Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123741356, 9780080920863

Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine

1st Edition

Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects

Editors: Victor Preedy Gerard Burrow Ronald Ross Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780080920863
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741356
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th February 2009
Page Count: 1334
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Over two billion people worldwide are at risk for the spectrum of disorders known as "The Iodine Deficiency Disorders." 1-10% will suffer cretinism; 5-30% will have some sort of brain damage or neurological impairment and 30-70% will be hypothyroid.

The causes of iodine deficiencies can be considered from both simplistic and more complex perspectives: From the leaching of iodine from soil resulting in crops with low iodine content to malnutrition resulting in impaired iodine absorption. Poor dietary diversification and impoverished socio-economic development can also lead to iodine deficiencies.

Although it is possible to diagnose and treat deficiencies, there is still an ongoing dialogue regarding the detailed molecular pathology of iodine homeostatis, how hypothyroidism impacts the body tissues, and efficient diagnosis and treatment of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

This Handbook provides a resource of information on the various pathways and processes based on different countries or diseases. Because there is a constant flow of new information on iodine and related disorders, the goal of this Handbook is to provide a base of scientific information upon which additional knowledge can be applied.

Key Features

  • Provides important information on one of the most common micro-nutrient deficiencies in the world, the most important "single nutrient-multiple consequences" paradigm today
  • Includes information on iodine-related diseases, including those that are common, preventable and treatable
  • Provides insight from a broad perspective of viewpoints -- from subcellular transports to economic impact


Nutritionists and Dietitians, Public Health Scientists and Workers, Epidemiologists, Food scientists, Pharmacologists

Table of Contents

Section 1: Forwards – ICCIDD and WHO

Section 2: Analytical Techniques

Chapter 1 Determination of Iodine in Seawater: Methods and Applications Hua-Bin Li, Xaing-Rong Xu, and Feng Chin

Chapter 2 Assay of Iodine in Foodstuffs: Methods and Applications Jane Kučera

Chapter 3 Determination of Iodine in-vivo and in-vitro by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis: Methodology and Applications Marie Hansson, Gertrud Berg, and Mats Isaksson

Chapter 4 Plasma Analytes for Determination of Thyroid Status Ruth M. Ayling and Jinny Jeffrey

Chapter 5 Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Their Relationship to Iodine Nutrition: Changes in TSH, Free T4 and Free T3 Resulting From Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess Colin M. Dayan and Vijay Panicker

Chapter 6 Thyroglobulin as an Indicator of Iodine Intake Radovan Bílek and Václav Zamrazil

Chapter 7 Computer Systems for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations Inge Bülow Pederson, Peter Laurberg

Section 3: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Main Routes of Iodine Metabolism and Metabolic Roles

Section 3.1: Iodine Cycle and Chemistry

Chapter 8 Iodine in the Air Russell W. Saunders and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez

Chapter 9 Iodine and Iodine Species in Sea Water: Speciation, distribution and dynamics Kazuaki Ito and Takeshi Hirokawa

Chapter 10 Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils Qinhong Hu, Jean E. Moran, and Van Blackwood

Chapter 11 Transfers of Iodine in the Soil-Plant-Air System: Solid-Liquid Partitioning, Migration, Plant Uptake and Volatilisation Daniel J. Ashworth

Chapter 12 Iodine in the Ecosystem: An Overview Anthony J. Yun, Patrick Y. Lee, Kimberly A. Bazar, Stephanie M. Daniel, and John D. Doux

Chapter 13 The Nature of Iodine in Drinking Water Stig Andersen and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 14 Application of Iodine Water Purification Tablets: Iodine's Efficacy Against Cryptosporidium Parvum Jeffrey A. Starke

Chapter 15 Iodine Speciation in Foodstuff, Tissues and Environmental Samples: Iodine species and analytical method Xiaolin Hou

Chapter 16 Iodine in Farm Animals F. Schöne and Rajkumar Rajendram

Chapter 17 Radiochemistry of Iodine: relevance to health and disease C.C. Lin and J.H. Chao

Section 3.2: Physiology, Metabolism and Biochemistry

Chapter 18 Retention of Iodine in the Body: Biological Half-Life of Iodine in the Human Body Gary H. Kramer

Chapter 19 Mathematical Models of Human Iodine Metabolism, Including Assessment of Human Total Body Iodine Content Marguerite Hays

Chapter 20 Iodine Transfer Through Mother's Milk: The Influence of Bromide Stanislav Pavelka

Chapter 21 Cellular Iodine Transport: Body Distribution of the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Matthew J. Provenzano and Frederick Domann

Chapter 22 Sodium-Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion Malin Josefsson and Eva Ekblad

Chapter 23 Regulation and Enhancement of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Expression: NIS Regulatory Pathways in Thyroid and Breast Cancer Takahiko Kogai and Gregory A. Brent

Chapter 24 Pendred's Syndrome: Deficiency in Iodide Transport Peter Kopp, Sabine Schnyder, Liuska Pesce

Chapter 25 Autoregulation of Thyroid Growth and Function by Iodine: TSH-independent regulation of the thyroid gland by iodocompounds Roland Gärtner

Chapter 26 Is Iodine an Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Agent for the Mammary and Prostate Glands? Carmen Aceves and Brenda Anguiano

Chapter 27 Uncertainty of Iodine Particulate Deposition in the Respiratory Tract Richard P. Harvey

Chapter 28 The relationship Between Thiocyanate and Iodine Peter Laurberg, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Allan Carlé, Stig Andersen, Nils Knudsen, and Jesper Karmisholt

Chapter 29 Environmental Perchlorate and the Thyroid Lewis E. Braverman

Chapter 30 Iodate and Perchlorate in Bottled Water: Methods for Discovery and Impact to Humans Shane A. Snyder, Brett J. Vanderford, and Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz

Chapter 31 Dioxins, PCBs and Iodine: Effects on Synthesis and Metabolism of the Iodine Containing Thyroid Hormones Veerle Bruggeman and Veerle Darras

Chapter 32 Iodide Effects on the Thyroid: Biochemical, Physiological, Pharmacological and Clinical Effects of Iodide in the Thyroid Valerie Panneels, Guillermo Juvenal, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Jacques E. Dumont, and Jacqueline Van Sande

Chapter 33 Influences of Iodine on the Immunogenicity of Thyroglobulin George Carayanniotis and Yi-chi M. Kong

Chapter 34 Goiter in the Elderly: The Role of Iodine Shakaib U. Rehman, Mohammed M. Ahmed, and Florence N. Hutchison

Section 3.3: Nutrition and Dietary Aspects

Chapter 35 Iodine Intake and Food Choice Lone B. Rasmussen, Stig Andersen, Lars Ovesen, and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 36 Iodine Mineral Water and Its Therapeutic Use in Health Resorts: Iodine consumption from natural mineral waters and its effect on the body Manfred Klieber, Rudolf Winkler, and Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan

Chapter 37 The Iodine Content of Foods and Diets: Norwegian Perspectives Lisbeth Dahl and Helle Margrete Meltzer

Chapter 38 Correlation between Soy Phytoestrogens and Thyroid Laboratory Parameters: Implications for Iodine Richard Hampl, Daniela Ostatníková, Peter Celec, Zdeněk Putz, Radovan Bílek, Oldřich Lapčik, Petr Matucha

Chapter 39 Knowledge of Iodine Nutrition Pieter L. Jooste

Chapter 40 Iodine Metabolism and Parenteral Nutrition Robert Hume and Fiona L.R. Williams

Chapter 41 Iodine Content of Standard Infant Formula and Specialized Enteral Preparations Robert Hume, Karen Lang, and Fiona L.R. Williams

Section 3.4: Iodine Metabolism

Chapter 42 Trimester-Specific Changes in Maternal Thyroid Hormones: Implications for Iodine Nutrition Offie P. Soldin and Danielle Soldin

Chapter 43 The Relationship between Population Iodine Statistics to Iodine Status of Individuals: A possible approach for more comprehensive characterization of iodine nutritional status Volker F.H. Brauer and Ralf Paschke

Chapter 44 Variation in Iodine Excretion in Healthy Individuals Stig Andersen, Jesper Karmisholt and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 45 Assessment of Iodine Intake and Iodine Status in Vegans Helen J. Lightowler

Chapter 46 Isotopes of Iodine in Thyroid Tissue and Urine: source, application, level and distribution Xiaolin Hou and Wenjun Ding

Chapter 47 The U-shaped Curve of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Disorders Peter Laurberg, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Allan Carlé, Nils Knudsen, Stig Andersen, Lars Ovesen, and Lone B. Rasmussen

Section 4: Pathological Aspects of Iodine Deficiency

Section 4.1: General Aspects of Pathology

Chapter 48 Iodine Deficiency: The Extent of the Problem Bruno de Benoist, Erin McLean, and Maria Andersson

Chapter 49 Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: Iodine deficiency and supplementation in pregnancy John H. Lazarus and Peter PA Smyth

Chapter 50 Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency in Term and Pre-Term Newborns Susana Ares, José Quero, and Gabriella Morreale de Escobar

Chapter 51 Oxidative Damage in Iodine Deficiency Filiz Hincal

Chapter 52 Iodine Deficiency in Relation to Iron Deficiency and Parasitosis: Effect of iron status and parasites on iodine deficiency disorders Edgar M. Vásquez-Garibay and Enrique Romero Velarde

Chapter 53 Iodine Deficiency and Thyroid Cancers: Effect of Iodine Prophylaxis on Thyroid Cancer Morphology H. Rubén Harach

Chapter 54 Iodine Deficiency in Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Evidence-Based Review of the World's Literature on Iodine Content in Vegetarian Diets Cheryl Fields and Jonathan Borak

Chapter 55 Relationship between Iodine Intake and Thyroid Size Lone B. Rasmussen, Peter Laurberg, and Lars Ovesen

Chapter 56 Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Deficiency and Total Iodide Organification Defect Laura Fugazzola

Chapter 57 Iodine Deficiency, Antioxidant Response and Mutagenesis in the Thyroid Gland Knut Krohn and Ralf Paschke

Chapter 58 Adaptation to Iodine Deficiency: experimental aspects Gabriella Morreale de Escobar, Maria-Jesus Obregon, Pablo-Enrique Pedraza, Rosa Calvo, and Francisco Escobar del Rey

Chapter 59 Iodine and Exercise Peter PA Smyth, Derek F. Smith, George C. Cloughley, Robert A. Burns, and L.H. Duntas

Chapter 60 Antibodies to Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin in Iodine Deficiencies Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 61 Bromide Interference with Iodine Metabolism: Goitrogenic and Whole-Body Effects of Excessive Inorganic Bromide in the Rat Stanislav Pavelka

Section 4.2: The Effects on the Brain and Neurological Aspects

Chapter 62 Iodine Deficiency and the Brain: an overview Basil S. Hetzel

Chapter 63 Iodine-Deficient Gestation and Neuro-Development of 3 Year-Old Children M. Francisco Rivas-Crespo, Isolina Riaño Galán, Paloma Sánchez Martínez, and María Pilar Mosteiro Díaz

Chapter 64 Experimental Models of Iodine Deficiency and Cretinism During Development: The Role of the Mother Maria-Jesus Obregon, Rosa Maria Calvo, Francisco Escobar del Rey, and Gabriella Morreale de Escobar

Chapter 65 The Effects of Hypothyroidism Due to Iodine Deficiency in Neonatal Brain: The Changes in Brain Metabolites Detected by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Ayşehan Akinci and Hakki Muammer Karakaş

Chapter 66 The DI02 (Deiodinase Type 2) Gene and Mental Retardation in Iodine-Deficiency Ting-wei Guo, David St. Clair, and Lin He

Chapter 67 DNA Damage in Brain and Thyroid Gland Cells Due to High Fluoride and Low Iodine Jundong Wang, Yaming Ge, Hongmei Ning, and Ruiyan Niu

Chapter 68 Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders Due to Iodine Deficiency: A Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder Affecting the Offspring of Hypothyroxinemic Mothers Francesco Vermiglio, Mariacarla Moleti, and Francisco Trimarchi

Chapter 69 Brain Iodine and Other Halogens of Control and Alzheimer's Diseased Patients: brain iodine deficiency in Alzheimer’s disease E. Andrasi and N. Páli

Chapter 70 A Novel Iodine Deficient Disorder: Gestational Hypothyroxinemia. How Safe is it for Progeny? Maricarla Moleti, Francisco Trimarchi, and Francesco Vermiglio

Chapter 71 Iodine, Selenium Deficiency and Kashin-Beck Disease Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes

Chapter 72 Iodine, Thyroid Diseases and Neuromuscular Dysfunction Huy A. Tran

Chapter 73 Reduced Iodine Intake and Iodine Prophylaxis in Pregnancy: Importance of Hypothyroxinemia in the First Trimester of Gestation Ricardo V. Garcia-Mayor, Antonia Rego-Iraeta, and Montserrat Rios

Section 5: Treatment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders

Chapter 74 The Role of the ICCIDD in the Global Program for the Elimination of Brain Damage Due to Iodine Deficiency Basil S. Hetzel

Chapter 75 Iodine Fortification: Some Industrial Initiatives and Concerns Ruchika Mehra and Kalyan Srinivasan

Chapter 76 Labelling Techniques Using Iodine-123: Applications to Clincial Settings Valerie Ardisson and Nicolas Lepareur

Chapter 77 Effect of Iodine Restriction on Thyroid Function in Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Kyung Rae and Chul Sik Kim

Chapter 78 Effect of Lifelong Iodine Supplementation Gertrud Berg and Ernst Nyström

Chapter 79 Evaluating the Efficiency of Iodisation Programmes: Impact of Iodine Prophylaxis on Different Aspects of Life and Society Amar K. Chandra

Chapter 80 Net Benefits of the Active Iodine Prophylaxis Over the Silent Prophylaxis: Policy Implications Based on a Natural Experiment Venanzio Vella

Chapter 81 Treatment Regimens in Toxic and Diffuse Goiters in Iodine Deficiency: Goiter and Hyperthyroidism in Iodine Deficiency Rudolf Hoermann

Chapter 82 Are There Side Effects When Using Supraphysiologic Levels of Iodine in Treatment Regimens? Jack Kessler

Chapter 83 Iodination of Salt in Poland: Past and the Future Wieslaw M. Grzesiuk

Chapter 84 Iodine Supplementation Fails to Target the Elderly: Perspectives from Austria Peter Lind, Susanne Kohlfürst, Isabel Igerc, Martin Heinisch, Hans Jürgen Gallowitsch, and Hartmut Aigner

Chapter 85 Healthcare Service Delivery in Achieving Sustained Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: A Case Study of China Mu Li, Zupei Chen, and Creswell J. Eastman

Chapter 86 Evaluation of Iodine Prophylaxis in Czech Republic: Changes of Ioduria, Thyroid Status and Autoimmunity Václav Zamrazil, Radovan Bilek, Jarmilla Čerovská, Marcela Dvoráková, Petra Hoskovcová, and Ivan Šterzl

Chapter 87 The Effects of Salt Iodination on Normal Thyroid Physiology and Graves’ Disease in India Ajay Sood and Denish Moorthy

Section 6: Damage and Disease Due to Iodine Toxicity

Chapter 88 Developmental Effects of Toxic Doses of Iodine X.F. Sun and X.F. Yang

Chapter 89 Thyroiditis and Salt Iodination: Effect of dietary iodine on the prevalence of histological autoimmune thyroiditis H. Rubén Harach

Chapter 90 Detrimental Effects of Increasing Iodine Supply: Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism, Following Iodine Prophylaxis Andrzej Lewinski, Dorota Slowinska-Klencka, Mariusz Klencki, Bozena Popowicz, Arkadiusz Zygmunt, and Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska

Chapter 91 Experimental Studies on the Effects of Excessive Iodine Supplementation on the Thyroid Tissue Zhongyan Shan, Weiping P. Teng, and Yaxin Lai

Chapter 92 Frequency, Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism Katja S. Mühlberg and Ralf Paschke

Chapter 93 Iodine-Induced Toxic Effects Due to Seaweed Consumption Karsten Müssig

Chapter 94 The Toxicology of Iodate: A Literate Survey in View of its Use in Iodized Salt Hans Bürgi, Th. Schaffner, and J.P. Seiler

Chapter 95 Iodine-Containing Compounds: Use in Patients with Documented Adverse Reactions Sara D. Brouse

Chapter 96 Influence of Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals on Iodine Status and Thyroid Function: Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Keigo Nobukuni

Chapter 97 Two Unusual Situations of Excess Iodine Ingestion: A Faulty Iodinator and the US Space Program Lewis E. Braverman

Section 7: Radiodine in the Non-Iodine Deficient Subject

Chapter 98 The Use of 131-Iodine in the Treatment of Graves' Disease in Children Scott A. Rivkees and Catherine Dinauer

Chapter 99 The Low Iodine Diet Prior to Radioiodine Administration in the Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Robin J. Prestwich and Georgina E. Gerrard

Chapter 100 Use of 131-Iodine and Risk of Radiation Exposure: Potential Hazards to the Patient and Other People Tone Cappelen and Jan Frede Unhjem

Chapter 101 The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS): NIS-Mediated Radioiodide Therapy Christine Spitzweg and John C. Morris

Chapter 102 Using Retinoids to Increase Radio-Iodine Uptake in Thyroid Cancer: Role as Potential Re-Differentiation Agents Wendy Ella and Susan Short

Chapter 103 The Use of Lithium as an Adjuvant in the Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Thyroid Cancer Marina S. Zemskova and Francesco Saverio Celi

Chapter 104 131 Iodine in Thyroid Cancer: Use of 131 I in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas Dominick Lamonica

Section 8: Other Causes of Hypothyroidism

Chapter 105 The Extent of Hypothyroidism in the United States Henry G. Fein and David S. Cooper

Chapter 106 Hypothyroidism in the Middle Aged and Elderly: Clinical Aspects Juan J. Diez and Pedro Iglesias

Chapter 107 Hypothyroidism in the Middle Aged and Elderly: Therapeutical Aspects Juan J. Diez and Pedro Iglesias

Chapter 108 Brain Damage in Clinical Hypothyroidism in Childhood Junko Arii and Yuzo Tanabe

Chapter 109 Hypertension and Hypothyroidism: A Thyroid Dysfunction Frequently Associated with an Abnormal Dietary Iodine Intake Giorgio Iervasi and Enza Fommei

Chapter 110 Heart Failure, Iodine Intake and Thyroid Hormones Giorgio Iervasi and Alessandro Pingitore

Chapter 111 Skeletal Muscle Changes in Hypothyroidism Carlos B. Mantilla, Douglas E. Dow, and Gary C. Sieck

Chapter 112 Ocular Aspects of Hypothyroidism: Neuro-Ophthalmological Dysfunction in Relation to Thyroid Disease and Iodine A. Seah and Y.L. Lo

Chapter 113 Pregnancy and Hypothyroidism: Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Iodine Deficiency Complicating Mother and Fetus Marcos Abalovich and Daniel Glinoer

Chapter 114 How the Public and Private Sector Have Successfully Come Together in Efforts to Universally Iodize Salt Zahra Popatia, Barbara Macdonald, and Rajan Sankar

Chapter 115 Iodine Status Reflected by Urinary Concentrations: Comparison with USA and Other Countries Offie P. Soldin

Chapter 116 Iodine Intake in European Elderly Agnes N. Pedersen and Lone B. Rasmussen

Chapter 117 Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in England Mohammed S. Kibirige

Chapter 118 Epidemiology of Thyroid Disorders in Germany Henry Völzke and Michael Thamm

Chapter 119 Surveillance of Thyroid Disorders and Iodine Intake in the Danish Population Before and After Mandatory Iodide Fortification of Salt: The DanThyr Program Peter Laurberg, Torben Jørgensen, Hans Perrild, Lars Ovesen, Nils Knudsen, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Lone B. Rasmussen, Allan Carlé, and Pernille Vejbjerg

Chapter 120 Iodine Nutrition in Bulgaria: Results from the National Strategy for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Bulgaria-Epidemiologic Studies on Risk Population Groups Penka Dimitrova Gatseva and Mariana Dimitrova Argirova

Chapter 121 Iodine Status in Individuals: An Italian Perspective Giuseppe Costante

Chapter 122 Dietary Iodine Intake in Ukraine Kunio Shiraishi, Susumu Ko, Pavlo V. Zamostyan, Nikolay Y. Tsigankov, Ivan P. Los, and Vitaly N. Korzun

Chapter 123 Iodine Status in Individuals: An Argentine Perspective Hugo Niepomniszcze, Daniel Bernatené, and Gerardo Sartorio

Chapter 124 Iodization of Salt: The Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Brazil Margarete Nimer, José Armando Ansaloni, and Marcelo Eustáquio Silva

Chapter 125 Effects of Excessive Iodine Intake on Thyroid Diseases: An Epidemiological Study from China Weiping P. Teng, Zhongyan Shan, and Xiaochun Teng

Chapter 126 Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Thailand Sangsom Sinawat

Chapter 127 The Current State of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Australia and the Pacific States Creswell J. Eastman and Mu Li

Chapter 128 History of Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Tasmania, Australia Kristen L. Hynes, C. Leigh Blizzard, Petr Otahal, Judy A. Seal, Alison J. Venn, Terence Dwyer, John R. Burgess, and RoscoeTaylor

Chapter 129 Iodine Deficiency Disorders in New Zealand Christine D. Thomson and Sheila A. Skeaff

Chapter 130 Iodine Nutrition in Pregnancy: Meeting Iodine Requirements in the Diets of Pregnant Women Sheila A. Skeaff

Chapter 131 Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Mali Abdel Kader Traoré and Liv Elin Torheim

Chapter 132 Nutritional, Endocrine and Pathological Aspects of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in India Arijit Chakrabarty, Chandrakant S. Pandav, N. Tandon, and M.G. Karmarkar


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About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK

Gerard Burrow

Affiliations and Expertise

David Paige Smith Professor of Medicine, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA