Comparative Vertebrate Morphology

Comparative Vertebrate Morphology

1st Edition - January 1, 1974

Write a review

  • Authors: Douglas Webster, Molly Webster
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272597

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Comparative Vertebrate Morphology provides a comprehensive discussion of vertebrate morphology. The structure-function concept at the level of organs and organ systems is fundamental to an understanding of comparative evolutionary morphology. It is upon these three interrelated aspects—structure, function, and evolution— that that contents of this volume have been organized and presented. The book opens with a discussion of general concepts on vertebrate evolution. This is followed by separate chapters on vertebrate phylogeny, skeletal components, the cranial and postcranial skeleton, muscular tissues, muscular system, and development of the integument, nervous tissues, sense organs, nervous system structure, nervous pathways, and endocrines. Subsequent chapters deal with the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory and water balance, and reproductive systems. This book was designed to meet the needs of a one-semester course for students who have already had an introductory course in biology. It is assumed that the lectures will be supplemented by a laboratory with its own laboratory manual. The organization of the text allows the instructor to coordinate the laboratory and lecture portions of the course.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1 How We Got Here: Intellectual Background

    General Concepts of Vertebrate Evolution

    Comparative Morphology and Vertebrate Evolution

    Suggested Reading

    2 How We Got Here: Vertebrate Phylogeny

    Fishes

    Earliest Fossil Vertebrates — Agnatha

    First Fishes with True Jaws — Placodermi

    Cartilaginous Fishes — Chondrichthyes

    Bony Fishes — Osteichthyes

    Transition from Water to Land

    Amphibia

    Reptilia

    Development of Homeothermy

    Mammalia

    Aves

    Spatial and Temporal Diversity

    Embryological Development

    Suggested Reading

    3 Skeletal Components

    Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues

    Notochord

    Cartilage

    Bone

    Joints

    Suggested Reading

    4 Cranial Skeleton

    Cephalization

    Embryologic Development of the Head Skeleton

    The Neurocranium

    The Splanchnocranium

    The Dermatocranium

    A Generalized Vertebrate Skull, Amia calva

    The Bowfin Skull as a Functioning Unit

    Diversity of Vertebrate Skull Organization

    Agnatha

    Placodermi

    Chondrichthyes

    Osteichthyes-Actinopterygii

    Osteichthyes-Sarcopterygii

    Amphibia

    Reptilia

    Aves

    Mammalia

    Suggested Reading

    5 Postcranial Skeleton

    Axial Skeleton: the Vertebral Column and Notochord

    Vertebral Development

    Diversity of Vertebral Structure

    Regionalization of the Vertebral Column

    Axial Skeleton: Ribs

    Axial Skeleton: Sternum

    Appendicular Skeleton

    Extrinsic Skeleton — the Pectoral Girdle

    Extrinsic Skeleton — the Pelvic Girdle

    Intrinsic Skeleton — Unpaired Appendages

    Intrinsic Skeleton — Paired Appendages

    Adaptiveness of the Tetrapod Appendicular Skeleton

    Suggested Reading

    6 Muscular Tissues

    Smooth Muscle

    Cell Structure

    Functional Characteristics

    Skeletal Muscles

    Cell Structure

    Other Structural Features of Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Excitation of Skeletal Muscles

    Striated Muscles as Organs

    Cardiac Muscles

    Suggested Reading

    7 Muscular System

    Ontogeny of Skeletal Muscles

    Axial Muscles

    Muscles of the Limbs (Appendicular Muscles)

    Gill Arch Muscles (Branchiomeric)

    Patterns of Later Muscular Differentiation

    Determining Muscle Homologies and Phylogenies

    Somatic Muscles: Axial

    Extrinsic Ocular Muscles

    Hypobranchial Muscles

    Trunk Musculature

    Somatic Muscles: Appendicular

    Branchiomeric Muscles

    Some Muscle Specializations

    Suggested Reading

    8 The Integument

    Development of the Integument

    Microscopic Structure

    Epidermis

    Dermis

    How Thick is a Layer?

    Integumentary Glands

    Fishes

    Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Birds

    Mammals

    Scales and Denticles

    Placoid Denticles

    Scales of Ostracoderms and Placoderms

    Sarcopterygian Cosmoid Scales

    Ganoid Scales

    Cycloid and Ctenoid Scales

    Amphibian Scales

    Reptilian Scales

    Scales in Birds and Mammals

    Horns and Antlers

    Digital Tips

    Amphibians

    Amniotes

    Feathers

    Plumage

    Hair

    Color

    Coloration in Birds

    The Integument as a Organ System

    Suggested Reading

    9 Nervous Tissues

    Neurons

    Morphology of the Neuron

    Physiology of the Neuron

    Myelin Sheath

    The Synapse

    Terminology

    Exploring the Nervous System

    Reflexes

    Suggested Reading

    10 Sense Organs

    Fundamental Characteristics of Sense Organs

    Cutaneous Receptors

    Free Nerve Endings

    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

    Proprioceptors

    Chemoreceptors

    Olfactory Organs

    The Vomeronasal Organ of Jacobson

    Taste Organs

    Photoreceptors

    Lateral Eyes

    Median Eyes

    Ophidian Pit Organs

    The Acousticolateralis Receptors

    Embryonic Origin

    The Hair Cell

    The Lateral Line System

    The Inner Ear

    Fishes

    Middle Ear

    Auditory Inner Ear

    Tetrapods

    Details of Mammalian Cochlear Duct

    Suggested Reading

    11 Nervous System Structure

    Development

    Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

    Mammals

    Nonmammals

    Cranial Nerves

    Somatic Motor Nerves, Corresponding to Ventral Roots of Agnathan Spinal Nerves

    Somatic Sensory, Visceral Sensory, and Visceral Motor Nerves, Corresponding to Agnathan Dorsal Roots

    Special Sensory Nerves

    Visceral Nervous System

    Mammalian Autonomic System

    Structure of the Brain

    The Suprasegmental Apparatus

    Suggested Reading

    12 Nervous Pathways

    Pathways of the Somatic Sensory System

    Mammals

    Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    Auditory Pathways

    Mammals

    Nonmammals

    Vestibular Pathways

    Visual Pathways

    Mammals

    Birds

    Reptiles, Amphibian, and Fishes

    Olfactory Pathways

    Mammals

    Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    Corticospinal System

    Extrapyramidal Motor System

    Mammals

    Nonmammalian Extrapyramidal Systems

    Cerebellar Pathways

    Mammals

    Nonmammals

    Final Common Pathway

    The Mammalian "Limbic Lobe"

    Mammalian Neocortex

    Suggested Reading

    13 Endocrines

    Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis

    Structure

    Hormones of the Pituitary

    Thyroid Gland

    Structure

    Hormones of the Thyroid

    Parathyroid Glands

    Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

    Hormones of the Islets

    Adrenal Glands and Tissues

    Gastrointestinal Hormones

    Minor and Less Well Understood Endocrines

    Pineal

    Thymus

    Urophysis

    Angiotensin

    Reproductive Hormones

    Suggested Reading

    14 Digestive System

    Selective Factors in Evolution

    Development and General Structure

    Oral Cavity

    Tongue

    Teeth

    Development of Dentition

    Chondrichthyes

    Actinopterygians

    Sarcopterygians

    Tetrapods except Mammals

    Mammals

    Pharynx

    Esophagus

    Stomach

    Fishes

    Amphibians and Reptiles

    Birds

    Mammals

    Pyloric Sphincter

    Intestines

    Fishes

    Amphibians and Reptiles

    Birds

    Mammals

    Caudal Termination of the Alimentary Canal

    Pancreas

    Liver and Gallbladder

    Suggested Reading

    15 Respiratory System

    Gill Respiration in Fishes

    Teleosts

    Chondrichthyeans

    Cyclostomes

    The Gas Bladder

    Air Breathing in Fishes

    Are Lungs and Gas Bladders Homologous?

    Amphibian Respiration

    The Amphibian Lung

    Reptilian Respiration

    Avian Respiration

    Mammalian Respiration

    Sound Production

    Suggested Reading

    16 Circulatory System

    Formation of Blood (Hemopoiesis)

    Structure of Blood Vessels

    Vertebrate Heart

    Fishes (except Lungfish)

    Lungfish and Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Mammals and Birds

    Aortic Arches and Anterior Arteries

    Chondrichthyeans

    Teleosts

    Lungfish

    Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Mammals and Birds

    Summary

    Posterior Arteries

    Venous System

    Fishes

    Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Birds and Mammals

    Lymphatic System

    Suggested Reading

    17 Excretory and Water Balance System

    Ontogeny of Kidneys and Ducts

    The Holonephros

    The Opisthonephros

    The Metanephros

    Maintenance of Water Balance in Major Groups of Vertebrates

    Freshwater Fishes

    Marine Vertebrates

    Amphibians

    Reptiles and Birds

    Mammals

    The Urinary Bladder

    Suggested Reading

    18 Reproductive System

    The Gonads

    The Testis

    The Ovary

    The Reproductive Ducts

    Male Genital Ducts

    Female Genital Ducts

    Mechanisms Facilitating Union of Sperm and Egg

    External Fertilization

    Internal Fertilization

    Accessory Reproductive Glands

    Care of Eggs and Fetal Young

    Oviparous Forms

    Ovoviviparous Forms

    Viviparous Forms

    Endocrines and Sex in Mammals

    Hormones of the Gonads

    Hormones of the Pituitary

    Sexual Cycles

    Pregnancy and Birth

    Care of Young

    Epilogue

    Suggested Reading

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 535
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1974
  • Published: January 1, 1974
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272597

About the Authors

Douglas Webster

Molly Webster

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Comparative Vertebrate Morphology"