Coastal Acoustic Tomography

Coastal Acoustic Tomography

1st Edition - February 5, 2020

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  • Authors: Arata Kaneko, Xiao-Hua Zhu, Ju Lin
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128185070
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128189429

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Coastal Acoustic Tomography begins with the specifics required for designing a Coastal Acoustic Tomography (CAT) experiment and operating the CAT system in coastal seas. Following sections discuss the procedure for data analyses and various application examples of CAT to coastal/shallow seas (obtained in various locations). These sections are broken down into four kinds of methods: horizontal-slice inversion, vertical-slice inversion, modal expansion method and data assimilation. This book emphasizes how dynamic phenomena occurring in coastal/shallow seas can be analyzed using the standard method of inversion and data assimilation. The book is relevant for physical oceanographers, ocean environmentalists and ocean dynamists, focusing on the event being observed rather than the intrinsic details of observational processes. Application examples of successful dynamic phenomena measured by coastal acoustic tomography are also included.

Key Features

  • Provides the information needed for researchers and graduate students in physical oceanography, ocean-fluid dynamics and ocean environments to apply Ocean Acoustic Tomography (OAT) to their own fields
  • Presents the benefits of using acoustic tomography, including less disturbance to aquatic environments vs. other monitoring methods
  • Includes the assimilation of CAT data into a coastal sea circulation model, a powerful tool to predict coastal-sea environmental changes


Physical oceanographers, ocean environmentalists, dynamists and engineers

Table of Contents

  • CHAPTER 1 Fundamental Knowledge

    1.1 Ocean Acoustic Tomography

    1.1.1 Break Corner (Projected Rays on a Horizontal Slice)

    1.2 Advancement by Coastal Acoustic Tomography

    1.3 Coastal-Sea Environmental Monitoring

    1.4 Coastal-Sea Sound Propagation

    CHAPTER 2 Instrumentation

    2.1 System Design

    2.2 Field Deployment Methods

    2.2.1 Nearshore Platforms

    2.2.2 Necessity for Permanent Platform

    2.3 Transmit Signals

    2.4 Cross-Correlating the Received Data

    CHAPTER 3 Sound Transmission and Reception

    3.1 One-Dimensional Sound Wave Equation

    3.2 Sound Transmission Losses

    3.2.1 Spreading Losses

    3.2.2 Absorption Losses

    3.2.3 Bottom Losses

    3.2.4 Surface Losses

    3.2.5 Receiving Transmission Sound

    3.3 Processing the Received Data

    3.3.1 Ensemble Average

    3.3.2 Arrival Peaks Identification

    3.3.3 Processing the Noisy Received Data

    3.3.4 Multi_Arrival Peak Method

    CHAPTER 4 Range-Average Measurement

    4.1 Vertical Section Averages

    4.2 Resolution and Errors

    4.3 Position Correction

    4.4 Clock Correction

    4.5 Conversing From One-Line Current to Along-Channel Current

    4.6 Conversing From Two-Line Current to North_East Current


    4.7 Along-Strait Volume Transport and Energy Estimate

    4.8 Conversing From Sound Speed to Temperature and Salinity

    4.9 Travel-Time Errors Due to the Station Movements

    4.10 Errors From the Time Resolution of M Sequence

    CHAPTER 5 Forward Formulation

    5.1 Sound Wave Equation With a Velocity Field

    5.2 Ray Simulation

    5.3 Modal Simulation

    5.4 Time-of-Flight Equation Along the Rays

    CHAPTER 6 Inversion on a Horizontal Slice

    6.1 Grid Method

    6.2 Function Expansion Method

    6.3 Adding the Coastline Conditions

    6.4 Validating the Observed Data

    6.4.1 Comparing the Pre- and Postinversion Results

    6.4.2 Energy Balance

    6.4.3 Direct Comparison With the Standard Oceanographic Data

    CHAPTER 7 Inversion on a Vertical Slice

    7.1 Ray Method

    7.1.1 Layered Inversion

    7.1.2 Layered Inversion Deleting Clock Errors

    7.1.3 Explicit Solution

    7.2 Acoustic Normal Modes With a Constraint of Narrowband Sound

    7.3 Function Expansion Using Various Normal Modes

    7.4 The Three-Dimensional Mapping

    CHAPTER 8 Data Assimilation

    8.1 Conventional Ensemble Kalman Filter

    8.1.1 Introductory Remarks

    8.1.2 Ensemble Kalman Filter Scheme

    8.1.3 Innovation Vector

    8.1.4 External Forcing

    8.1.5 Kalman Gain Smoother

    8.2 Time-Efficient Ensemble Kalman Filter

    8.2.1 Time-Invariant Model Error Covariance

    8.2.2 Assimilation Scheme for Coastal Acoustic Tomography Data

    CHAPTER 9 Applications for Horizontal-Slice Inversion

    9.1 Nekoseto Channel

    9.1.1 Oceanographic State

    vi Contents

    9.1.2 Experiment and Methods

    9.1.3 Differential Travel Times

    9.1.4 Inversion

    9.1.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.2 Tokyo Bay

    9.2.1 Oceanographic State

    9.2.2 Experiment and Methods

    9.2.3 Differential Travel Times

    9.2.4 Inversion

    9.2.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.3 Kanmon Strait

    9.3.1 Oceanographic State

    9.3.2 Experiment and Methods

    9.3.3 Differential Travel Times

    9.3.4 Inversion

    9.3.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.4 Zhitouyang Bay

    9.4.1 Oceanographic State

    9.4.2 Experiment and Methods

    9.4.3 Differential Travel Times

    9.4.4 Inversion

    9.4.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.4.6 Tidal Harmonics

    9.4.7 Rotation of Tidal Currents With the Tidal Phase

    9.5 Qiongzhou Strait

    9.5.1 Oceanographic State

    9.5.2 Experiment and Methods

    9.5.3 Range-Average Current and Volume Transport

    9.5.4 Inversion

    9.5.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.6 Dalian Bay

    9.6.1 Oceanographic State

    9.6.2 Experiment and Methods

    9.6.3 Differential Travel Times

    9.6.4 Inversion

    9.6.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.6.6 Validation

    9.7 Bali Strait (June 2016)

    9.7.1 Oceanographic State

    9.7.2 Experiment and Methods

    Contents vii

    9.7.3 Range-Average Currents

    9.7.4 North-East Currents

    9.7.5 Along-Strait Volume Transport and Energy Balance

    9.7.6 Inversion

    9.7.7 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

    9.7.8 Specialty of the 3-h Oscillation

    9.8 Hiroshima Bay

    9.8.1 Oceanographic State

    9.8.2 Experiment

    9.8.3 Position Correction

    9.8.4 Range-Average Temperature

    9.8.5 Inversion

    9.8.6 Mapping Reconstructed Temperature Fields

    9.8.7 Coastal Upwelling and Diurnal Internal Tides

    9.8.8 Sea Surface Depression Associated With Upwelling

    9.8.9 Upwelling Velocity and Mixing Rate

    CHAPTER 10 Applications for Vertical-Slice Inversion

    10.1 Bali Strait (June 2015)

    10.1.1 Experiment

    10.1.2 Ray Simulation

    10.1.3 Identifying the First Two Arrival Peaks

    10.1.4 Range-Average Current and Temperature

    10.1.5 Inversion

    10.1.6 Profiling the Current and Temperature

    10.1.7 Power Spectral Densities

    10.1.8 Nonlinear Tides

    10.1.9 Concluding Remarks

    10.2 Luzon Strait

    10.2.1 Oceanographic State

    10.2.2 Site and Experiment

    10.2.3 Data Acquisition and Errors

    10.2.4 Modal Simulation

    10.2.5 Identifying Arrival Peaks in the Received Data

    10.2.6 Profiling the Sound Speed Deviation

    10.2.7 Retrieving the Periodic Phenomena

    CHAPTER 11 Applications for Data Assimilation

    11.1 Nekoseto Channel

    11.1.1 Model and Methods

    11.1.2 Mapping 2D Current Fields

    11.1.3 Validation

    viii Contents

    11.2 Kanmon Strait

    11.2.1 Model and Method

    11.2.2 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

    11.2.3 Along-Strait Volume Transport

    11.2.4 Validation

    11.3 Sanmen Bay

    11.3.1 Model Site and Data

    11.3.2 Methods

    11.3.3 Model

    11.3.4 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

    11.3.5 Validation

    11.4 Hiroshima Bay

    11.4.1 Model

    11.4.2 Methods

    11.4.3 Mapping Three-Dimensional Current Velocity and

    Salinity Fields

    11.4.4 Volume Transports

    11.4.5 Transport Continuity and Mixing Fractions

    CHAPTER 12 Modal Function Expansion With Coastline Constraints

    12.1 Fundamental Remarks

    12.2 Formulation

    12.3 Application to Hiroshima Bay

    12.3.1 Experiment and Methods

    12.3.2 Observed Data

    12.3.3 Modal Expansion Functions

    12.3.4 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

    12.3.5 Validation

    12.4 Application to Jiaozhou Bay

    12.4.1 Oceanographic State

    12.4.2 Experiment and Model

    12.4.3 Modal Expansion Functions

    12.4.4 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

    CHAPTER 13 Application to Various Fields and Phenomena

    13.1 Yearly Measurement of the Residual Current

    13.1.1 Specific Features

    13.1.2 Experiment

    13.1.3 Ray Simulation

    13.1.4 Received Data

    13.1.5 Along-Channel Current

    Contents ix

    13.1.6 Yearly Variations of the Observed Current

    and Temperature

    13.1.7 Residual Current Calculated From Upslope Point Method

    13.2 Bay With Multiinternal Modes

    13.2.1 Specific Features

    13.2.2 Experiment and Methods

    13.2.3 Range-Average Sound Speed

    13.2.4 Spectral Analyses

    13.2.5 Propagation of Internal-Mode Waves

    13.3 Bay With Resonant Internal Modes

    13.4 Strait With Internal Solitary Waves

    13.4.1 Background

    13.4.2 Experimental Site and Methods

    13.4.3 Travel Times and Range-Average Temperatures for the Largest

    Arrival Peak

    13.4.4 Distance Correction

    13.4.5 Sound Transmission Data With Multiarrival Peaks

    13.4.6 Ray Simulation and Inversion

    13.4.7 Profiling Temperatures

    13.4.8 Concluding Remarks

    13.5 River With Tidal Bores

    13.5.1 Specific Features

    13.5.2 Experiment and Methods

    13.5.3 Cross-River Surveys by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current


    13.5.4 Cross-River Surveys by Coastal Acoustic Tomography

    13.5.5 River Discharges

    13.5.6 Concluding Remarks

    13.6 Large Circular Tank With Omnidirectional Waves and Currents

    13.6.1 FloWave Circular Tank

    13.6.2 Simulating Flow Fields

    13.6.3 Experiment and Methods

    13.6.4 Identifying Multiarrival Peaks

    13.6.5 Mapping the Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

    13.6.6 Remaining Issues

    CHAPTER 14 Mirror-Type Coastal Acoustic Tomography

    14.1 Introductory Remarks

    14.2 Mirror-Type Coastal Acoustic Tomography System Design

    14.3 Enhancing the Positioning Accuracy

    14.4 Feasibility Experiments

    x Contents

    14.5 Ray Simulation

    14.6 Arrival-Peak Identification

    14.7 Range-Average Currents

    14.8 Compact Mirror-Type Coastal Acoustic Tomography Array

    14.9 Further Advancement

Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: February 5, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128185070
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128189429

About the Authors

Arata Kaneko

Professor Kaneko started his academic career as a research associate in Kyushu University. In 1980, during his time as a research associate in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University, he was awarded Doctor of Engineering. In 1981, he was promoted as an associate professor in RIAM. After that, he shifted research field from the nearshore fluid dynamics to open-ocean fluid dynamics and started a challenging structural observation of ocean currents such as the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current, using a newly-developed towed-type acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). From 1985 to 1986, Professor Kaneko worked at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, extending his research to ocean acoustic tomography (OAT). In 1991, he moved to the Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, as a full professor. At this time Kaneko set up a lab studying OAT and began exploring the now well-established technology and method of applying OAT to coastal sea study, with more acoustic complexity. The coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) group, which was established in Hiroshima University and composed of research staff and graduate students educated in Kaneko’s laboratory, have visualized (mapped) variable coastal currents with methods combined by inversion and data assimilation in the last two decades and results have been released to the international oceanographic community

Affiliations and Expertise

Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan

Xiao-Hua Zhu

Xiao-Hua Zhu received a Ph.D. in physical oceanography from Hiroshima University. He was a post-doctoral fellow at Chugoku National Industrial Research Institute (CNIRI), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. After this Zhu moved to the Frontier Observational Research System for Global Change (FORSGC)/Japan Agency for Marin-Earth Science and Technology (JMASTEC) as a Research Scientist and started the mooring observations to measure the Kuroshio and Ryukyu Current in both sides of the Ryukyu Island by the Pressure-recording Inverted Echo Sounders (PIESs), moored ADCP and currentmeters. In 2006, he became a Senior Research Scientist of the State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration of China. Since then, he imported the coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems from Hiroshima University-related incubation company (Aqua Environmental Monitoring Limited Liability Partnership) and successfully carried out the CAT experiments in the coastal region of China, including Zhitouyang Bay, Sanmen Bay, Qiangtang River, Dalian Bay, Jiaozhou Bay and Qiongzhou Strait. He is also an adjunct professor in Zhejiang University, Dalian Ocean University, Hehai University and Shanghai Jiaotong University.

Affiliations and Expertise

State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, China

Ju Lin

Ju Lin is an associate professor of Ocean University of China. His research interests are focused on the characteristics of underwater acoustic propagation, the development of underwater acoustic monitoring system and acoustical oceanography. In the last decade, the newly proposed methods succeeded to invert the coastal sea environment parameters such as tidal current and temperature in the Kanmon Strait, Hiroshima Bay, Luzon Strait and Jiaozhou Bay from coastal acoustic tomography data. He serves as an executive council member of the Acoustic Society of Shandong, China, and a member of the Physical Acoustics Branch Committee of Acoustical Society of China and the Underwater Acoustics Branch Committee of Acoustical Society of China.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Information Science & Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingtao, China

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Masoud B. Wed Feb 12 2020

    My opinion about this amazing book

    I believe the lack of such book strains the researchers and graduate students who are interested in studying physical coastal phenomena using acoustic tomography technique. The authors supply an in-depth analysis of various aspects of the Coastal Acoustic Tomography technique over this book. I think this book is an excellent and unique resource in the fields of shallow acoustic tomography, coastal monitoring, etc.