Complete PCB Design Using OrCad Capture and Layout - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750682145, 9780080549200

Complete PCB Design Using OrCad Capture and Layout

1st Edition

Authors: Kraig Mitzner
eBook ISBN: 9780080549200
Paperback ISBN: 9780750682145
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 24th April 2007
Page Count: 528
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Complete PCB Design Using OrCad Capture and Layout provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package.

There are two goals the book aims to reach:

The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that it can be manufactured.

The secondary goal is to show the reader how to add PSpice simulation capabilities to the design, and how to develop custom schematic parts, footprints and PSpice models. Often times separate designs are produced for documentation, simulation and board fabrication. This book shows how to perform all three functions from the same schematic design. This approach saves time and money and ensures continuity between the design and the manufactured product.

Key Features

  • Information is presented in the exact order a circuit and PCB are designed
  • Straightforward, realistic examples present the how and why the designs work, providing a comprehensive toolset for understanding the OrCAD software
  • Introduction to the IPC, JEDEC, and IEEE standards relating to PCB design
  • Full-color interior and extensive illustrations allow readers to learn features of the product in the most realistic manner possible


PRIMARY: Electrical engineers; printed circuit board design engineers. These designers work in numerous industries, given how many devices incorporate PCBs. SECONDARY: Some possibility for upside in academic market, by working with the OrCAD var, EMA Design Automation.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO CAD AND PCB FABRICATION COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND THE ORCAD DESIGN SUITE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD FABRICATION PCB cores and layer stack-up PCB fabrication process Photolithography and chemical etching Mechanical milling Layer registration FUNCTION OF ORCAD LAYOUT IN THE PCB DESIGN PROCESS DESIGN FILES CREATED BY LAYOUT Layout format files (.MAX) Post process (Gerber) files PCB assembly layers and files


OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN FLOW CREATING A CIRCUIT DESIGN WITH CAPTURE Starting a New Project Placing Parts Wiring (Connecting) the Parts Creating the Layout Netlist in Capture DESIGNING THE PCB WITH LAYOUT Starting Layout and Importing the Netlist Making a Board Outline Placing the Parts Autorouting the Board Manual Routing Clean-up Locking Traces Performing a Design Rule Check (DRC) Post Processing the Board Design for Manufacturing

CHAPTER 3. PROJECT STRUCTURES AND THE LAYOUT TOOLSET PROJECT SETUP AND SCHEMATIC ENTRY DETAILS Capture Projects Explained Capture Part Libraries explained UNDERSTANDING THE LAYOUT ENVIRONMENT AND TOOLSET Board Technology Files The AutoECO Utility The Session Frame and Design Windows The Tool Bar Controlling the Autorouter Post Processing and Layer Details CHAPTER 4. INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRY STANDARDS 85 INTRODUCTION TO THE STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS Institute for Printed Circuits (IPC) Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) International Engineering Consortium (IEC) Military Standards (MIL-STD) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) CLASSES AND TYPES OF PCBS Performance Classes Producibility Levels Fabrication types and Assembly subclasses OrCAD Layout Design Domplexity Levels—IPC Performance Classes 93 IPC Land Pattern Density Levels INTRODUCTION TO STANDARD FABRICATION ALLOWANCES (SFA) Registration tolerances Breakout and annular ring control PCB DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES Standard panel sizes Tooling area allowances and effective panel usage Standard Finished PCB Thickness Core Thickness Prepreg Thickness Copper thickness for PTHs and vias Copper cladding/foil thickness COPPER TRACE AND ETCHING TOLERANCES STANDARD HOLE DIMENSIONS Aspect ratio (hole size to PCB thickness) SOLDERMASK TOLERANCE CHAPTER 5. PCB DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURABILITY INTRODUCTION TO PCB ASSEMBLY AND SOLDERING PROCESSES ASSEMBLY PROCESSES Manual Assembly Processes Automated Assembly Processes (Pick and Place) SOLDERING PROCESSES Manual Soldering Wave Soldering Reflow Soldering COMPONENT PLACEMENT AND ORIENTATION GUIDE General Considerations COMPONENT SPACING FOR THROUGH-HOLE DEVICES (THDS) Discrete THDs Integrated circuit through-hole devices Mixed discrete and IC through-hole devices Holes and jumper wires COMPONENT SPACING FOR SURFACE MOUNTED DEVICES (SMDS) Discrete SMDs Integrated circuit SMDs Mixed discrete and IC SMDs MIXED THD AND SMD SPACING REQUIREMENTS FOOTPRINT AND PADSTACK DESIGN FOR PCB MANUFACTURABILITY LAND PATTERNS FOR SURFACE MOUNTED DEVICES (SMD) SMD Padstack Design SMD Footprint Design LAND PATTERNS FOR THROUGH-HOLE DEVICES (THD) Footprint design for through-hole devices Padstack design for through-hole devices Hole to lead ratio PTH land dimension (annular ring width) Clearance between Plane layers and PTHs Soldermask and solder paste dimensions CHAPTER 6. PCB DESIGN FOR SIGNAL INTEGRITY CIRCUIT DESIGN ISSUES VS. PCB DESIGN ISSUES Noise Distortion Frequency response ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE AND CROSSTALK Magnetic fields and inductive coupling Loop inductance Electric fields and Capacitive Coupling GROUND PLANES, AND GROUND BOUNCE What ground is and what it is not Ground (return) planes PCB ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Characteristic Impedance ReflectionsRinging Electrically long traces Critical length Transmission line terminations PCB ROUTING TOPICS Parts placement for Electrical considerations PCB layer stackup Bypass capacitors and fanout Trace width for current carrying capability Trace width for characteristic impedance Trace spacing for Voltage withstanding Trace spacing to minimize crosstalk (3-W Rule) Traces with acute and 90° angles CHAPTER 7. MAKING AND EDITING CAPTURE PARTS THE CAPTURE PART LIBRARIES TYPES OF PACKAGING Homogeneous parts Heterogeneous Parts PINS PART EDITING TOOLS The Select Tool and Settings The Pin Tools The Graphics Tools The Zoom Tools CONSTRUCTING CAPTURE PARTS Methods of constructing new parts: METHOD 1: CONSTRUCTING PARTS USING THE NEW PART OPTION (DESIGN MENU) Design example for a passive, homogeneous part Design example for an active, multi-part, homogeneous component Assigning power pin visibility Design example for a passive, heterogeneous part METHOD 2: CONSTRUCTING PARTS WITH CAPTURE USING THE DESIGN SPREADSHEET METHOD 3: CONSTRUCTING PARTS USING GENERATE PART FROM THE TOOLS MENU METHOD 4: GENERATING PARTS WITH THE PSPICE MODEL EDITOR Making and/or obtaining new PSpice libraries for making new Capture parts Download libraries and/or models from the internet. Making a Capture part from a Capture schematic design Adding PSpice templates (models) to pre-existing Capture parts CONSTRUCTING CAPTURE SYMOBLS CHAPTER 8. MAKING AND EDITING LAYOUT FOOTPRINTS INTRODUCTION TO THE LIBRARY MANGER INTRODUCTION LAYOUT’S FOOTPRINT LIBRARIES AND NAMING CONVENTIONS Layout’s footprint libraries Naming conventions THE COMPOSITION OF FOOTPRINTS Padstacks Obstacles Text Datums and insertion origins THE BASIC FOOTPRINT DESIGN PROCESS WORKING WITH PADSTACKS Accessing existing padstacks Editing padstack properties from the spreadsheet Saving footprints and padstacks FOOTPRINT DESIGN EXAMPLES Design example 1: A surface mount footprint design Design example2: A modified through-hole footprint design example USING THE PAD ARRAY GENERATOR Introduction Footprint Design for pin grid arrays (PGA) Footprint Design for ball grid arrays (BGA) Blind, buried, and micro vias Mounting holes Printing a Catalog of a footprint library CHAPTER 9. PCB DESIGN EXAMPLES OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN FLOWEXAMPLE 1: DUAL POWER SUPPLY, ANALOG DESIGN Initial design concept and preparation PROJECT SETUP AND DESIGN IN CAPTURE Setting up the project Drawing the schematic with Capture Placing parts Connect parts with wires (signal nets) Making power and ground connections Preparing the design for Layout Grouping related components. Annotation Performing a schematic DRC in Capture Generating the Layout netlist (.MNL) DEFINING THE BOARD REQUIREMENTS Specifying packaging and assembly requirements Defining the layer stack-up Determining trace width Determining trace spacing requirements Choosing a technology file (.TCH) Choosing a strategy file (.SF) IMPORTING THE DESIGN INTO LAYOUT SETTING UP THE BOARD Making a board outline Adding mounting holes Adding dimension measurements Placing parts Finding parts Placing parts in the queue Inter-tool communication Setting up the layers Converting a Routing layer to a PLANE Layer Adding additional PLANE Layers Assigning Nets to layers Specifying vias for fanouts PRE-ROUTING THE BOARD Fanning out power and ground Fanning out power and ground Changing colors of nets Manually routing fanouts Moving and unrouting fanouts Using free vias Locking traces Viewing DRC errors Changing padstack properties AUTOROUTING THE BOARD Controlling the route box Loading and editing a routing strategy file Running the Autorouter FINALIZING THE DESIGN Post-routing inspection Checking routing statistics Synchronizing the design with Capture (Back Annotation) EXAMPLE 2: MIXED ANALOG/DIGITAL DESIGN USING SPLIT POWER, GROUND PLANES Mixed signal circuit design in Capture. Power and Ground connections to Digital and Analog parts Connecting separate Analog and Digital grounds to a split plane Using Busses for digital nets Defining the layer stack-up for split planes Establishing a primary power plane Creating split ground planes Creating nested power planes with copper pours Using anti-copper on plane layers Setting up and running the Autorouter Moving a routed trace to a different layer Adding ground planes and guard traces to routing layers Defining vias for flood planes/pours Setting the copper pour spacing Stitching a ground plane manually Using anit-copper obstacles on copper pours Routing guard traces and rings EXAMPLE 3: MULTI-PAGE, MULTI POWER AND GROUND, MIXED A/D DESIGN Project setup for PSpice simulation and Layout Adding schematic pages to the design Using off-page connectors with wires Using off-page connectors with busses Setting up multiple ground systems Settin up PSpice sources Performing PSpice simulations Preparing the simulated project for Layout Assigning a new technology file Placing parts on the bottom (back) of a board Layer stack-up for a multi-ground system Net-layer assignments Through-hole and blind Via setup Fanning out a board with multiple vias Overriding known errors in Layout Autorouting with the DRC/Route Box Using forced thermals to connect ground planes Using the AutoECO to update a board from Capture EXAMPLE 4: HIGH-SPEED DIGITAL DESIGN Layer setup for microstrip transmission lines Via design for heat spreaders Constructing a heat spreader with copper area obstacles Using free vias as heat pipes Determining critical trace length of transmission lines Routing controlled impedance traces Moated ground areas for clock circuits Routing curved traces Gate and pin swapping Stitching a ground plane with the free via matrix MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS Fixing Bad Pad exits Design cache—Cleanup, Replace, Update Adding test points Types of AutoECOs Making a custom Capture template Making a custom Layout technology/template file Using the Stackup Editor Submitting Stackup Drawings with Gerber files Adding Solder thieves Printing a footprint catalog from a PCB design CHAPTER 10. POST PROCESSING AND BOARD FABRICATION THE CIRCUIT DESIGN WITH ORCAD Schematic design in Capture The board design with Layout Post processing the design with Layout FABRICATING THE BOARD Choosing a board house Setting up a user account Submitting Gerber files and requesting a quote Annotating the layer types and stackup Receipt inspection and testing9 Non-standard Gerber files9 CHAPTER 11. ADDITIONAL TOOLS USING PSPICE TO SIMULATE TRANSMISSION LINES Simulating digital transmission lines Simulating Analog signals USING MICROSOFT EXCEL WITH A BILL OF MATERIALS GENERATED BY CAPTURE USING THE SPECCTRA AUTOROUTER WITH LAYOUT INTRODUCTION TO GERBTOOL Opening a Layout generated Gerber file with GerbTool Making a .DRL file for a CNC machine Panelization USING CAD TOOLS TO 3-D MODEL A PCB


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About the Author

Kraig Mitzner

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant, Silverdale, WA, USA


“I've found this book to be very helpful and exactly what I've been looking for. Kraig Mitzner has done a wonderful job of covering the full spectrum of printed circuit board fabrication. The content spans not only the OrCAD Layout software, but the physical process of PCB fabrication and advanced topics such as RF issues.” —Jeff Will, Valparaiso University