Computer Programming Languages in Practice

Computer Programming Languages in Practice

Made Simple Computerbooks

1st Edition - January 1, 1985

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  • Author: C. A. Hofeditz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135434

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Computer Programming Languages in Practice provides an overview of various computer programming languages. The book begins with the fundamentals: what programs are; how they are planned and organized; what elements of the computer the programmer controls; flowcharting; and how computer data is organized. It then discusses material common to all languages, including the entry program, the compiler, the run-time system, syntax diagrams, and coding forms. The largest portion of this book is devoted to two very popular languages—BASIC and COBOL. It provides a brief history of the language's development and use; a description of how the programming system is organized; its major components, divisions of instructions, and a description of its instruction set (instruction-by-instruction); how a program is written, including a sample program; and a self-test, including exercises in which programming statements must be written. The final chapter discusses those languages which the reader is less likely to use but should know about. Included are descriptions of FORTRAN and RPG II.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Why Learn to Program?

    The Competition Will Use the New Tools

    To Organize Jobs for the Computer

    To Understand the Products Offered

    Do-it-Yourself Projects

    As a Hobby and for Entertainment

    And as a Profession

    Why are There So Many Languages?

    What You'll Find in Each Chapter

    1 What Programming Is

    The Purpose of a Program

    What is Software?

    Types of Programs

    Elements That Can Be Programmed

    Programming a Printer

    Programming a Keyboard

    Programming a Display

    Programming the Storage Units

    Programming the Computer Itself

    How Data is Organized

    Codes and Characters


    Types of Fields



    A Volume

    Planning a Data File

    File Size

    Access Methods

    Sequential Access

    Direct Access

    Indexed Access

    The Need for a Data Base

    Steps Involved in Preparing a Program

    Program Specifications

    Program Design

    Coding the Program


    Releasing the Program

    The Finished Program and Its Documentation


    Decision Tables


    Self-Test for Chapter 1

    2 Components of a Programming Language

    Phases of Operation

    The Statements Available in a Language

    Syntax Diagrams

    Coding Forms


    Arithmetic Operators

    Relational Operators








    Control Structures and Structured Programming

    The Effect of Limited Control Structures

    Self-Test for Chapter 2

    3 BASIC—Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code


    What Does a Basic Program Look Like?

    Choosing an Instruction Set for Explanation

    Other Components of the Language

    Expressions in BASIC

    String Constants and String Variables

    Numeric Constants and Numeric Variables

    A Note about Names

    How Numeric and String Variables are Used

    Arithmetic Operators

    Order of Priority

    Writing Expressions Using Arithmetic Operators

    Relational Operators

    Writing Expressions Using Relational Operators

    Logical Operators

    The String Operator


    System Functions

    Special System Functions

    Construction of Source Statements

    Showing Source Statement Formats

    Basic Source Statement Syntax Diagrams

    Statements Discussed

    Data Entry Statements

    Keyboard Input Statements

    Array Handling Statements

    The Field Statement

    File Handling Statements

    Statements That Display and Print


    The Image Statement

    Zones on Both the Screen and Printer

    Variations of the Display and Printing Statements

    Ability to Evaluate Expressions

    The Let Statement

    Decisions, Branches, and Loops

    The For/Next Loop

    GoSub and Return Statements

    The GoTo Statement

    If/Then/Else Statement

    Special Source Statements

    A Sample Program

    Self-Test for Chapter 3

    4 Cobol—Common Business Oriented Language


    The Four Divisions

    Reserved Words

    Organization of a Program

    Coding Form

    Relationship of Divisions to One Another

    The Identification Division

    The Environment Division

    The Data Division

    Naming Data

    Describing Data

    Relationship of Data Items

    Setting the Beginning Values

    Organizing Numeric Data

    Editing Data for Display or Printing

    Cobol Syntax Diagrams

    The Procedure Division

    Statements That Perform Arithmetic

    The Add Statement

    The Subtract Statement

    The Multiply Statement

    The Divide Statement

    The Compute Statement

    The Accept and Display Statements

    The Move Statement

    Branches, Conditions, and Loops

    Relational Operators

    Logical Operators

    The If Statements

    The GOTO Statements

    The Perform Statement

    Statements That Use Files

    Describing a File to Cobol

    Fundamentals of the File Handling Statements

    Printer Files—Printing a Line

    Handling Tape Files

    Disk and Diskette Files

    Indexed Access Files

    Relative Access Files

    Statements That Handle Tables

    Loading Data into Tables

    The Indexed By Clause

    The Set Statement

    The Search Statement

    The Search All Statement

    The Perform Varying Statement

    The Sort statement

    Statements That Process Character Strings

    The String and Unstring Statements

    The Inspect Statement

    Statements That Use Other Programs

    The Call Statement

    The Exit or Exit Program Statement

    The Enter Statement

    The Stop Statement

    Cobol Modules and Levels

    Sample Program—Use of an Inventory File on Tape

    Self-Test for Chapter 4

    5 Other Languages, Old and New


    Graphics and Basic

    Statements Available in a Popular Basic

    How the Graphics Statements Work

    FORTRAN—Formula Translator

    The Coding Form

    Fortran Keywords and Syntax Diagrams

    Operators—Arithmetic, Relational, and Logical

    Names for Variables

    Construction of Statements

    Data Types

    Intrinsic Functions Available

    Overall Organization of a Program

    A Section of a Fortran Program

    Report Program Generator—RPG

    The Five Specifications

    A Source Program and Its Compilation

    A Section of a Source Listing

    The Fixed Program Logic of RPG

    Naming Conventions

    Control Card Specifications

    File Description Specifications

    Input Specifications

    Relationship Between Files

    Arrays and Tables

    Calculation Specifications

    Output Format Specifications

    An Ideal Application for RPG

    CP/M—An Operating System You May Hear About

    Self-Test for Chapter 5

    Glossary of Terms

    Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 1

    Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 2

    Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 3

    Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 4

    Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 5


Product details

  • No. of pages: 262
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Made Simple 1985
  • Published: January 1, 1985
  • Imprint: Made Simple
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135434

About the Author

C. A. Hofeditz

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