heat Treatment of Black-Heart Malleable Cast Iron

    9.6.3 Heat Treatment of Pearlitic Malleable Cast Iron

    9.7 Hardening and Tempering

    9.7.1 Hardening and tempering of springs

    9.7.2 Heat Treatment of Engine valves

    9.7.3 Hardening and Tempering of Ball Races

    9.7.4 Hardening and Tempering of Mass-Produced Parts

    9.8 Bright-Annealing of Copper

    9.9 Heat Treatment of Brass Products

    9.9.1 Oxidation of Brass

    9.9.2 Annealing of Brass Strip and Wire

    9.9.3 Tower-Type Furnaces for Heat-Treating Brass Strip

    9.10 Annealing of Bronze Wire

    9.11 Heat Treatment of Nickel Silver

    9.12 Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    9.13 Vacuum Heat Treatment

    9.13.1 Equipment for Vacuum Hardening

    9.13.2 Hardening of High-Alloy Tool Steels

    9.13.3 Vacuum Hardening of Low-Alloy Steels

    9.13.4 Heat Treatment of Transformer Sheets

    9.13.5 Combined Application of Vacuum and Protective Gas in the Heat Treatment of Copper Wires

    10 Heat Treatment of Powder Metallurgical Products in Controlled Atmospheres

    10.1 Principles of Powder Metallurgy Processes

    10.2 Principal Powder Metallurgical Products

    10.3 Production of Metal Powders

    10.4 Pre-treatment of Metal Powders

    10.5 Pressing of Metal Powders

    10.6 Sintering of Powder Metallurgical Products

    10.7 Post-treatment of Sintered Products

    11 Brazing of Metals in Controlled Atmospheres

    11.1 Principles of Brazing

    11.2 Technology of Brazing

    11.2.1 Brazing Materials

    11.2.2 Surface Preparation of Joints

    11.2.3 Methods of Heating

    11.3 Brazing in Controlled Atmospheres

    11.3.1 Box-Type Batch Furnaces

    11.3.2 Continuous Brazing Furnaces

    11.3.3 Atmospheres Used for Brazing

    12 Analysis and Control of Furnace Atmospheres

    12.1 Absorption Gas Analyzers

    12.1.1 The Orsat (Analyzer) Apparatus

    12.1.2 Analyzers Based on the Change in Conductivity of Solutions

    12.2 Analyzers Based on the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity

    12.3 Analyzers Based on the Measurement of Heat Evolved from Specific Reactions

    12.3.1 Instruments Employing the Catalytic Oxidation Technique

    12.3.2 Instruments Based on the Measurement of Heat Absorption

    12.4 Analyzers Based on Calorimetric Measurements

    12.4.1 Instruments Measuring the Calorific Value

    12.4.2 Instruments Measuring the Wobbe Number or Index

    12.5 Paramagnetic Oxygen Analyzers

    12.6 Gas Chromatography

    12.7 Analyzers Based on Color Change Reactions (Colorimetry)

    12.8 Galvanic Cells as Gas Analyzers

    12.9 Analysis and Control of Carbon Potential

    12.9.1 Direct Measurement of the Carbon Potential

    12.9.2 Indirect Measurement of the Carbon Potential

    12.10 Accessories for Measuring Instruments

    12.10.1 Sampling

    12.10.2 Cooling

    12.10.3 Filtering and Dust Removal

    12.10.4 Drying

    12.10.5 Removal of Corrosive Gases

    12.10.6 Gas Pumps

    12.10.7 Automatic Change-over Valves

    12.10.8 Signal Delay

    12.10.9 Flow Meters

    12.10.10 Calibration of Gas Analyzers

    13 Safety Precautions

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Dangers Associated with Controlled Atmospheres

    13.2.1 Danger of Asphyxia—Lack of Oxygen

    13.2.2 Danger of Poisoning

    13.2.3 Danger of Fire and Fire Hazards

    13.2.4 Formation of Hazardous Gas-Air Mixtures

    13.2.5 Danger of Explosion Hazards

    13.2.6 Dangers Associated with Specific Controlled Atmospheres

    13.3 Technical Precautions to Prevent Accidents

    13.3.1 Techniques for Purging Furnace Chambers

    13.4 The Storage of Gases

    13.5 Special Safety Equipment

    13.5.1 Safety Equipment for Gas-Generators

    13.5.2 Observations Regarding Gas-Fired Furnaces

    13.5.3 Lighting of Fuel-Burning Appliances

    13.6 General Comments on Safety

    13.6.1 Equipment

    13.6.2 Personnel

    13.6.3 Organization

    13.7 First Aid

    13.7.1 First Aid in the Case of Burns

    13.7.2 First Aid in the Case of Poisoning

    References and Bibliography


Product details

  • No. of pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483153971

About the Author

R. Nemenyi

About the Editor

G. H. J. Bennett

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Controlled Atmospheres for Heat Treatment"