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Coastal Acoustic Tomography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128185070, 9780128189429

Coastal Acoustic Tomography

1st Edition

Authors: Arata Kaneko Xiao-Hua Zhu Ju Lin
Paperback ISBN: 9780128185070
eBook ISBN: 9780128189429
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 5th February 2020
Page Count: 362
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Coastal Acoustic Tomography begins with the specifics required for designing a Coastal Acoustic Tomography (CAT) experiment and operating the CAT system in coastal seas. Following sections discuss the procedure for data analyses and various application examples of CAT to coastal/shallow seas (obtained in various locations). These sections are broken down into four kinds of methods: horizontal-slice inversion, vertical-slice inversion, modal expansion method and data assimilation. This book emphasizes how dynamic phenomena occurring in coastal/shallow seas can be analyzed using the standard method of inversion and data assimilation.

The book is relevant for physical oceanographers, ocean environmentalists and ocean dynamists, focusing on the event being observed rather than the intrinsic details of observational processes. Application examples of successful dynamic phenomena measured by coastal acoustic tomography are also included.

Key Features

  • Provides the information needed for researchers and graduate students in physical oceanography, ocean-fluid dynamics and ocean environments to apply Ocean Acoustic Tomography (OAT) to their own fields
  • Presents the benefits of using acoustic tomography, including less disturbance to aquatic environments vs. other monitoring methods
  • Includes the assimilation of CAT data into a coastal sea circulation model, a powerful tool to predict coastal-sea environmental changes


Physical oceanographers, ocean environmentalists, dynamists and engineers

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Fundamental Knowledge

1.1 Ocean Acoustic Tomography

1.1.1 Break Corner (Projected Rays on a Horizontal Slice)

1.2 Advancement by Coastal Acoustic Tomography

1.3 Coastal-Sea Environmental Monitoring

1.4 Coastal-Sea Sound Propagation

CHAPTER 2 Instrumentation

2.1 System Design

2.2 Field Deployment Methods

2.2.1 Nearshore Platforms

2.2.2 Necessity for Permanent Platform

2.3 Transmit Signals

2.4 Cross-Correlating the Received Data

CHAPTER 3 Sound Transmission and Reception

3.1 One-Dimensional Sound Wave Equation

3.2 Sound Transmission Losses

3.2.1 Spreading Losses

3.2.2 Absorption Losses

3.2.3 Bottom Losses

3.2.4 Surface Losses

3.2.5 Receiving Transmission Sound

3.3 Processing the Received Data

3.3.1 Ensemble Average

3.3.2 Arrival Peaks Identification

3.3.3 Processing the Noisy Received Data

3.3.4 Multi_Arrival Peak Method

CHAPTER 4 Range-Average Measurement

4.1 Vertical Section Averages

4.2 Resolution and Errors

4.3 Position Correction

4.4 Clock Correction

4.5 Conversing From One-Line Current to Along-Channel Current

4.6 Conversing From Two-Line Current to North_East Current


4.7 Along-Strait Volume Transport and Energy Estimate

4.8 Conversing From Sound Speed to Temperature and Salinity

4.9 Travel-Time Errors Due to the Station Movements

4.10 Errors From the Time Resolution of M Sequence

CHAPTER 5 Forward Formulation

5.1 Sound Wave Equation With a Velocity Field

5.2 Ray Simulation

5.3 Modal Simulation

5.4 Time-of-Flight Equation Along the Rays

CHAPTER 6 Inversion on a Horizontal Slice

6.1 Grid Method

6.2 Function Expansion Method

6.3 Adding the Coastline Conditions

6.4 Validating the Observed Data

6.4.1 Comparing the Pre- and Postinversion Results

6.4.2 Energy Balance

6.4.3 Direct Comparison With the Standard Oceanographic Data

CHAPTER 7 Inversion on a Vertical Slice

7.1 Ray Method

7.1.1 Layered Inversion

7.1.2 Layered Inversion Deleting Clock Errors

7.1.3 Explicit Solution

7.2 Acoustic Normal Modes With a Constraint of Narrowband Sound

7.3 Function Expansion Using Various Normal Modes

7.4 The Three-Dimensional Mapping

CHAPTER 8 Data Assimilation

8.1 Conventional Ensemble Kalman Filter

8.1.1 Introductory Remarks

8.1.2 Ensemble Kalman Filter Scheme

8.1.3 Innovation Vector

8.1.4 External Forcing

8.1.5 Kalman Gain Smoother

8.2 Time-Efficient Ensemble Kalman Filter

8.2.1 Time-Invariant Model Error Covariance

8.2.2 Assimilation Scheme for Coastal Acoustic Tomography Data

CHAPTER 9 Applications for Horizontal-Slice Inversion

9.1 Nekoseto Channel

9.1.1 Oceanographic State

vi Contents

9.1.2 Experiment and Methods

9.1.3 Differential Travel Times

9.1.4 Inversion

9.1.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.2 Tokyo Bay

9.2.1 Oceanographic State

9.2.2 Experiment and Methods

9.2.3 Differential Travel Times

9.2.4 Inversion

9.2.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.3 Kanmon Strait

9.3.1 Oceanographic State

9.3.2 Experiment and Methods

9.3.3 Differential Travel Times

9.3.4 Inversion

9.3.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.4 Zhitouyang Bay

9.4.1 Oceanographic State

9.4.2 Experiment and Methods

9.4.3 Differential Travel Times

9.4.4 Inversion

9.4.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.4.6 Tidal Harmonics

9.4.7 Rotation of Tidal Currents With the Tidal Phase

9.5 Qiongzhou Strait

9.5.1 Oceanographic State

9.5.2 Experiment and Methods

9.5.3 Range-Average Current and Volume Transport

9.5.4 Inversion

9.5.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.6 Dalian Bay

9.6.1 Oceanographic State

9.6.2 Experiment and Methods

9.6.3 Differential Travel Times

9.6.4 Inversion

9.6.5 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.6.6 Validation

9.7 Bali Strait (June 2016)

9.7.1 Oceanographic State

9.7.2 Experiment and Methods

Contents vii

9.7.3 Range-Average Currents

9.7.4 North-East Currents

9.7.5 Along-Strait Volume Transport and Energy Balance

9.7.6 Inversion

9.7.7 Mapping Current Velocity Fields

9.7.8 Specialty of the 3-h Oscillation

9.8 Hiroshima Bay

9.8.1 Oceanographic State

9.8.2 Experiment

9.8.3 Position Correction

9.8.4 Range-Average Temperature

9.8.5 Inversion

9.8.6 Mapping Reconstructed Temperature Fields

9.8.7 Coastal Upwelling and Diurnal Internal Tides

9.8.8 Sea Surface Depression Associated With Upwelling

9.8.9 Upwelling Velocity and Mixing Rate

CHAPTER 10 Applications for Vertical-Slice Inversion

10.1 Bali Strait (June 2015)

10.1.1 Experiment

10.1.2 Ray Simulation

10.1.3 Identifying the First Two Arrival Peaks

10.1.4 Range-Average Current and Temperature

10.1.5 Inversion

10.1.6 Profiling the Current and Temperature

10.1.7 Power Spectral Densities

10.1.8 Nonlinear Tides

10.1.9 Concluding Remarks

10.2 Luzon Strait

10.2.1 Oceanographic State

10.2.2 Site and Experiment

10.2.3 Data Acquisition and Errors

10.2.4 Modal Simulation

10.2.5 Identifying Arrival Peaks in the Received Data

10.2.6 Profiling the Sound Speed Deviation

10.2.7 Retrieving the Periodic Phenomena

CHAPTER 11 Applications for Data Assimilation

11.1 Nekoseto Channel

11.1.1 Model and Methods

11.1.2 Mapping 2D Current Fields

11.1.3 Validation

viii Contents

11.2 Kanmon Strait

11.2.1 Model and Method

11.2.2 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

11.2.3 Along-Strait Volume Transport

11.2.4 Validation

11.3 Sanmen Bay

11.3.1 Model Site and Data

11.3.2 Methods

11.3.3 Model

11.3.4 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

11.3.5 Validation

11.4 Hiroshima Bay

11.4.1 Model

11.4.2 Methods

11.4.3 Mapping Three-Dimensional Current Velocity and

Salinity Fields

11.4.4 Volume Transports

11.4.5 Transport Continuity and Mixing Fractions

CHAPTER 12 Modal Function Expansion With Coastline Constraints

12.1 Fundamental Remarks

12.2 Formulation

12.3 Application to Hiroshima Bay

12.3.1 Experiment and Methods

12.3.2 Observed Data

12.3.3 Modal Expansion Functions

12.3.4 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

12.3.5 Validation

12.4 Application to Jiaozhou Bay

12.4.1 Oceanographic State

12.4.2 Experiment and Model

12.4.3 Modal Expansion Functions

12.4.4 Mapping Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

CHAPTER 13 Application to Various Fields and Phenomena

13.1 Yearly Measurement of the Residual Current

13.1.1 Specific Features

13.1.2 Experiment

13.1.3 Ray Simulation

13.1.4 Received Data

13.1.5 Along-Channel Current

Contents ix

13.1.6 Yearly Variations of the Observed Current

and Temperature

13.1.7 Residual Current Calculated From Upslope Point Method

13.2 Bay With Multiinternal Modes

13.2.1 Specific Features

13.2.2 Experiment and Methods

13.2.3 Range-Average Sound Speed

13.2.4 Spectral Analyses

13.2.5 Propagation of Internal-Mode Waves

13.3 Bay With Resonant Internal Modes

13.4 Strait With Internal Solitary Waves

13.4.1 Background

13.4.2 Experimental Site and Methods

13.4.3 Travel Times and Range-Average Temperatures for the Largest

Arrival Peak

13.4.4 Distance Correction

13.4.5 Sound Transmission Data With Multiarrival Peaks

13.4.6 Ray Simulation and Inversion

13.4.7 Profiling Temperatures

13.4.8 Concluding Remarks

13.5 River With Tidal Bores

13.5.1 Specific Features

13.5.2 Experiment and Methods

13.5.3 Cross-River Surveys by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current


13.5.4 Cross-River Surveys by Coastal Acoustic Tomography

13.5.5 River Discharges

13.5.6 Concluding Remarks

13.6 Large Circular Tank With Omnidirectional Waves and Currents

13.6.1 FloWave Circular Tank

13.6.2 Simulating Flow Fields

13.6.3 Experiment and Methods

13.6.4 Identifying Multiarrival Peaks

13.6.5 Mapping the Two-Dimensional Current Velocity Fields

13.6.6 Remaining Issues

CHAPTER 14 Mirror-Type Coastal Acoustic Tomography

14.1 Introductory Remarks

14.2 Mirror-Type Coastal Acoustic Tomography System Design

14.3 Enhancing the Positioning Accuracy

14.4 Feasibility Experiments

x Contents

14.5 Ray Simulation

14.6 Arrival-Peak Identification

14.7 Range-Average Currents

14.8 Compact Mirror-Type Coastal Acoustic Tomography Array

14.9 Further Advancement


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© Elsevier 2020
5th February 2020
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About the Authors

Arata Kaneko

Professor Kaneko started his academic career as a research associate in Kyushu University. In 1980, during his time as a research associate in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University, he was awarded Doctor of Engineering. In 1981, he was promoted as an associate professor in RIAM. After that, he shifted research field from the nearshore fluid dynamics to open-ocean fluid dynamics and started a challenging structural observation of ocean currents such as the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current, using a newly-developed towed-type acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). From 1985 to 1986, Professor Kaneko worked at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, extending his research to ocean acoustic tomography (OAT). In 1991, he moved to the Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, as a full professor. At this time Kaneko set up a lab studying OAT and began exploring the now well-established technology and method of applying OAT to coastal sea study, with more acoustic complexity. The coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) group, which was established in Hiroshima University and composed of research staff and graduate students educated in Kaneko’s laboratory, have visualized (mapped) variable coastal currents with methods combined by inversion and data assimilation in the last two decades and results have been released to the international oceanographic community

Affiliations and Expertise

Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan

Xiao-Hua Zhu

Xiao-Hua Zhu received a Ph.D. in physical oceanography from Hiroshima University. He was a post-doctoral fellow at Chugoku National Industrial Research Institute (CNIRI), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. After this Zhu moved to the Frontier Observational Research System for Global Change (FORSGC)/Japan Agency for Marin-Earth Science and Technology (JMASTEC) as a Research Scientist and started the mooring observations to measure the Kuroshio and Ryukyu Current in both sides of the Ryukyu Island by the Pressure-recording Inverted Echo Sounders (PIESs), moored ADCP and currentmeters. In 2006, he became a Senior Research Scientist of the State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration of China. Since then, he imported the coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems from Hiroshima University-related incubation company (Aqua Environmental Monitoring Limited Liability Partnership) and successfully carried out the CAT experiments in the coastal region of China, including Zhitouyang Bay, Sanmen Bay, Qiangtang River, Dalian Bay, Jiaozhou Bay and Qiongzhou Strait. He is also an adjunct professor in Zhejiang University, Dalian Ocean University, Hehai University and Shanghai Jiaotong University.

Affiliations and Expertise

State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, China

Ju Lin

Ju Lin is an associate professor of Ocean University of China. His research interests are focused on the characteristics of underwater acoustic propagation, the development of underwater acoustic monitoring system and acoustical oceanography. In the last decade, the newly proposed methods succeeded to invert the coastal sea environment parameters such as tidal current and temperature in the Kanmon Strait, Hiroshima Bay, Luzon Strait and Jiaozhou Bay from coastal acoustic tomography data. He serves as an executive council member of the Acoustic Society of Shandong, China, and a member of the Physical Acoustics Branch Committee of Acoustical Society of China and the Underwater Acoustics Branch Committee of Acoustical Society of China.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Information Science & Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingtao, China

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