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Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123741356, 9780080920863

Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine

1st Edition

Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects

Editors: Victor Preedy Gerard Burrow Ronald Watson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741356
eBook ISBN: 9780080920863
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th February 2009
Page Count: 1334
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Over two billion people worldwide are at risk for the spectrum of disorders known as "The Iodine Deficiency Disorders." 1-10% will suffer cretinism; 5-30% will have some sort of brain damage or neurological impairment and 30-70% will be hypothyroid.

The causes of iodine deficiencies can be considered from both simplistic and more complex perspectives: From the leaching of iodine from soil resulting in crops with low iodine content to malnutrition resulting in impaired iodine absorption. Poor dietary diversification and impoverished socio-economic development can also lead to iodine deficiencies.

Although it is possible to diagnose and treat deficiencies, there is still an ongoing dialogue regarding the detailed molecular pathology of iodine homeostatis, how hypothyroidism impacts the body tissues, and efficient diagnosis and treatment of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

This Handbook provides a resource of information on the various pathways and processes based on different countries or diseases. Because there is a constant flow of new information on iodine and related disorders, the goal of this Handbook is to provide a base of scientific information upon which additional knowledge can be applied.

Key Features

  • Provides important information on one of the most common micro-nutrient deficiencies in the world, the most important "single nutrient-multiple consequences" paradigm today
  • Includes information on iodine-related diseases, including those that are common, preventable and treatable
  • Provides insight from a broad perspective of viewpoints -- from subcellular transports to economic impact


Nutritionists and Dietitians, Public Health Scientists and Workers, Epidemiologists, Food scientists, Pharmacologists

Table of Contents

Section 1: Forwards – ICCIDD and WHO

Section 2: Analytical Techniques

Chapter 1
Determination of Iodine in Seawater: Methods and Applications
Hua-Bin Li, Xaing-Rong Xu, and Feng Chin

Chapter 2
Assay of Iodine in Foodstuffs: Methods and Applications
Jane Kučera

Chapter 3
Determination of Iodine in-vivo and in-vitro by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis: Methodology and Applications
Marie Hansson, Gertrud Berg, and Mats Isaksson

Chapter 4
Plasma Analytes for Determination of Thyroid Status
Ruth M. Ayling and Jinny Jeffrey

Chapter 5
Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Their Relationship to Iodine Nutrition: Changes in TSH, Free T4 and Free T3 Resulting From Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess
Colin M. Dayan and Vijay Panicker

Chapter 6
Thyroglobulin as an Indicator of Iodine Intake
Radovan Bílek and Václav Zamrazil

Chapter 7
Computer Systems for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations
Inge Bülow Pederson, Peter Laurberg

Section 3: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Main Routes of Iodine Metabolism and Metabolic Roles

Section 3.1: Iodine Cycle and Chemistry

Chapter 8
Iodine in the Air
Russell W. Saunders and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez

Chapter 9
Iodine and Iodine Species in Sea Water: Speciation, distribution and dynamics
Kazuaki Ito and Takeshi Hirokawa

Chapter 10
Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils
Qinhong Hu, Jean E. Moran, and Van Blackwood

Chapter 11
Transfers of Iodine in the Soil-Plant-Air System: Solid-Liquid Partitioning, Migration, Plant Uptake and Volatilisation
Daniel J. Ashworth

Chapter 12
Iodine in the Ecosystem: An Overview
Anthony J. Yun, Patrick Y. Lee, Kimberly A. Bazar, Stephanie M. Daniel, and John D. Doux

Chapter 13
The Nature of Iodine in Drinking Water
Stig Andersen and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 14
Application of Iodine Water Purification Tablets: Iodine's Efficacy Against Cryptosporidium Parvum
Jeffrey A. Starke

Chapter 15
Iodine Speciation in Foodstuff, Tissues and Environmental Samples: Iodine species and analytical method
Xiaolin Hou

Chapter 16
Iodine in Farm Animals
F. Schöne and Rajkumar Rajendram

Chapter 17
Radiochemistry of Iodine: relevance to health and disease
C.C. Lin and J.H. Chao

Section 3.2: Physiology, Metabolism and Biochemistry

Chapter 18
Retention of Iodine in the Body: Biological Half-Life of Iodine in the Human Body
Gary H. Kramer

Chapter 19
Mathematical Models of Human Iodine Metabolism, Including Assessment of Human Total Body Iodine Content
Marguerite Hays

Chapter 20
Iodine Transfer Through Mother's Milk: The Influence of Bromide
Stanislav Pavelka

Chapter 21
Cellular Iodine Transport: Body Distribution of the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter
Matthew J. Provenzano and Frederick Domann

Chapter 22
Sodium-Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion
Malin Josefsson and Eva Ekblad

Chapter 23
Regulation and Enhancement of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Expression: NIS Regulatory Pathways in Thyroid and Breast Cancer
Takahiko Kogai and Gregory A. Brent

Chapter 24
Pendred's Syndrome: Deficiency in Iodide Transport
Peter Kopp, Sabine Schnyder, Liuska Pesce

Chapter 25
Autoregulation of Thyroid Growth and Function by Iodine: TSH-independent regulation of the thyroid gland by iodocompounds
Roland Gärtner

Chapter 26
Is Iodine an Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Agent for the Mammary and Prostate Glands?
Carmen Aceves and Brenda Anguiano

Chapter 27
Uncertainty of Iodine Particulate Deposition in the Respiratory Tract
Richard P. Harvey

Chapter 28
The relationship Between Thiocyanate and Iodine
Peter Laurberg, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Allan Carlé, Stig Andersen, Nils Knudsen, and Jesper Karmisholt

Chapter 29
Environmental Perchlorate and the Thyroid
Lewis E. Braverman

Chapter 30
Iodate and Perchlorate in Bottled Water: Methods for Discovery and Impact to Humans
Shane A. Snyder, Brett J. Vanderford, and Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz

Chapter 31
Dioxins, PCBs and Iodine: Effects on Synthesis and Metabolism of the Iodine Containing Thyroid Hormones
Veerle Bruggeman and Veerle Darras

Chapter 32
Iodide Effects on the Thyroid: Biochemical, Physiological, Pharmacological and Clinical Effects of Iodide in the Thyroid
Valerie Panneels, Guillermo Juvenal, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Jacques E. Dumont, and Jacqueline Van Sande

Chapter 33
Influences of Iodine on the Immunogenicity of Thyroglobulin
George Carayanniotis and Yi-chi M. Kong

Chapter 34
Goiter in the Elderly: The Role of Iodine
Shakaib U. Rehman, Mohammed M. Ahmed, and Florence N. Hutchison

Section 3.3: Nutrition and Dietary Aspects

Chapter 35
Iodine Intake and Food Choice
Lone B. Rasmussen, Stig Andersen, Lars Ovesen, and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 36
Iodine Mineral Water and Its Therapeutic Use in Health Resorts: Iodine consumption from natural mineral waters and its effect on the body
Manfred Klieber, Rudolf Winkler, and Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan

Chapter 37
The Iodine Content of Foods and Diets: Norwegian Perspectives
Lisbeth Dahl and Helle Margrete Meltzer

Chapter 38
Correlation between Soy Phytoestrogens and Thyroid Laboratory Parameters: Implications for Iodine
Richard Hampl, Daniela Ostatníková, Peter Celec, Zdeněk Putz, Radovan Bílek, Oldřich Lapčik, Petr Matucha

Chapter 39
Knowledge of Iodine Nutrition
Pieter L. Jooste

Chapter 40
Iodine Metabolism and Parenteral Nutrition
Robert Hume and Fiona L.R. Williams

Chapter 41
Iodine Content of Standard Infant Formula and Specialized Enteral Preparations
Robert Hume, Karen Lang, and Fiona L.R. Williams

Section 3.4: Iodine Metabolism

Chapter 42
Trimester-Specific Changes in Maternal Thyroid Hormones: Implications for Iodine Nutrition
Offie P. Soldin and Danielle Soldin

Chapter 43
The Relationship between Population Iodine Statistics to Iodine Status of Individuals: A possible approach for more comprehensive characterization of iodine nutritional status
Volker F.H. Brauer and Ralf Paschke

Chapter 44
Variation in Iodine Excretion in Healthy Individuals
Stig Andersen, Jesper Karmisholt and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 45
Assessment of Iodine Intake and Iodine Status in Vegans
Helen J. Lightowler

Chapter 46
Isotopes of Iodine in Thyroid Tissue and Urine: source, application, level and distribution
Xiaolin Hou and Wenjun Ding

Chapter 47
The U-shaped Curve of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Disorders
Peter Laurberg, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Allan Carlé, Nils Knudsen, Stig Andersen, Lars Ovesen, and Lone B. Rasmussen

Section 4: Pathological Aspects of Iodine Deficiency

Section 4.1: General Aspects of Pathology

Chapter 48
Iodine Deficiency: The Extent of the Problem
Bruno de Benoist, Erin McLean, and Maria Andersson

Chapter 49
Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: Iodine deficiency and supplementation in pregnancy
John H. Lazarus and Peter PA Smyth

Chapter 50
Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency in Term and Pre-Term Newborns
Susana Ares, José Quero, and Gabriella Morreale de Escobar

Chapter 51
Oxidative Damage in Iodine Deficiency
Filiz Hincal

Chapter 52
Iodine Deficiency in Relation to Iron Deficiency and Parasitosis: Effect of iron status and parasites on iodine deficiency disorders
Edgar M. Vásquez-Garibay and Enrique Romero Velarde

Chapter 53
Iodine Deficiency and Thyroid Cancers: Effect of Iodine Prophylaxis on Thyroid Cancer Morphology
H. Rubén Harach

Chapter 54
Iodine Deficiency in Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Evidence-Based Review of the World's Literature on Iodine Content in Vegetarian Diets
Cheryl Fields and Jonathan Borak

Chapter 55
Relationship between Iodine Intake and Thyroid Size
Lone B. Rasmussen, Peter Laurberg, and Lars Ovesen

Chapter 56
Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Deficiency and Total Iodide Organification Defect
Laura Fugazzola

Chapter 57
Iodine Deficiency, Antioxidant Response and Mutagenesis in the Thyroid Gland
Knut Krohn and Ralf Paschke

Chapter 58
Adaptation to Iodine Deficiency: experimental aspects
Gabriella Morreale de Escobar, Maria-Jesus Obregon, Pablo-Enrique Pedraza, Rosa Calvo, and Francisco Escobar del Rey

Chapter 59
Iodine and Exercise
Peter PA Smyth, Derek F. Smith, George C. Cloughley, Robert A. Burns, and L.H. Duntas

Chapter 60
Antibodies to Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin in Iodine Deficiencies
Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg

Chapter 61
Bromide Interference with Iodine Metabolism: Goitrogenic and Whole-Body Effects of Excessive Inorganic Bromide in the Rat
Stanislav Pavelka

Section 4.2: The Effects on the Brain and Neurological Aspects

Chapter 62
Iodine Deficiency and the Brain: an overview
Basil S. Hetzel

Chapter 63
Iodine-Deficient Gestation and Neuro-Development of 3 Year-Old Children
M. Francisco Rivas-Crespo, Isolina Riaño Galán, Paloma Sánchez Martínez, and María Pilar Mosteiro Díaz

Chapter 64
Experimental Models of Iodine Deficiency and Cretinism During Development: The Role of the Mother
Maria-Jesus Obregon, Rosa Maria Calvo, Francisco Escobar del Rey, and Gabriella Morreale de Escobar

Chapter 65
The Effects of Hypothyroidism Due to Iodine Deficiency in Neonatal Brain: The Changes in Brain Metabolites Detected by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Ayşehan Akinci and Hakki Muammer Karakaş

Chapter 66
The DI02 (Deiodinase Type 2) Gene and Mental Retardation in Iodine-Deficiency
Ting-wei Guo, David St. Clair, and Lin He

Chapter 67
DNA Damage in Brain and Thyroid Gland Cells Due to High Fluoride and Low Iodine
Jundong Wang, Yaming Ge, Hongmei Ning, and Ruiyan Niu

Chapter 68
Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders Due to Iodine Deficiency: A Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder Affecting the Offspring of Hypothyroxinemic Mothers
Francesco Vermiglio, Mariacarla Moleti, and Francisco Trimarchi

Chapter 69
Brain Iodine and Other Halogens of Control and Alzheimer's Diseased Patients: brain iodine deficiency in Alzheimer’s disease
E. Andrasi and N. Páli

Chapter 70
A Novel Iodine Deficient Disorder: Gestational Hypothyroxinemia. How Safe is it for Progeny?
Maricarla Moleti, Francisco Trimarchi, and Francesco Vermiglio

Chapter 71
Iodine, Selenium Deficiency and Kashin-Beck Disease
Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes

Chapter 72
Iodine, Thyroid Diseases and Neuromuscular Dysfunction
Huy A. Tran

Chapter 73
Reduced Iodine Intake and Iodine Prophylaxis in Pregnancy: Importance of Hypothyroxinemia in the First Trimester of Gestation
Ricardo V. Garcia-Mayor, Antonia Rego-Iraeta, and Montserrat Rios

Section 5: Treatment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders

Chapter 74
The Role of the ICCIDD in the Global Program for the Elimination of Brain Damage Due to Iodine Deficiency
Basil S. Hetzel

Chapter 75
Iodine Fortification: Some Industrial Initiatives and Concerns
Ruchika Mehra and Kalyan Srinivasan

Chapter 76
Labelling Techniques Using Iodine-123: Applications to Clincial Settings
Valerie Ardisson and Nicolas Lepareur

Chapter 77
Effect of Iodine Restriction on Thyroid Function in Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Kyung Rae and Chul Sik Kim

Chapter 78
Effect of Lifelong Iodine Supplementation
Gertrud Berg and Ernst Nyström

Chapter 79
Evaluating the Efficiency of Iodisation Programmes: Impact of Iodine Prophylaxis on Different Aspects of Life and Society
Amar K. Chandra

Chapter 80
Net Benefits of the Active Iodine Prophylaxis Over the Silent Prophylaxis: Policy Implications Based on a Natural Experiment
Venanzio Vella

Chapter 81
Treatment Regimens in Toxic and Diffuse Goiters in Iodine Deficiency: Goiter and Hyperthyroidism in Iodine Deficiency
Rudolf Hoermann

Chapter 82
Are There Side Effects When Using Supraphysiologic Levels of Iodine in Treatment Regimens?
Jack Kessler

Chapter 83
Iodination of Salt in Poland: Past and the Future
Wieslaw M. Grzesiuk

Chapter 84
Iodine Supplementation Fails to Target the Elderly: Perspectives from Austria
Peter Lind, Susanne Kohlfürst, Isabel Igerc, Martin Heinisch, Hans Jürgen Gallowitsch, and Hartmut Aigner

Chapter 85
Healthcare Service Delivery in Achieving Sustained Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: A Case Study of China
Mu Li, Zupei Chen, and Creswell J. Eastman

Chapter 86
Evaluation of Iodine Prophylaxis in Czech Republic: Changes of Ioduria, Thyroid Status and Autoimmunity
Václav Zamrazil, Radovan Bilek, Jarmilla Čerovská, Marcela Dvoráková, Petra Hoskovcová, and Ivan Šterzl

Chapter 87
The Effects of Salt Iodination on Normal Thyroid Physiology and Graves’ Disease in India
Ajay Sood and Denish Moorthy

Section 6: Damage and Disease Due to Iodine Toxicity

Chapter 88
Developmental Effects of Toxic Doses of Iodine
X.F. Sun and X.F. Yang

Chapter 89
Thyroiditis and Salt Iodination: Effect of dietary iodine on the prevalence of histological autoimmune thyroiditis
H. Rubén Harach

Chapter 90
Detrimental Effects of Increasing Iodine Supply: Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism, Following Iodine Prophylaxis
Andrzej Lewinski, Dorota Slowinska-Klencka, Mariusz Klencki, Bozena Popowicz, Arkadiusz Zygmunt, and Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska

Chapter 91
Experimental Studies on the Effects of Excessive Iodine Supplementation on the Thyroid Tissue
Zhongyan Shan, Weiping P. Teng, and Yaxin Lai

Chapter 92
Frequency, Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism
Katja S. Mühlberg and Ralf Paschke

Chapter 93
Iodine-Induced Toxic Effects Due to Seaweed Consumption
Karsten Müssig

Chapter 94
The Toxicology of Iodate: A Literate Survey in View of its Use in Iodized Salt
Hans Bürgi, Th. Schaffner, and J.P. Seiler

Chapter 95
Iodine-Containing Compounds: Use in Patients with Documented Adverse Reactions
Sara D. Brouse

Chapter 96
Influence of Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals on Iodine Status and Thyroid Function: Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism
Keigo Nobukuni

Chapter 97
Two Unusual Situations of Excess Iodine Ingestion: A Faulty Iodinator and the US Space Program
Lewis E. Braverman

Section 7: Radiodine in the Non-Iodine Deficient Subject

Chapter 98
The Use of 131-Iodine in the Treatment of Graves' Disease in Children
Scott A. Rivkees and Catherine Dinauer

Chapter 99
The Low Iodine Diet Prior to Radioiodine Administration in the Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Robin J. Prestwich and Georgina E. Gerrard

Chapter 100
Use of 131-Iodine and Risk of Radiation Exposure: Potential Hazards to the Patient and Other People
Tone Cappelen and Jan Frede Unhjem

Chapter 101
The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS): NIS-Mediated Radioiodide Therapy
Christine Spitzweg and John C. Morris

Chapter 102
Using Retinoids to Increase Radio-Iodine Uptake in Thyroid Cancer: Role as Potential Re-Differentiation Agents
Wendy Ella and Susan Short

Chapter 103
The Use of Lithium as an Adjuvant in the Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Thyroid Cancer
Marina S. Zemskova and Francesco Saverio Celi

Chapter 104
131 Iodine in Thyroid Cancer: Use of 131 I in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas
Dominick Lamonica

Section 8: Other Causes of Hypothyroidism

Chapter 105
The Extent of Hypothyroidism in the United States
Henry G. Fein and David S. Cooper

Chapter 106
Hypothyroidism in the Middle Aged and Elderly: Clinical Aspects
Juan J. Diez and Pedro Iglesias

Chapter 107
Hypothyroidism in the Middle Aged and Elderly: Therapeutical Aspects
Juan J. Diez and Pedro Iglesias

Chapter 108
Brain Damage in Clinical Hypothyroidism in Childhood
Junko Arii and Yuzo Tanabe

Chapter 109
Hypertension and Hypothyroidism: A Thyroid Dysfunction Frequently Associated with an Abnormal Dietary Iodine Intake
Giorgio Iervasi and Enza Fommei

Chapter 110
Heart Failure, Iodine Intake and Thyroid Hormones
Giorgio Iervasi and Alessandro Pingitore

Chapter 111
Skeletal Muscle Changes in Hypothyroidism
Carlos B. Mantilla, Douglas E. Dow, and Gary C. Sieck

Chapter 112
Ocular Aspects of Hypothyroidism: Neuro-Ophthalmological Dysfunction in Relation to Thyroid Disease and Iodine
A. Seah and Y.L. Lo

Chapter 113
Pregnancy and Hypothyroidism: Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Iodine Deficiency Complicating Mother and Fetus
Marcos Abalovich and Daniel Glinoer

Chapter 114
How the Public and Private Sector Have Successfully Come Together in Efforts to Universally Iodize Salt
Zahra Popatia, Barbara Macdonald, and Rajan Sankar

Chapter 115
Iodine Status Reflected by Urinary Concentrations: Comparison with USA and Other Countries
Offie P. Soldin

Chapter 116
Iodine Intake in European Elderly
Agnes N. Pedersen and Lone B. Rasmussen

Chapter 117
Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in England
Mohammed S. Kibirige

Chapter 118
Epidemiology of Thyroid Disorders in Germany
Henry Völzke and Michael Thamm

Chapter 119
Surveillance of Thyroid Disorders and Iodine Intake in the Danish Population Before and After Mandatory Iodide Fortification of Salt: The DanThyr Program
Peter Laurberg, Torben Jørgensen, Hans Perrild, Lars Ovesen, Nils Knudsen, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Lone B. Rasmussen, Allan Carlé, and Pernille Vejbjerg

Chapter 120
Iodine Nutrition in Bulgaria: Results from the National Strategy for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Bulgaria-Epidemiologic Studies on Risk Population Groups
Penka Dimitrova Gatseva and Mariana Dimitrova Argirova

Chapter 121
Iodine Status in Individuals: An Italian Perspective
Giuseppe Costante

Chapter 122
Dietary Iodine Intake in Ukraine
Kunio Shiraishi, Susumu Ko, Pavlo V. Zamostyan, Nikolay Y. Tsigankov, Ivan P. Los, and Vitaly N. Korzun

Chapter 123
Iodine Status in Individuals: An Argentine Perspective
Hugo Niepomniszcze, Daniel Bernatené, and Gerardo Sartorio

Chapter 124
Iodization of Salt: The Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Brazil
Margarete Nimer, José Armando Ansaloni, and Marcelo Eustáquio Silva

Chapter 125
Effects of Excessive Iodine Intake on Thyroid Diseases: An Epidemiological Study from China
Weiping P. Teng, Zhongyan Shan, and Xiaochun Teng

Chapter 126
Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Thailand
Sangsom Sinawat

Chapter 127
The Current State of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Australia and the Pacific States
Creswell J. Eastman and Mu Li

Chapter 128
History of Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Tasmania, Australia
Kristen L. Hynes, C. Leigh Blizzard, Petr Otahal, Judy A. Seal, Alison J. Venn, Terence Dwyer, John R. Burgess, and RoscoeTaylor

Chapter 129
Iodine Deficiency Disorders in New Zealand
Christine D. Thomson and Sheila A. Skeaff

Chapter 130
Iodine Nutrition in Pregnancy: Meeting Iodine Requirements in the Diets of Pregnant Women
Sheila A. Skeaff

Chapter 131
Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Mali
Abdel Kader Traoré and Liv Elin Torheim

Chapter 132
Nutritional, Endocrine and Pathological Aspects of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in India
Arijit Chakrabarty, Chandrakant S. Pandav, N. Tandon, and M.G. Karmarkar


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© Academic Press 2009
9th February 2009
Academic Press
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About the Editors

Victor Preedy

Dr. Preedy is a senior member of King's College London and Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well-being. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is an extremely experienced book editor, having edited influential works including but not limited to The Handbook of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies, The Neuroscience of Cocaine, and upcoming titles The Neuroscience of Alcohol, The Neuroscience of Nicotine, and more (all Elsevier).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Biochemistry; Director of the Genomics Centre, King’s College, London, UK

Gerard Burrow

Affiliations and Expertise

David Paige Smith Professor of Medicine, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

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