Combustion 2e - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122858512, 9780323147224

Combustion 2e

1st Edition

Authors: Irvin Glassman
eBook ISBN: 9780323147224
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th January 1987
Page Count: 524
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Description

Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed.
This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactions and their temperature dependency; simultaneous interdependent and chain reactions; pseudo-first-order reactions; the partial equilibrium assumption; and pressure effect in fractional conversion. The chain branching reactions and criteria for explosion explosion are then considered, along with the limits and oxidation characteristics of fuels such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The remaining chapters look at the laminar flame speed and stability limits of laminar flames; deflagration and detonation; burning in convective atmospheres; and the theory of thermal ignition. The final chapter is devoted to the burning of nonvolatile fuels such as coal. This monograph will be a valuable resource for students and teachers of physics.

Table of Contents


Preface to Second Edition

Acknowledgments to the Second Edition

Preface to First Edition

Acknowledgments to the First Edition

Chapter One: Chemical Thermodynamics and Flame Temperatures

A. Introduction

B. Heats of Reaction and Formation

C. Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constants

D. Flame Temperature Calculations

Problems

References

Chapter Two: Chemical Kinetics

A. Introduction

B. The Rates of Reactions and Their Temperature Dependency

1. The Arrhenius Rate Expression

2. Transition State and Recombination Rate Theories

C. Simultaneous Interdependent Reactions

D. Chain Reactions

E. Pseudo-First-Order Reactions and the "Fall-off" Range

F. The Partial Equilibrium Assumption

G. Pressure Effect in Fractional Conversion

Problems

References

Chapter Three: Explosive and General Oxidative Characteristics of Fuels

A. Introduction

B. Chain Branching Reactions and Criteria for Explosion

C. Explosion Limits and Oxidation Characteristics of Hydrogen

D. Explosion Limits and Oxidation Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide

E. Explosion Limits and Oxidation Characteristics of Hydrocarbons

1. Organic Nomenclature

2. Explosion Limits

3. "Low-Temperature" Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

F. The Oxidation of Aldehydes

G. The Oxidation of Methane

H. The Oxidation of Higher-Order Hydrocarbons

1. Alliphatic Hydrocarbons

2. Alcohols

3. Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Problems

References

Chapter Four: Flame Phenomena in Premixed Combustible Gases

A. Introduction

B. Laminar Flame Structure

C. The Laminar Flame Speed

1. The Theory of Mallard and Le Chatelier

2. The Theory of Zeldovich, Frank-Kamenetskii, and Semenov

3. The Laminar Flame and the Energy Equation

4. Flame Speed Measurements

5. Experimental Results—Physical and Chemical Effects

D. Stability Limits of Laminar Flames

1. Flammability Limits

2. Quenching Distance

3. Flame Stabilization (Low Velocity)

4. Stability Limits and Design

E. Turbulent Reacting Flows and Turbulent Flames

1. The Rate of Reaction in a Turbulent Field

2. Regimes of Turbulent Reacting Flows

3. The Turbulent Flame Speed

F. Stirred Reactor Theory

G. Flame Stabilization in High-Velocity Streams

Problems

References

Chapter Five: Detonation

A. Introduction

1. Premixed and Diffusion Flames

2. Explosion, Deflagration, and Detonation

3. The Onset of Detonation

B. Detonation Phenomena

C. Hugoniot Relations and the Hydrodynamic Theory of Detonations

1. Characterization of the Hugoniot Curve and the Uniqueness of the Chapman-Jouguet Point

2. Determination of the Speed of Sound in the Burned Gases for Conditions above the Chapman-Jouguet Point

3. Calculation of the Detonation Velocity

D. Comparison of Detonation Velocity Calculations with Experimental Results

E. The ZND Structure of Detonation Waves

F The Structure of the Cellular Detonation Front and other Detonation Phenomena Parameters

1. The Cellular Detonation Front

2. The Dynamic Detonation Parameters

3. Detonation Limits

G. Detonations in Non-gaseous Media

Problems

References

Chapter Six: Diffusion Flames

A. Introduction

B. Gaseous Fuel Jets

1. Appearance

2. Structure

3. Theoretical Considerations

4. The Burke-Schumann Development

5. Turbulent Fuel Jets

C. Burning of Condensed Phases

1. General Mass Burning Considerations and the Evaporation Coefficient

2. Single Fuel Droplets in Quiescent Atmospheres

D. Burning of Droplet Clouds

E. Burning in Convective Atmospheres

1. The Stagnant Film Case

2. The Longitudinally Burning Surface

3. The Flowing Droplet Case

4. Burning Rates of Plastics; The Small a Assumption and Radiation Effects

Problems

References

Chapter Seven: Ignition

A. Concepts

B. Chain Spontaneous Ignition

C. Thermal Spontaneous Ignition

1. Semenov Approach to Thermal Ignition

2. Frank-Kamenetskii Theory of Thermal Ignition

D. Forced Ignition

1. Spark Ignition and Minimum Ignition Energy

2. Ignition by Adiabatic Compression and Shock Waves

Problems

References

Chapter Eight: Environmental Combustion Considerations

A. Introduction

B. The Nature of Photochemical Smog

1. Primary and Secondary Pollutants

2. The Effect of NOx

3. The Effect of SOx

C. NOx Formation and Reduction

1. The Structure of the Nitrogen Oxides

2. The Effect of Flame Structure

3. Atmospheric Nitrogen Kinetics

4. Fuel-Bound Nitrogen Kinetics

5. The Formation of NO2

6. The Reduction of NOx

D. SOx Emissions

1. The Product Composition and Structure of Sulfur Compounds

2. Oxidative Mechanisms of Sulfur Fuels

E. Particulate Formation

1. Characteristics of Soot

2. Soot Formation Processes

3. The Use of Flames in Soot Formation Analyses

4. The Influence of Physical and Chemical Parameters on Soot Formation

5. Particulates from Liquid Hydrocarbon Pyrolysis

F. Stratospheric Ozone

1. The HOx Catalytic Cycle

2. The NOx Catalytic Cycle

3. The CIOx Catalytic Cycle

Problems

References

Chapter Nine: The Combustion of Nonvolatile Fuels

A. Carbon Char and Metal Combustion

B. Diffusion Kinetics

C. Diffusion Controlled Burning Rate

1. The Burning of Carbon Char Particles

2. The Burning of Boron Particles

3. The Role of Gaseous Inverts in Heterogeneous Diffusion Burning

4. Oxidation of Very Small Particles—Pulverized Coal and Soot

D. The Burning of Porous Chars

E. The Burning Rate of Ash-Forming Coal

Problems

References

Appendixes

Appendix A. Thermo-chemical Data and Conversion Factors

Appendix B. Specific Reaction Rate Constants

Appendix C. Bond Dissociation Energies of Hydrocarbons

Appendix D. Laminar Flame Speeds

Appendix E. Flammability Limits in Air

Appendix F Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Data

Appendix G. Minimum Spark Ignition Energies and Quenching Distances

Indexes


Details

No. of pages:
524
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1987
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323147224

About the Author

Irvin Glassman

Dr. Irvin Glassman received both his undergraduate and graduate degrees in Chemical Engineering from The Johns Hopkins University. In 1950 he joined Princeton University, and is currently Robert H. Goddard Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. He has also been American Cyanamid Professor of Envirionmental Sciences and Director of Princeton's Center for Energy and Evironmental Studies. For 15years Dr. Glassman represented the United States as a member (and former chairman) of the Propulsion and Energetics Panel of AGARD/NATO. He has been a member of numerous committees, task forces, and research teams, and is currently a member of The National Academy of Engineering and many other professional and honorary societies. Dr. Glassman is listed in Who's Who in America, Who's Who in the World, Outstanding Educators of America, and American Men of Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Princeton University, NJ, USA