Comparative Vertebrate Morphology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127408507, 9781483272597

Comparative Vertebrate Morphology

1st Edition

Authors: Douglas Webster Molly Webster
eBook ISBN: 9781483272597
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 535
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Description

Comparative Vertebrate Morphology provides a comprehensive discussion of vertebrate morphology. The structure-function concept at the level of organs and organ systems is fundamental to an understanding of comparative evolutionary morphology. It is upon these three interrelated aspects—structure, function, and evolution— that that contents of this volume have been organized and presented.
The book opens with a discussion of general concepts on vertebrate evolution. This is followed by separate chapters on vertebrate phylogeny, skeletal components, the cranial and postcranial skeleton, muscular tissues, muscular system, and development of the integument, nervous tissues, sense organs, nervous system structure, nervous pathways, and endocrines. Subsequent chapters deal with the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory and water balance, and reproductive systems. This book was designed to meet the needs of a one-semester course for students who have already had an introductory course in biology. It is assumed that the lectures will be supplemented by a laboratory with its own laboratory manual. The organization of the text allows the instructor to coordinate the laboratory and lecture portions of the course.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 How We Got Here: Intellectual Background

General Concepts of Vertebrate Evolution

Comparative Morphology and Vertebrate Evolution

Suggested Reading

2 How We Got Here: Vertebrate Phylogeny

Fishes

Earliest Fossil Vertebrates — Agnatha

First Fishes with True Jaws — Placodermi

Cartilaginous Fishes — Chondrichthyes

Bony Fishes — Osteichthyes

Transition from Water to Land

Amphibia

Reptilia

Development of Homeothermy

Mammalia

Aves

Spatial and Temporal Diversity

Embryological Development

Suggested Reading

3 Skeletal Components

Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues

Notochord

Cartilage

Bone

Joints

Suggested Reading

4 Cranial Skeleton

Cephalization

Embryologic Development of the Head Skeleton

The Neurocranium

The Splanchnocranium

The Dermatocranium

A Generalized Vertebrate Skull, Amia calva

The Bowfin Skull as a Functioning Unit

Diversity of Vertebrate Skull Organization

Agnatha

Placodermi

Chondrichthyes

Osteichthyes-Actinopterygii

Osteichthyes-Sarcopterygii

Amphibia

Reptilia

Aves

Mammalia

Suggested Reading

5 Postcranial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton: the Vertebral Column and Notochord

Vertebral Development

Diversity of Vertebral Structure

Regionalization of the Vertebral Column

Axial Skeleton: Ribs

Axial Skeleton: Sternum

Appendicular Skeleton

Extrinsic Skeleton — the Pectoral Girdle

Extrinsic Skeleton — the Pelvic Girdle

Intrinsic Skeleton — Unpaired Appendages

Intrinsic Skeleton — Paired Appendages

Adaptiveness of the Tetrapod Appendicular Skeleton

Suggested Reading

6 Muscular Tissues

Smooth Muscle

Cell Structure

Functional Characteristics

Skeletal Muscles

Cell Structure

Other Structural Features of Skeletal Muscle Cells

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Excitation of Skeletal Muscles

Striated Muscles as Organs

Cardiac Muscles

Suggested Reading

7 Muscular System

Ontogeny of Skeletal Muscles

Axial Muscles

Muscles of the Limbs (Appendicular Muscles)

Gill Arch Muscles (Branchiomeric)

Patterns of Later Muscular Differentiation

Determining Muscle Homologies and Phylogenies

Somatic Muscles: Axial

Extrinsic Ocular Muscles

Hypobranchial Muscles

Trunk Musculature

Somatic Muscles: Appendicular

Branchiomeric Muscles

Some Muscle Specializations

Suggested Reading

8 The Integument

Development of the Integument

Microscopic Structure

Epidermis

Dermis

How Thick is a Layer?

Integumentary Glands

Fishes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds

Mammals

Scales and Denticles

Placoid Denticles

Scales of Ostracoderms and Placoderms

Sarcopterygian Cosmoid Scales

Ganoid Scales

Cycloid and Ctenoid Scales

Amphibian Scales

Reptilian Scales

Scales in Birds and Mammals

Horns and Antlers

Digital Tips

Amphibians

Amniotes

Feathers

Plumage

Hair

Color

Coloration in Birds

The Integument as a Organ System

Suggested Reading

9 Nervous Tissues

Neurons

Morphology of the Neuron

Physiology of the Neuron

Myelin Sheath

The Synapse

Terminology

Exploring the Nervous System

Reflexes

Suggested Reading

10 Sense Organs

Fundamental Characteristics of Sense Organs

Cutaneous Receptors

Free Nerve Endings

Encapsulated Nerve Endings

Proprioceptors

Chemoreceptors

Olfactory Organs

The Vomeronasal Organ of Jacobson

Taste Organs

Photoreceptors

Lateral Eyes

Median Eyes

Ophidian Pit Organs

The Acousticolateralis Receptors

Embryonic Origin

The Hair Cell

The Lateral Line System

The Inner Ear

Fishes

Middle Ear

Auditory Inner Ear

Tetrapods

Details of Mammalian Cochlear Duct

Suggested Reading

11 Nervous System Structure

Development

Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Mammals

Nonmammals

Cranial Nerves

Somatic Motor Nerves, Corresponding to Ventral Roots of Agnathan Spinal Nerves

Somatic Sensory, Visceral Sensory, and Visceral Motor Nerves, Corresponding to Agnathan Dorsal Roots

Special Sensory Nerves

Visceral Nervous System

Mammalian Autonomic System

Structure of the Brain

The Suprasegmental Apparatus

Suggested Reading

12 Nervous Pathways

Pathways of the Somatic Sensory System

Mammals

Nonmammalian Vertebrates

Auditory Pathways

Mammals

Nonmammals

Vestibular Pathways

Visual Pathways

Mammals

Birds

Reptiles, Amphibian, and Fishes

Olfactory Pathways

Mammals

Nonmammalian Vertebrates

Corticospinal System

Extrapyramidal Motor System

Mammals

Nonmammalian Extrapyramidal Systems

Cerebellar Pathways

Mammals

Nonmammals

Final Common Pathway

The Mammalian "Limbic Lobe"

Mammalian Neocortex

Suggested Reading

13 Endocrines

Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis

Structure

Hormones of the Pituitary

Thyroid Gland

Structure

Hormones of the Thyroid

Parathyroid Glands

Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

Hormones of the Islets

Adrenal Glands and Tissues

Gastrointestinal Hormones

Minor and Less Well Understood Endocrines

Pineal

Thymus

Urophysis

Angiotensin

Reproductive Hormones

Suggested Reading

14 Digestive System

Selective Factors in Evolution

Development and General Structure

Oral Cavity

Tongue

Teeth

Development of Dentition

Chondrichthyes

Actinopterygians

Sarcopterygians

Tetrapods except Mammals

Mammals

Pharynx

Esophagus

Stomach

Fishes

Amphibians and Reptiles

Birds

Mammals

Pyloric Sphincter

Intestines

Fishes

Amphibians and Reptiles

Birds

Mammals

Caudal Termination of the Alimentary Canal

Pancreas

Liver and Gallbladder

Suggested Reading

15 Respiratory System

Gill Respiration in Fishes

Teleosts

Chondrichthyeans

Cyclostomes

The Gas Bladder

Air Breathing in Fishes

Are Lungs and Gas Bladders Homologous?

Amphibian Respiration

The Amphibian Lung

Reptilian Respiration

Avian Respiration

Mammalian Respiration

Sound Production

Suggested Reading

16 Circulatory System

Formation of Blood (Hemopoiesis)

Structure of Blood Vessels

Vertebrate Heart

Fishes (except Lungfish)

Lungfish and Amphibians

Reptiles

Mammals and Birds

Aortic Arches and Anterior Arteries

Chondrichthyeans

Teleosts

Lungfish

Amphibians

Reptiles

Mammals and Birds

Summary

Posterior Arteries

Venous System

Fishes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds and Mammals

Lymphatic System

Suggested Reading

17 Excretory and Water Balance System

Ontogeny of Kidneys and Ducts

The Holonephros

The Opisthonephros

The Metanephros

Maintenance of Water Balance in Major Groups of Vertebrates

Freshwater Fishes

Marine Vertebrates

Amphibians

Reptiles and Birds

Mammals

The Urinary Bladder

Suggested Reading

18 Reproductive System

The Gonads

The Testis

The Ovary

The Reproductive Ducts

Male Genital Ducts

Female Genital Ducts

Mechanisms Facilitating Union of Sperm and Egg

External Fertilization

Internal Fertilization

Accessory Reproductive Glands

Care of Eggs and Fetal Young

Oviparous Forms

Ovoviviparous Forms

Viviparous Forms

Endocrines and Sex in Mammals

Hormones of the Gonads

Hormones of the Pituitary

Sexual Cycles

Pregnancy and Birth

Care of Young

Epilogue

Suggested Reading

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
535
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272597

About the Author

Douglas Webster

Molly Webster

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