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Computer Programming Languages in Practice - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780434984008, 9781483135434

Computer Programming Languages in Practice

1st Edition

Made Simple Computerbooks

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Author: C. A. Hofeditz
eBook ISBN: 9781483135434
Imprint: Made Simple
Published Date: 1st January 1985
Page Count: 262
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Computer Programming Languages in Practice provides an overview of various computer programming languages. The book begins with the fundamentals: what programs are; how they are planned and organized; what elements of the computer the programmer controls; flowcharting; and how computer data is organized. It then discusses material common to all languages, including the entry program, the compiler, the run-time system, syntax diagrams, and coding forms. The largest portion of this book is devoted to two very popular languages—BASIC and COBOL. It provides a brief history of the language's development and use; a description of how the programming system is organized; its major components, divisions of instructions, and a description of its instruction set (instruction-by-instruction); how a program is written, including a sample program; and a self-test, including exercises in which programming statements must be written. The final chapter discusses those languages which the reader is less likely to use but should know about. Included are descriptions of FORTRAN and RPG II.

Table of Contents


Why Learn to Program?

The Competition Will Use the New Tools

To Organize Jobs for the Computer

To Understand the Products Offered

Do-it-Yourself Projects

As a Hobby and for Entertainment

And as a Profession

Why are There So Many Languages?

What You'll Find in Each Chapter

1 What Programming Is

The Purpose of a Program

What is Software?

Types of Programs

Elements That Can Be Programmed

Programming a Printer

Programming a Keyboard

Programming a Display

Programming the Storage Units

Programming the Computer Itself

How Data is Organized

Codes and Characters


Types of Fields



A Volume

Planning a Data File

File Size

Access Methods

Sequential Access

Direct Access

Indexed Access

The Need for a Data Base

Steps Involved in Preparing a Program

Program Specifications

Program Design

Coding the Program


Releasing the Program

The Finished Program and Its Documentation


Decision Tables


Self-Test for Chapter 1

2 Components of a Programming Language

Phases of Operation

The Statements Available in a Language

Syntax Diagrams

Coding Forms


Arithmetic Operators

Relational Operators








Control Structures and Structured Programming

The Effect of Limited Control Structures

Self-Test for Chapter 2

3 BASIC—Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code


What Does a Basic Program Look Like?

Choosing an Instruction Set for Explanation

Other Components of the Language

Expressions in BASIC

String Constants and String Variables

Numeric Constants and Numeric Variables

A Note about Names

How Numeric and String Variables are Used

Arithmetic Operators

Order of Priority

Writing Expressions Using Arithmetic Operators

Relational Operators

Writing Expressions Using Relational Operators

Logical Operators

The String Operator


System Functions

Special System Functions

Construction of Source Statements

Showing Source Statement Formats

Basic Source Statement Syntax Diagrams

Statements Discussed

Data Entry Statements

Keyboard Input Statements

Array Handling Statements

The Field Statement

File Handling Statements

Statements That Display and Print


The Image Statement

Zones on Both the Screen and Printer

Variations of the Display and Printing Statements

Ability to Evaluate Expressions

The Let Statement

Decisions, Branches, and Loops

The For/Next Loop

GoSub and Return Statements

The GoTo Statement

If/Then/Else Statement

Special Source Statements

A Sample Program

Self-Test for Chapter 3

4 Cobol—Common Business Oriented Language


The Four Divisions

Reserved Words

Organization of a Program

Coding Form

Relationship of Divisions to One Another

The Identification Division

The Environment Division

The Data Division

Naming Data

Describing Data

Relationship of Data Items

Setting the Beginning Values

Organizing Numeric Data

Editing Data for Display or Printing

Cobol Syntax Diagrams

The Procedure Division

Statements That Perform Arithmetic

The Add Statement

The Subtract Statement

The Multiply Statement

The Divide Statement

The Compute Statement

The Accept and Display Statements

The Move Statement

Branches, Conditions, and Loops

Relational Operators

Logical Operators

The If Statements

The GOTO Statements

The Perform Statement

Statements That Use Files

Describing a File to Cobol

Fundamentals of the File Handling Statements

Printer Files—Printing a Line

Handling Tape Files

Disk and Diskette Files

Indexed Access Files

Relative Access Files

Statements That Handle Tables

Loading Data into Tables

The Indexed By Clause

The Set Statement

The Search Statement

The Search All Statement

The Perform Varying Statement

The Sort statement

Statements That Process Character Strings

The String and Unstring Statements

The Inspect Statement

Statements That Use Other Programs

The Call Statement

The Exit or Exit Program Statement

The Enter Statement

The Stop Statement

Cobol Modules and Levels

Sample Program—Use of an Inventory File on Tape

Self-Test for Chapter 4

5 Other Languages, Old and New


Graphics and Basic

Statements Available in a Popular Basic

How the Graphics Statements Work

FORTRAN—Formula Translator

The Coding Form

Fortran Keywords and Syntax Diagrams

Operators—Arithmetic, Relational, and Logical

Names for Variables

Construction of Statements

Data Types

Intrinsic Functions Available

Overall Organization of a Program

A Section of a Fortran Program

Report Program Generator—RPG

The Five Specifications

A Source Program and Its Compilation

A Section of a Source Listing

The Fixed Program Logic of RPG

Naming Conventions

Control Card Specifications

File Description Specifications

Input Specifications

Relationship Between Files

Arrays and Tables

Calculation Specifications

Output Format Specifications

An Ideal Application for RPG

CP/M—An Operating System You May Hear About

Self-Test for Chapter 5

Glossary of Terms

Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 1

Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 2

Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 3

Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 4

Answers to Self-Test for Chapter 5



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© Made Simple 1985
1st January 1985
Made Simple
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

C. A. Hofeditz

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