Computed Electron Micrographs And Defect Identification - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780720417579, 9780444601476

Computed Electron Micrographs And Defect Identification

1st Edition

Authors: A.K. Head
eBook ISBN: 9780444601476
Imprint: North Holland
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 410
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Description

Computed Electron Micrographs and Defect Identification illustrates a technique for identifying defects in crystalline solids by the comparison of their images, which are produced in the electron microscope, with corresponding theoretical images.
This book discusses the diffraction of electrons by a crystal; the two-beam dynamical equations; the absorption parameters; the deviation of the crystal from the Bragg reflecting position; the extinction distance; the displacement vector; and the foil normal. Chapter three presents the experimental techniques for determination of beam direction, defect line normal, foil normal, foil thickness, and extinction distance.
Chapters four to seven explore ONEDIS and TWODIS and their principles. Chapters eight and nine focus on the application and limitations of the technique, while the last chapter explores the different computer programs related to the technique. Post-graduate students, as well as researchers using transmission electron microscopy for studying defects in crystalline solids, will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Preface

1. Introduction

2. Introduction to the Basic Theory

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The diffraction of electrons by a crystal

2.3. The two-beam dynamical equations

2.4. The absorption parameters

2.4.1. The normal absorption coefficient n

2.4.2. The anomalous absorption coefficient A

2.5. The deviation of the crystal from the Bragg reflecting position

2.5.1. The deviation vector sg

2.6. The extinction distance

2.6.1. The theoretical two-beam extinction distance ℰg

2.6.2. The apparent extinction distance ℰga

2.7. The displacement vector R

2.7.1. The displacement due to a stacking fault

2.7.2. The displacement vector R for a dislocation

2.8. The foil normal F

3. Experimental Techniques

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Image-diffraction pattern rotation

3.3. Crystal tilting technique

3.4. Specific indexing of the orientation map and diffracting vectors

3.4.1. Experimental examples

3.5. Determination of beam direction Β

3.6. Determination of defect line direction u

3.7. Determination of foil normal F

3.8. Extinction distance

3.9. Determination of w

3.10. Determination of foil thickness

3.11. Anomalous absorption coefficient

4. Principles of Onedis

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The two basic principles

4.2.1. The generalised cross-section

4.2.2. Linear combinations

4.3. Modifications to the generalised cross-section to accomodate experimental situations

4.3.1. Tilted foils

4.3.2. Changes in the magnification and in the framing of computed micrographs

4.3.3. Variable foil thickness

4.4. Program geometry

4.5. The grey scale and printing the micrograph

5. Matching with Onedis

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Aluminium

5.3. β -brass

6. Principles of Twodis

6.1. Introduction

6.2. The two basic principles

6.2.1. The generalised cross-section

6.2.2. Linear combinations

6.3. The operation of the program

6.3.1. Examples of the cases which may be computed with TWODIS

6.3.2. Check sums and conventions

6.4. Program geometry and arrangement of the calculation

6.5. Extension of the program to more complex configurations

7. Matching with Twodis

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Example 1, defect A

7.3. Example 2, defect Β

8. Applications of the Technique

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Influence of elastic anisotropy on the invisibility of dislocations

8.3. Effective invisibility of images due to large values of w

8.4. Diffraction contrast from lines of dilation

8.5. Apparent anomalous absorption

8.6. Nature of stacking faults

8.7. Identification of bent dislocations

8.8. A dissociation reaction in β-brass

8.9. Contrast from partial dislocations

8.9.1. Partial dislocations bordering a single stacking fault

8.9.2. Partial dislocations separating intrinsic and extrinsic faults

8.10. Dissociated Frank dislocations

8.11. Growth of Frank loops by fault climb

8.12. Dislocation dipoles in nickel

8.13. Contrast from overlapping faults

8.14. Analysis of partial dislocations and stacking faults on closely spaced planes

9. Discussion of the Applications and Limitations of the Technique

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Uniqueness and the amount of information necessary to identify defects

9.3. Optimisation of the technique

9.4. Limitations in the theory

9.5. Restrictions inherent in the programs

10. Computer Programs

10.1. Introduction

10.1.1. Computer environment

10.1.2. Program speed

10.1.3. Program size

10.1.4. Program options

10.1.5. General conventions

10.2. Program ONEDIS for one dislocation and cubic crystals

10.2.1. General description

10.2.2. Data

10.2.3. Geometry

10.2.4. Error messages

10.2.5. Anisotropic elasticity

10.2.6. Picture output

10.2.7. Howie- Whelan differential equations

10.2.8. Picture legend

10.2.9. Listing of program ONEDIS

10.3. Subroutines

10.3.1. Subroutine ANCALC for cubic crystals

10.3.2. Subroutine NEWTON

10.3.3. Subroutine RKM

10.3.4. Subroutine DERIV for one dislocation

10.4. Special test version of program ONEDIS

10.5. Subroutine HALFTN

10.6. Programs for other crystal systems

10.6.1. Introduction

10.6.2. Program modification - general discussion

10.6.3. The tetragonal system - modification TETDIS

10.6.4. The hexagonal system - modification HEXDIS

10.6.5. The testing of programs developed for non-cubic crystal systems

10.6.6. Modification of other programs for non-cubic systems

10.7. Isotropic elasticity

10.8. Modification DELUGE

10.9. Program 'TWODIS for cubic crystals

10.9.1. Introduction

10.9.2. Program TWODIS

10.9.3. Listing of program TWODIS

10.9.4. Subroutine DERIV for two dislocations

10.10. Dark field pictures

Appendix

A.l. Introduction

A.2. Single dislocations

A.3. Single stacking faults

A.4. Relations between dislocation-stacking fault images

A.5. The symmetry of dislocation dipole images

A.6. The effect of elastic symmetry on dislocation images

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
410
Language:
English
Copyright:
© North Holland 1973
Published:
Imprint:
North Holland
eBook ISBN:
9780444601476

About the Author

A.K. Head