Comparative Osteology

Comparative Osteology

A Laboratory and Field Guide of Common North American Animals

1st Edition - August 12, 2011

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  • Authors: Bradley Adams, Pam Crabtree
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780123884374
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123884404

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Description

In the forensic context it is quite common for nonhuman bones to be confused with human remains and end up in the medical examiner or coroner system. It is also quite common for skeletal remains (both human and nonhuman) to be discovered in archaeological contexts. While the difference between human and nonhuman bones is often very striking, it can also be quite subtle. Fragmentation only compounds the problem. The ability to differentiate between human and nonhuman bones is dependent on the training of the analyst and the available reference and/or comparative material. Comparative Osteology is a photographic atlas of common North American animal bones designed for use as a laboratory and field guide by the forensic scientist or archaeologist. The intent of the guide is not to be inclusive of all animals, but rather to present some of the most common species which also have the highest likelihood of being potentially confused with human remains.

Key Features

  • An affordably priced, compact laboratory/field manual, comparing human and nonhuman bones
  • Contains almost 600 high-quality black and white images and diagrams, including inch and centimeter scales with each photograph
  • Written by the foremost forensic scientists with decades of experience in the laboratory and as expert witnesses
  • An additional Companion Web site hosts images from the volume the reader can magnify and zoom into to see specific landmarks and features on bones http://booksite.academicpress.com/9780123884374

Readership

Forensic anthropologists/osteologists, medical examiners/coroners, forensic professionals in law enforcement and academia, archaeologists, students in biological, biophysical, biomedical and paleontological sciences

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Introduction, Scope of Book, and Credits
    Introduction
    Archaeological Context
    Forensic Context
    Book Terminology and Organization
    Background of the Specimens Included in this Book
    Photographic Credits

    Chapter 2: Crania
    Crania of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Deer
    Pig
    Goat
    Sheep
    Dog
    Crania of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Raccoon
    Opossum
    Cat
    Rabbit
    Duck
    Chicken

    Chapter 3: Humeri
    Humeri of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Bear
    Cow
    Pig
    Dog
    Deer
    Sheep
    Goat
    Humeri of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Turkey
    Duck
    Raccoon
    Cat
    Opossum
    Rabbit
    Chicken

    Chapter 4: Radii and Ulnae
    Radii and Ulnae of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Pig
    Deer
    Dog
    Sheep
    Goat
    Radii and Ulnae of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Turkey
    Raccoon
    Cat
    Duck
    Opossum
    Chicken
    Rabbit

    Chapter 5: Femora
    Femora of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Pig
    Deer
    Dog
    Sheep
    Goat
    Femora of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Raccoon
    Turkey
    Cat
    Rabbit
    Opossum
    Chicken
    Duck

    Chapter 6: Tibiae
    Tibiae of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Deer
    Dog
    Sheep
    Pig
    Goat
    Tibiae of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Turkey
    Chicken
    Duck
    Raccoon
    Cat
    Rabbit
    Opossum

    Chapter 7: Human (Homo sapiens)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tarsals

    Chapter 8: Horse (Equus caballus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpus and Metatarsus

    Chapter 9: Cow (Bos taurus and Bos indicus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Metacarpus, Metatarsus, and Tarsals

    Chapter 10: Bear (Ursus americanus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tarsals

    Chapter 11: Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpus, Metatarsus, and Tarsals

    Chapter 12: Pig (Sus scrofa)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tarsals

    Chapter 13: Goat (Capra hircus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Metacarpus and Metatarsus

    Chapter 14: Sheep (Ovis aries)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Metacarpus, Metatarsus, and Tarsals

    Chapter 15: Dog (Canis familiaris)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae

    Chapter 16: Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae and Baculum

    Chapter 17: Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)
    Cranium and Mandible
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae

    Chapter 18: Cat (Felis catus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae

    Chapter 19: Rabbit (Sylvilagus carolinensis and Oryctolagus cunniculus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia/Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebra

    Chapter 20: Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibiotarsus
    Fibula
    Pectoral Girdle
    Pelvis
    Synsacrum
    Carpometacarpus

    Chapter 21: Duck (Anas platyrhynchos)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Pectoral Girdle
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Synsacrum
    Carpometacarpus and Tarsometatarsus

    Chapter 22: Chicken (Gallus gallus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibiotarsus
    Fibula
    Pectoral Girdle
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Carpometacarpus and Tarsometatarsus

    Chapter 23: Miscellaneous Animals
    Subadult Skeletal Elements
    Adult Skeletal Elements
    Rat
    Bobcat
    Fox
    Turtle

    Chapter 24: Traces of Butchery and Bone Working
    Introduction
    Modern Butchery: Eighteenth Century to Present
    Butchery Using Cleavers and Heavy Knives
    Prehistoric Butchery
    Bone as a Raw Material

Product details

  • No. of pages: 460
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: August 12, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780123884374
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123884404

About the Authors

Bradley Adams

Dr. Adams’ expertise is in the field of Forensic Anthropology. He is currently the Director of the Forensic Anthropology Unit for the Office of Chief Medical Examiner in New York City. Dr. Adams and his team are responsible for all forensic anthropology casework in the five boroughs of New York City (Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island). Dr. Adams and his team are also integral players in the ongoing recovery and identification work related to the September 11, 2001 attacks of the World Trade Center. Prior to accepting the position in New York, Dr. Adams was a Forensic Anthropologist and Laboratory Manager at the Central Identification Laboratory (CIL) in Hawaii from 1997-2004. The CIL is responsible for recovering missing U.S. military personnel from remote locations across the globe and its staff utilizes forensic anthropology as a key component in the identification efforts. While with the CIL, Dr. Adams directed large-scale recovery operations in such locations as Vietnam, Cambodia, North Korea, and Papua New Guinea. Dr. Adams has served as an expert witness in Forensic Anthropology in multiple court cases, he has worked as the project osteologist on several archaeological excavations, he has authored/edited several books, and he has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals on topics relating primarily to forensic anthropology. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology, a Fellow with the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, a founding board member of the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology, and a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Forensic Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Forensic Anthropologist, New York, NY, USA

Pam Crabtree

Pam Crabtree is an associate professor of anthropology in the anthropology department at New York Univeristy. She joined the NYU faculty in 1990. Crabtree’s primary research interest focuses on the zooarchaeology of early medieval Europe. The results of her research have been published in the Journal of Field Archaeology, World Archaeology, and her 1990 book, West Stow: Early Saxon Animal Husbandry. Her forthcoming book, Middle Saxon Animal Husbandry, is based on her analyses of the zooarchaeological collections from the Anglo-Saxon sites of West Stow, Brandon, Ispwich and Wicken Bonhunt in eastern England.

Dr. Crabtree has also analyzed faunal collections for many other parts of the world. She worked on the animal bones recovered from the Five Points Site, a 19th-century multi-ethnic neighbourhood in New York City; Dún Ailinne, an Iron Age royal site in Ireland; Tepe Godin, a Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age site in Iran; Salibiya I, a Late Natufian site in the West Bank; and Kelheim, a late Iron Age oppidum in Southern Germany. She is currently the staff zooarchaeologist for the Amheida project in Egypt and the Razdolnoe project in Ukraine.

Dr. Crabtree has written and edited a number of books on archaeology and zooarchaeology including Exploring Prehistory: How Archaeology Reveals our Past (with D. V. Campana), Medieval Archaeology: An Excyclopedia, and Ancient Europe: An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World (8000 BC - AD 1000) (with P. Bogucki). She recently co-edited Anthropological Approaches to Zooarchaeology: Colonialism, Complexity and Animal Transformations (2010).

Dr. Crabtree is the Treasurer and a member of the Executive Committee and the International Committee of the International Council for Archaeozoology. Her research has been supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Anthropology, Center for the Study of Human Origins, New York University, New York, NY

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