Comparative Biochemistry V3 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955449, 9780323141901

Comparative Biochemistry V3

1st Edition

A Comprehensive Treatise

Editors: Marcel Florkin
eBook ISBN: 9780323141901
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 980
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Comparative Biochemistry: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume III: Constituents of Life — Part A focuses on the processes, methodologies, and mechanisms involved in the biological transformations of matter. Composed of contributions of authors, the book first gives emphasis to the comparative features of fatty acid occurrence and distribution. The formation of fatty acids and lipids in living organisms; naturally occurring fatty acids and lipids; relationship between types and distribution of fatty acids and their biological origin are considered. The text also looks at the structure and distribution of sterols, steroid metabolism of lipids, and the distribution and metabolism of phospholipids. The book focuses as well on the structure and occurrence of natural monosaccharides and oligosaccharides. The occurrence of commoner monosaccharides and oligosaccharides; the compositions, reactions, and characteristics of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids; and chromatographic examinations of biological materials for free sugars are considered. The text also looks at the structure, metabolism, and distribution of terpenoids and quinones. The book is a vital source of information for readers wanting to study the processes, methodologies, and mechanisms involved in the biological transformation of matter.

Table of Contents

Contributors to Volume III


Contents of Volumes I, II, IV

Phylogenetic Charts

1. The Comparative Aspects of Fatty Acid Occurrence and Distribution

I. Introduction

II. The Naturally Occurring Fatty Acids and Lipids

III. Formation of Fatty Acids and Lipids in the Living Organism

IV. Relationships between Types and Distribution of Fatty Acids and Their Biological Origin

V. Fatty Acid Composition and Mode of Combination

VI. Variations in Types and Distribution of Fatty Acids in Different Parts of the Organism

VII. Theory of Evolution and Fatty Acid Composition


2. Sterols: Their Structure and Distribution

I. Introduction

II. The Sterols

III. Sterols of Bacteria and Protozoa

IV. Sterols of Sponges

V. Sterols of Coelenterates

VI. Sterols of Ctenophores to Annelids

VII. Sterols of Arthropods

VIII. Sterols of Mollusks

IX. Sterols of Echinoderms

X. Sterols of Chordates

XI. Conclusions


3. Lipids: Steroid Metabolism

I. The Biosynthesis of Steroids

II. The Metabolism of Steroids


4. Bile Salts: Structure, Distribution, and Possible Biological Significance as a Species Character

I. Structure

II. Distribution

III. Bile Salts as a Species Character


5. Distribution of Phospholipids

I. Introduction

II. Structure of the Glycerophosphatides

III. Structure of the Sphingophosphatides

IV. The Distribution of Phospholipids in Animal Tissues

V. The Distribution of Phospholipids in Plants

VI. The Phospholipids of Bacteria


6. The Metabolism of Phospholipids

I. The Biochemistry of Phospholipid Synthesis

II. Enzyme Systems That Degrade Phospholipids

III. The Pathways of Phospholipid Metabolism In Vivo


7. Natural Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides: Their Structures and Occurrence

I. The Monosaccharides

II. Intersugar Glycosidic Compounds: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides

III. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids

IV. Aminodeoxy Monosaccharides, "Amino Sugars"

V. Occurrence of Some Commoner Monosaccharides, Free and in Glycosidic Combination

VI. The Occurrence of Oligosaccharides

VII. Chromatographic Examinations of Biological Materials for Free Sugars


8. Polysaccharidases

I. Introduction

II. The Enzymes of Glycogen and Starch Degradation

III. Dextranase

IV. Cellulases

V. Enzymes That Hydrolyze Other Polyglucosans

VI. Enzymes That Hydrolyze Mannans and Mannogalactans

VII. Enzymes That Hydrolyze Fructans

VIII. Enzymes That Hydrolyze Pentosans (Xylanase)

IX. Enzymes That Hydrolyze Polyuronides

X. Enzymes That Hydrolyze Pneumococcal Polysaccharides

XI. Mucopolysaccharases

XII. General Discussion


9. Saccharides: Alternate Routes of Metabolism

I. The Pentose Cycle

II. The Glucuronate Pathway

III. Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Degradation of Glucose

IV. The Entner-Doudoroff Scheme

V. Comparative Studies

VI. Direct Oxidations of Glucose and Polyols


10. Terpenoids: Structure and Distribution

I. Scheme of Terpenoid Structure

II. Structure and Distribution of Terpenoids


11. Terpenoids: Metabolism

I. The "'Isoprene Rule'" and Chemism of Terpenoid Biosynthesis

II. Ring Closures and Rearrangements

III. Biochemical Oxidations and Hydrogenations

IV. Chemotaxonomy


12. Quinones: Structure and Distribution

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Quinones in Nature

III. Biogenesis of Quinones


13. Melanins

I. Introduction

II. The Initial Stages of Melanogenesis

III. The Natural Distribution of Melanins

IV. The Structure of Melanins


14. Flavonoid Compounds

I. Survey of Naturally Occurring Compounds and Their Biosynthesis

II. The Distribution of Flavonoid Components

III. Metabolism and Function of Flavonoid Compounds


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1962
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Marcel Florkin

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