Commentaries in the Neurosciences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080255019, 9781483148731

Commentaries in the Neurosciences

1st Edition

Editors: A. D. Smith R. Llinás P. G. Kostyuk
eBook ISBN: 9781483148731
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 678
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Description

Commentaries in the Neurosciences is a compilation of the commentaries segment featured in the Neuroscience journal. This book, however, does not provide a comprehensive account of all fields in neuroscience, but rather articles that highlight developments during the past years. The topics covered include chemistry and dynamics of neurotransmitter storage particles; release of central and peripheral neurotransmitters; and transmitters in the enteric nervous system. This book also discusses the properties of neuroreceptors; chemistry and connections of the cerebral cortex; and intracellular recording and ionic transmembrane currents. This text explains as well the invertebrate nervous systems; functions of the nervous system including neuro- and psychopharmacology; and the mind-body problem. This book will be of use not only to research workers interested in keeping updated with developments in different areas of the neurosciences, but also to advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are studying the nervous system.

Table of Contents

PREFACE

CHEMISTRY AND DYNAMICS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER STORAGE PARTICLES

Chapter 1: SYNAPTOSOMES AND CELL SEPARATION

Publisher Summary

PREPARATION OF SYNAPTOSOMES

SEPARATION OF NEURONS FROM GLIA

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 2: THE COMPOSITION OF ADRENAL CHROMAFFIN GRANULES: AN ASSESSMENT OF CONTROVERSIAL RESULTS

Publisher Summary

ISOLATION OF CHROMAFFIN GRANULES

COMPOSITION OF ISOLATED CHROMAFFIN GRANULES

THE PROTEINS OF CHROMAFFIN GRANULES

THE LIPIDS OF CHROMAFFIN GRANULES

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 3: THE BIOGENESIS OF ADRENAL CHROMAFFIN GRANULES

Publisher Summary

BIOGENESIS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPONENTS

BIOGENESIS AND UPTAKE OF SMALL MOLECULES

CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgements—

Chapter 4: ON THE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION OF LARGE DENSE CORED VESICLES IN SYMPATHETIC NERVES

Publisher Summary

Preparation of sympathetic large nerve vesicles

Comments on the isolation procedure

Proteins

Lipids

Noradrenaline

Adenosine triphosphate

Development during axonal transport

Noradrenaline storage in the large nerve vesicles

Morphology

The functional role of the large nerve vesicles

SUMMARY

Acknowledgements

Chapter 5: THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF SECRETORY PACKAGES, ESPECIALLY SYNAPTIC VESICLES

Publisher Summary

BACKGROUND:STUDIES ON GLAND CELLS AND SOME OTHER SYSTEMS

THE STORAGE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS

VESICLE CYCLING’ IN PRESYNAPTIC AXON TERMINALS

DEGRADATION OF SYNAPTIC VESICLES

THE ORIGINS OF SYNAPTIC VESICLES

AMBIGUITIES:THE AXONAL AGRANULAR RETICULUM AND RETROGRADE TRANSPORT

Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: VESICLE RECYCLING AND TRANSMITTER RELEASE

Publisher Summary

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CONCEPT

CONSEQUENCES OF THE VESICLE HYPOTHESIS

VESICLE RECYCLING ESTABLISHED BY FINE-STRUCTURAL METHODS

RELATION OF RELEASED TRANSMITTER TO VESICLE-BOUND TRANSMITTER

VESICLE HETEROGENEITY REVEALED BY DENSITY GRADIENT CENTRIFUGATION STUDIES

APPLICATION OF FALSE TRANSMITTERS

RELATION OF VESICLE RECYCLING AND RELOADING TO TURNOVER OF TRANSMITTER

THE POSTULATE OF STOICHIOMETRIC RELEASE

RECYCLING OF VESICLE MEMBRANE

QUANTUM HYPOTHESIS AND VESICLE HYPOTHESIS

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 7: CONTRACTILE PROTEINS IN TISSUES ORIGINATING IN THE NEURAL CREST

Publisher Summary

ACTOMYOSIN

MYOSIN

ACTIN

REGULATORY PROTEINS

THE POSSIBLE ROLES OF CONTRACTILE PROTEINS

FINAL REMARKS

RELEASE OF CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Chapter 8: DO SOME NERVE CELLS RELEASE MORE THAN ONE TRANSMITTER?

Abstract

EARLY STUDIES

ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES

DIFFERENTIAL LOCALIZATION

EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS

DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS

DEFINITION OF A NEUROTRANSMITTER

EXPERIMENTAL DIFFICULTIES

CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgements

Chapter 9: CRITERIA FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF CENTRAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS, AND THEIR APPLICATION TO STUDIES WITH SOME NERVE TISSUE PREPARATIONS IN VITRO

Publisher Summary

TRANSMITTERS et al.

CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING CENTRAL TRANSMITTERS

CENTRAL NERVOUS TISSUE SLICES AND IDENTIFICATION OF TRANSMITTERS

Acknowledgements

Chapter 10: THE UPTAKE AND RELEASE OF PUTATIVE AMINO ACID NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Publisher Summary

UPTAKE OF AMINO ACIDS

RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS

CONCLUSION

Acknowledgements

Chapter 11: Na+–K+-ACTIVATED ADENOSINETRIPHOSPHATASE AS A TRIGGER IN TRANSMITTER RELEASE

Publisher Summary

INHIBITION OF Na+–K+ -ACTIVATED ADENOSINE 5′-TRIPHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AND THE RELEASE OF TRANSMITTERS

STIMULATION OF Na+-K+-ACTIVATED ADENOSINE 5′-TRIPHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AND INHIBITION OF TRANSMITTER RELEASE

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

Chapter 12: FACILITATION AND RECEPTOR-MEDIATED REGULATION OF NORADRENALINE SECRETION BY CONTROL OF RECRUITMENT OF VARICOSITIES AS WELL AS BY CONTROL OF ELECTRO-SECRETORY COUPLING

Publisher Summary

PROPOSED METHODS FOR ANALYZING THE LEVELS OF ACTION OF MODULATORS

ANALYSIS OF MODES OF ACTION OF α-ADRENOCEPTOR MEDIATED AUTOINHIBITION

ANALYSIS OF MODES OF ACTION OF FACILITATION BY REPETITIVE STIMULI

CONCLUSION

Acknowledgements—

TRANSMITTERS IN THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Chapter 13: TYPES OF NERVES IN THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Abstract

THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE ENTERIC NERVE PLEXUSES

TYPES OF NERVE IN THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgements

NEURORECEPTORS

Chapter 14: THE LABELLING AND ISOLATION OF NEURORECEPTORS

Publisher Summary

RECEPTORS

RECEPTOR LABELLING

CATECHOLAMINE RECEPTORS

NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN ELECTROPLAX

NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN STRIATED MUSCLE

NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN BRAIN

MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE

MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN BRAIN

CONCLUSION

Chapter 15: THE EFFECTS OF INNERVATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS IN MUSCLE

Publisher Summary

RECEPTOR DISTRIBUTION IN NORMALLY INNERVATED MUSCLE

ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS IN MUSCLE CELLS IN CULTURE

CONTROL OF ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR NUMBER IN MUSCLES

EFFECTS OF INNERVATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF RECEPTORS

A MODEL FOR RECEPTOR LOCALIZATION

EFFECTS OF COLCHICINE

GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgements

CHEMISTRY AND CONNECTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

Chapter 16: PATTERNS OF SUBCORTICO-CORTICAL PROJECTIONS AS REVEALED BY SOMATOPETAL HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE TRACING

Abstract

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

PATTERNS OF PROJECTIONS TO THE CORTEX

DISCUSSION

Acknowledgements—

Chapter 17: THE MONOAMINE INNERVATION OF RAT CEREBRAL CORTEX: SYNAPTIC AND NONSYNAPTIC AXON TERMINALS

Publisher Summary

PREMISES

RADIOAUTOGRAPHIC IDENTIFICATION

INTRACORTICAL DISTRIBUTION

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FEATURES

FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS

Acknowledgements

Chapter 18: DISTRIBUTION OF PUTATIVE NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE NEOCORTEX

Publisher Summary

ACETYLCHOLINE

AMINO ACIDS

AMINES

PUTATIVE PEPTIDE TRANSMITTERS

CONCLUSION

Acknowledgements

INTRACELLULAR RECORDING AND IONIC TRANSMEMBRANE CURRENTS

Chapter 19: NEW MICROELECTRODE TECHNIQUES FOR INTRACELLULAR WORK IN SMALL CELLS

Abstract

A MICROPIPETTE PULLER FOR FORMING ULTRAFINE TIPS WITH SHORT TAPERS

AN ULTRAFINE DUAL CHANNEL MICROPIPETTE ELECTRODE

A HIGH-SPEED STEPPING HYDRAULIC MICRODRIVE

TESTING OF INTRACELLULAR RECORDING TECHNIQUES IN SMALL CELLS

DISCUSSION

Acknowledgements

Chapter 20: INACTIVATION OF THE SODIUM GATING CURRENT

Publisher Summary

EFFECT OF A DEPOLARIZING PREPULSE. FAST INACTIVATION

EFFECT OF INACTIVATION ON THE OFF-RESPONSE

‘INACTIVATING’ AND ‘NONINACTIVATING’ COMPONENTS OF THE GATING CURRENT

SLOW INACTIVATION OF THE GATING CURRENT

PHYSICAL MODEL FOR SODIUM CHANNELS INACTIVATION

Chapter 21: CALCIUM IONIC CHANNELS IN ELECTRICALLY EXCITABLE MEMBRANE

Publisher Summary

PROBLEM OF THE SEPARATION OF CALCIUM TRANSMEMBRANE CURRENTS IN NERVE CELL MEMBRANE

PROPERTIES OF AN OPEN CALCIUM CHANNEL

POSSIBLE MODIFICATIONS OF CALCIUM CHANNELS

ACTIVATION AND INACTIVATION KINETICS OF CALCIUM CHANNELS

GATING MECHANISM OF CALCIUM CHANNELS

Asymmetric displacement currents

NOISE IN CALCIUM CHANNELS

CALCIUM CHANNELS IN OTHER NEURONAL MEMBRANES

FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF CALCIUM IONIC CHANNELS

INVERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS

Chapter 22: IDENTIFIED AMINE-CONTAINING NEURONES AND THEIR SYNAPTIC CONNEXIONS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

EXPERIMENTS ON IDENTIFIED SEROTONIN-CONTAINING NEURONES AND THEIR FOLLOWER NEURONES

EXPERIMENTS ON IDENTIFIED DOPAMINE-CONTAINING NEURONES AND THEIR FOLLOWER NEURONES

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Chapter 23: PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF DOPAMINE AND DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF CURRENT EVIDENCE

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

BRAIN DOPAMINE AND THE NEUROPATHOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR

NEUROANATOMICAL SUBSTRATES OF THE SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDER

BRAIN DOPAMINE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

CONCLUSION

Chapter 24: THE STRIATUM AND SUBSTANTIA NIGRA: A COMMENTARY ON THEIR RELATIONSHIPS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION: THE RELEVANCE OF STUDYING STRIATAL AND NIGRAL RELATIONSHIPS

MORPHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

NATURE OF THE NIGROSTRIATAL AND STRIATONIGRAL PATHWAYS

NEUROPHARMACOLOGY AND MICROPHYSIOLOGY OF SUBSTANTIA NIGRA AND STRIATUM

FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NIGROSTRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC PATHWAY AND REGULATION BY NIGRAL TRANSMITTERS

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Acknowledgements—

Chapter 25: A PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL REORGANIZATION OF THE BASAL GANGLIA AND TELENCEPHALON

Abstract

THE PROPOSED REORGANIZATION

LIMITATIONS OF THE NEW SCHEME

IMPLICATIONS OF THE PRESENT REORGANIZATION

Acknowledgements

Chapter 26: TURNING BEHAVIOUR IN ANIMALS

Publisher Summary

TERMINOLOGY

CENTRAL SITES EVOKING CIRCLING BEHAVIOUR

DOPAMINE AND TURNING

Chapter 27: THE CENTRAL NEUROLOGY OF MAMMALIAN THERMOREGULATION

Publisher Summary

THE INTERPRETATION OF DISTURBANCE/RESPONSE ANALYSES

SYNAPTIC INTERFERENCE STUDIES

THE SIMILARITY OF NEURONAL MODELS DERIVED FROM DISTURBANCE/RESPONSE RELATIONS AND SYNAPTIC INTERFERENCE STUDIES

THE DOUBTS AND THE PERPLEXITIES

FEEDFORWARD AND FEEDBACK: THE COMPLETION OF A REGULATORY PROCESS

CONCLUDING SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

Acknowledgements

Chapter 28: THE BRAIN RENIN ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM: A RE-EVALUATION

Publisher Summary

RENIN/ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM IN BRAIN

CENTRAL ACTIONS OF ANGIOTENSIN II

THE COMPONENTS OF THE PROPOSED BRAIN RENIN/ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM

PERIPHERAL RENIN ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 29: THE EFFECTS OF VASOPRESSIN ON MEMORY PROCESSES: THE ROLE OF NORADRENERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION

Publisher Summary

THE EFFECTS OF POSTERIOR PITUITARY NEUROPEPTIDES ON LEARNING AND MEMORY PROCESSES

CHANGES IN BRAIN CATECHOLAMINE METABOLISM FOLLOWING VASOPRESSIN TREATMENT

THE ROLE OF THE COERULEO-TELENCEPHALIC NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM: LESION STUDIES WITH NEUROTOXIC COMPOUNDS

NORADRENERGIC TERMINALS VERSUS CELL BODIES

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

Chapter 30: THE VENTRAL SURFACE OF THE BRAIN STEM: A SCARCELY EXPLORED REGION OF PHARMACOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY

Publisher Summary

BLOOD PRESSURE EFFECTS

VASOPRESSIN RELEASE

HYPERGLYCAEMIA

ANALGESIA

INSTEAD OF A SUMMARY

Chapter 31: EXTENDED ROLES IN THE BRAIN FOR SECOND-MESSENGER SYSTEMS

Publisher Summary

SECOND MESSENGERS AND CELL-FIRING PATTERNS

POINTS OF CONNECTION WITH MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PHENOMENA

Sensory input and initial processing

Subsequent processing and retention

CONTROL AND MODIFICATION OF MESSENGER-SYSTEM COMPONENTS

CONCLUDING COMMENT

Acknowledgements

Chapter 32: TRANSPORT FUNCTION OF HYPOTHALAMIC TANYCYTE EPENDYMA: HOW GOOD IS THE EVIDENCE?

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

STRUCTURE OF THE MEDIAN EMINENCE

ALLEGED SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)

THE TRANSPORT HYPOTHESIS

CONCLUSION

Chapter 33: ROLE OF CAROTID BODY CATECHOLAMINES IN CHEMORECEPTOR FUNCTION

Publisher Summary

PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES

EVIDENCE FOR RELEASE OF CAROTID BODY CATECHOLAMINES

NEURAL MECHANISM FOR DEPLETION OF CAROTID BODY CATECHOLAMINES BY HYPOXIA

DOPAMINE AND NORADRENALINE CONTENT OF CAT AND RAT CAROTID BODY

NEW MEASUREMENTS OF DOPAMINE AND NORADRENALINE IN THE CAT CAROTID BODY

EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA ON TYROSINE HYDROXYLASE AND DOPAMINE β-HYDROXYLASE IN THE CAROTID BODY

SUMMARY

CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgements

DRUGS AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Chapter 34: BENZODIAZEPINES—THE OPIUM OF THE MASSES?

Publisher Summary

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

EXTENT OF USAGE

EXTENT OF ANXIETY

TRANQUILLIZERS AND ANXIETY

DEPENDENCE

SOME IMPLICATIONS

Chapter 35: DRUG-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL LIPIDOSIS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Publisher Summary

GENERALIZED LIPIDOSIS INDUCED BY AMPHIPHILIC CATIONIC DRUGS

BASIC FEATURES OF NEURONS AFFECTED BY DRUG-INDUCED LIPIDOSIS

GLIAL CELLS

DISTRIBUTION OF LIPIDOSIS THROUGHOUT THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

ALTERATIONS IN SELECTED NEURONAL SYSTEMS

POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF AXONAL ALTERATIONS

FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS

DRUG-INDUCED LIPIDOSIS AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL

THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM

Chapter 36: EMERGENCE AND THE MIND

Abstract

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

RESULTANTS, EMERGENTS AND LEVELS

MONISM AND DUALISM IN THE MATTER OF MIND

EMERGENTIST PSYCHONEURAL MONISM

CONCLUSION: PSYCHONEURAL MONISM CUM OVERALL PLURALISM

Acknowledgements

Chapter 37: SELVES AND BRAINS

Abstract

INTERACTIONISM REVIVED

‘EMERGENTIST MATERIALISM’

A THIRD OPTION?

TWO KINDS OF ‘DETERMINATION’

EFFECTIVE AGENCY

RELATION TO OTHER VIEWS

WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT CONSCIOUSNESS?

IS THERE PHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR INTERACTIONISM?

CONCLUSION

Chapter 38: MIND-BRAIN INTERACTION: MENTALISM, YES; DUALISM, NO

Abstract

THE NEW INTERACTIONISM

GROWING SCIENTIFIC ACCEPTANCE

HOW MANY NEW MIND-BRAIN SOLUTIONS?

DETERMINISM VERSUS INDETERMINISM

IS CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE CAUSAL—OR ONLY ITS NEURAL CORRELATES?

EMERGENT DETERMINISM

MONISM VERSUS DUALISM

MENTALISM VERSUS MATERIALISM

Acknowledgements

INDEX

Details

No. of pages:
678
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483148731

About the Editor

A. D. Smith

R. Llinás

P. G. Kostyuk

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