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Complete PCB Design Using OrCad Capture and Layout - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750682145, 9780080549200

Complete PCB Design Using OrCad Capture and Layout

1st Edition

Author: Kraig Mitzner
eBook ISBN: 9780080549200
Paperback ISBN: 9780750682145
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 24th April 2007
Page Count: 528
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Description

Complete PCB Design Using OrCad Capture and Layout provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package.

There are two goals the book aims to reach:

The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that it can be manufactured.

The secondary goal is to show the reader how to add PSpice simulation capabilities to the design, and how to develop custom schematic parts, footprints and PSpice models. Often times separate designs are produced for documentation, simulation and board fabrication. This book shows how to perform all three functions from the same schematic design. This approach saves time and money and ensures continuity between the design and the manufactured product.

Key Features

  • Information is presented in the exact order a circuit and PCB are designed
  • Straightforward, realistic examples present the how and why the designs work, providing a comprehensive toolset for understanding the OrCAD software
  • Introduction to the IPC, JEDEC, and IEEE standards relating to PCB design
  • Full-color interior and extensive illustrations allow readers to learn features of the product in the most realistic manner possible

Readership

PRIMARY: Electrical engineers; printed circuit board design engineers. These designers work in numerous industries, given how many devices incorporate PCBs.
SECONDARY: Some possibility for upside in academic market, by working with the OrCAD var, EMA Design Automation.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO CAD AND PCB FABRICATION
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND THE ORCAD DESIGN SUITE
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD FABRICATION
PCB cores and layer stack-up
PCB fabrication process
Photolithography and chemical etching
Mechanical milling
Layer registration
FUNCTION OF ORCAD LAYOUT IN THE PCB DESIGN PROCESS
DESIGN FILES CREATED BY LAYOUT
Layout format files (.MAX)
Post process (Gerber) files
PCB assembly layers and files

CHAPTER 2. INTRODUCTION TO THE PCB DESIGN FLOW BY EXAMPLE

OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN FLOW
CREATING A CIRCUIT DESIGN WITH CAPTURE
Starting a New Project
Placing Parts
Wiring (Connecting) the Parts
Creating the Layout Netlist in Capture
DESIGNING THE PCB WITH LAYOUT
Starting Layout and Importing the Netlist
Making a Board Outline
Placing the Parts
Autorouting the Board
Manual Routing
Clean-up
Locking Traces
Performing a Design Rule Check (DRC)
Post Processing the Board Design for Manufacturing

CHAPTER 3. PROJECT STRUCTURES AND THE LAYOUT TOOLSET
PROJECT SETUP AND SCHEMATIC ENTRY DETAILS
Capture Projects Explained
Capture Part Libraries explained
UNDERSTANDING THE LAYOUT ENVIRONMENT AND TOOLSET
Board Technology Files
The AutoECO Utility
The Session Frame and Design Windows
The Tool Bar
Controlling the Autorouter
Post Processing and Layer Details
CHAPTER 4. INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRY STANDARDS 85
INTRODUCTION TO THE STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
Institute for Printed Circuits (IPC)
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC)
International Engineering Consortium (IEC)
Military Standards (MIL-STD)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
CLASSES AND TYPES OF PCBS
Performance Classes
Producibility Levels
Fabrication types and Assembly subclasses
OrCAD Layout Design Domplexity Levels—IPC Performance Classes 93
IPC Land Pattern Density Levels
INTRODUCTION TO STANDARD FABRICATION ALLOWANCES (SFA)
Registration tolerances
Breakout and annular ring control
PCB DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES
Standard panel sizes
Tooling area allowances and effective panel usage
Standard Finished PCB Thickness
Core Thickness
Prepreg Thickness
Copper thickness for PTHs and vias
Copper cladding/foil thickness
COPPER TRACE AND ETCHING TOLERANCES
STANDARD HOLE DIMENSIONS
Aspect ratio (hole size to PCB thickness)
SOLDERMASK TOLERANCE
CHAPTER 5. PCB DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURABILITY
INTRODUCTION TO PCB ASSEMBLY AND SOLDERING PROCESSES
ASSEMBLY PROCESSES
Manual Assembly Processes
Automated Assembly Processes (Pick and Place)
SOLDERING PROCESSES
Manual Soldering
Wave Soldering
Reflow Soldering
COMPONENT PLACEMENT AND ORIENTATION GUIDE
General Considerations
COMPONENT SPACING FOR THROUGH-HOLE DEVICES (THDS)
Discrete THDs
Integrated circuit through-hole devices
Mixed discrete and IC through-hole devices
Holes and jumper wires
COMPONENT SPACING FOR SURFACE MOUNTED DEVICES (SMDS)
Discrete SMDs
Integrated circuit SMDs
Mixed discrete and IC SMDs
MIXED THD AND SMD SPACING REQUIREMENTS
FOOTPRINT AND PADSTACK DESIGN FOR PCB MANUFACTURABILITY
LAND PATTERNS FOR SURFACE MOUNTED DEVICES (SMD)
SMD Padstack Design
SMD Footprint Design
LAND PATTERNS FOR THROUGH-HOLE DEVICES (THD)
Footprint design for through-hole devices
Padstack design for through-hole devices
Hole to lead ratio
PTH land dimension (annular ring width)
Clearance between Plane layers and PTHs
Soldermask and solder paste dimensions
CHAPTER 6. PCB DESIGN FOR SIGNAL INTEGRITY
CIRCUIT DESIGN ISSUES VS. PCB DESIGN ISSUES
Noise
Distortion
Frequency response
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE AND CROSSTALK
Magnetic fields and inductive coupling
Loop inductance
Electric fields and Capacitive Coupling
GROUND PLANES, AND GROUND BOUNCE
What ground is and what it is not
Ground (return) planes
PCB ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristic Impedance
ReflectionsRinging
Electrically long traces
Critical length
Transmission line terminations
PCB ROUTING TOPICS
Parts placement for Electrical considerations
PCB layer stackup
Bypass capacitors and fanout
Trace width for current carrying capability
Trace width for characteristic impedance
Trace spacing for Voltage withstanding
Trace spacing to minimize crosstalk (3-W Rule)
Traces with acute and 90° angles
CHAPTER 7. MAKING AND EDITING CAPTURE PARTS
THE CAPTURE PART LIBRARIES
TYPES OF PACKAGING
Homogeneous parts
Heterogeneous Parts
PINS
PART EDITING TOOLS
The Select Tool and Settings
The Pin Tools
The Graphics Tools
The Zoom Tools
CONSTRUCTING CAPTURE PARTS
Methods of constructing new parts:
METHOD 1: CONSTRUCTING PARTS USING THE NEW PART OPTION (DESIGN MENU)
Design example for a passive, homogeneous part
Design example for an active, multi-part, homogeneous component
Assigning power pin visibility
Design example for a passive, heterogeneous part
METHOD 2: CONSTRUCTING PARTS WITH CAPTURE USING THE DESIGN SPREADSHEET
METHOD 3: CONSTRUCTING PARTS USING GENERATE PART FROM THE TOOLS MENU
METHOD 4: GENERATING PARTS WITH THE PSPICE MODEL EDITOR
Making and/or obtaining new PSpice libraries for making new Capture parts
Download libraries and/or models from the internet.
Making a Capture part from a Capture schematic design
Adding PSpice templates (models) to pre-existing Capture parts
CONSTRUCTING CAPTURE SYMOBLS
CHAPTER 8. MAKING AND EDITING LAYOUT FOOTPRINTS
INTRODUCTION TO THE LIBRARY MANGER
INTRODUCTION LAYOUT’S FOOTPRINT LIBRARIES AND NAMING CONVENTIONS
Layout’s footprint libraries
Naming conventions
THE COMPOSITION OF FOOTPRINTS
Padstacks
Obstacles
Text
Datums and insertion origins
THE BASIC FOOTPRINT DESIGN PROCESS
WORKING WITH PADSTACKS
Accessing existing padstacks
Editing padstack properties from the spreadsheet
Saving footprints and padstacks
FOOTPRINT DESIGN EXAMPLES
Design example 1: A surface mount footprint design
Design example2: A modified through-hole footprint design example
USING THE PAD ARRAY GENERATOR
Introduction
Footprint Design for pin grid arrays (PGA)
Footprint Design for ball grid arrays (BGA)
Blind, buried, and micro vias
Mounting holes
Printing a Catalog of a footprint library
CHAPTER 9. PCB DESIGN EXAMPLES
OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN FLOWEXAMPLE 1: DUAL POWER SUPPLY, ANALOG DESIGN
Initial design concept and preparation
PROJECT SETUP AND DESIGN IN CAPTURE
Setting up the project
Drawing the schematic with Capture
Placing parts
Connect parts with wires (signal nets)
Making power and ground connections
Preparing the design for Layout
Grouping related components.
Annotation
Performing a schematic DRC in Capture
Generating the Layout netlist (.MNL)
DEFINING THE BOARD REQUIREMENTS
Specifying packaging and assembly requirements
Defining the layer stack-up
Determining trace width
Determining trace spacing requirements
Choosing a technology file (.TCH)
Choosing a strategy file (.SF)
IMPORTING THE DESIGN INTO LAYOUT
SETTING UP THE BOARD
Making a board outline
Adding mounting holes
Adding dimension measurements
Placing parts
Finding parts
Placing parts in the queue
Inter-tool communication
Setting up the layers
Converting a Routing layer to a PLANE Layer
Adding additional PLANE Layers
Assigning Nets to layers
Specifying vias for fanouts
PRE-ROUTING THE BOARD
Fanning out power and ground
Fanning out power and ground
Changing colors of nets
Manually routing fanouts
Moving and unrouting fanouts
Using free vias
Locking traces
Viewing DRC errors
Changing padstack properties
AUTOROUTING THE BOARD
Controlling the route box
Loading and editing a routing strategy file
Running the Autorouter
FINALIZING THE DESIGN
Post-routing inspection
Checking routing statistics
Synchronizing the design with Capture (Back Annotation)
EXAMPLE 2: MIXED ANALOG/DIGITAL DESIGN USING SPLIT POWER, GROUND PLANES
Mixed signal circuit design in Capture.
Power and Ground connections to Digital and Analog parts
Connecting separate Analog and Digital grounds to a split plane
Using Busses for digital nets
Defining the layer stack-up for split planes
Establishing a primary power plane
Creating split ground planes
Creating nested power planes with copper pours
Using anti-copper on plane layers
Setting up and running the Autorouter
Moving a routed trace to a different layer
Adding ground planes and guard traces to routing layers
Defining vias for flood planes/pours
Setting the copper pour spacing
Stitching a ground plane manually
Using anit-copper obstacles on copper pours
Routing guard traces and rings
EXAMPLE 3: MULTI-PAGE, MULTI POWER AND GROUND, MIXED A/D DESIGN
Project setup for PSpice simulation and Layout
Adding schematic pages to the design
Using off-page connectors with wires
Using off-page connectors with busses
Setting up multiple ground systems
Settin up PSpice sources
Performing PSpice simulations
Preparing the simulated project for Layout
Assigning a new technology file
Placing parts on the bottom (back) of a board
Layer stack-up for a multi-ground system
Net-layer assignments
Through-hole and blind Via setup
Fanning out a board with multiple vias
Overriding known errors in Layout
Autorouting with the DRC/Route Box
Using forced thermals to connect ground planes
Using the AutoECO to update a board from Capture
EXAMPLE 4: HIGH-SPEED DIGITAL DESIGN
Layer setup for microstrip transmission lines
Via design for heat spreaders
Constructing a heat spreader with copper area obstacles
Using free vias as heat pipes
Determining critical trace length of transmission lines
Routing controlled impedance traces
Moated ground areas for clock circuits
Routing curved traces
Gate and pin swapping
Stitching a ground plane with the free via matrix
MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS
Fixing Bad Pad exits
Design cache—Cleanup, Replace, Update
Adding test points
Types of AutoECOs
Making a custom Capture template
Making a custom Layout technology/template file
Using the Stackup Editor
Submitting Stackup Drawings with Gerber files
Adding Solder thieves
Printing a footprint catalog from a PCB design
CHAPTER 10. POST PROCESSING AND BOARD FABRICATION
THE CIRCUIT DESIGN WITH ORCAD
Schematic design in Capture
The board design with Layout
Post processing the design with Layout
FABRICATING THE BOARD
Choosing a board house
Setting up a user account
Submitting Gerber files and requesting a quote
Annotating the layer types and stackup
Receipt inspection and testing9
Non-standard Gerber files9
CHAPTER 11. ADDITIONAL TOOLS
USING PSPICE TO SIMULATE TRANSMISSION LINES
Simulating digital transmission lines
Simulating Analog signals
USING MICROSOFT EXCEL WITH A BILL OF MATERIALS GENERATED BY CAPTURE
USING THE SPECCTRA AUTOROUTER WITH LAYOUT
INTRODUCTION TO GERBTOOL
Opening a Layout generated Gerber file with GerbTool
Making a .DRL file for a CNC machine
Panelization
USING CAD TOOLS TO 3-D MODEL A PCB

Details

No. of pages:
528
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Newnes 2007
Published:
24th April 2007
Imprint:
Newnes
eBook ISBN:
9780080549200
Paperback ISBN:
9780750682145

About the Author

Kraig Mitzner

Kraig Mitzner is a consultant in Silverdale, WA, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant, Silverdale, WA, USA

Reviews

“I've found this book to be very helpful and exactly what I've been looking for. Kraig Mitzner has done a wonderful job of covering the full spectrum of printed circuit board fabrication. The content spans not only the OrCAD Layout software, but the physical process of PCB fabrication and advanced topics such as RF issues.”

—Jeff Will, Valparaiso University

Ratings and Reviews