Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Chemistry, Functionality and Applications

1st Edition - July 12, 2022

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  • Editor: Mohamed Ramadan
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323851770
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323885515

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Description

Organized into four sections, Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): Chemistry, Functionality, and Applications addresses the cultivation, composition, and applications of clove, along with the chemistry, functionality, and applications of clove fixed oil, clove essential oil, and clove extracts and their role in food and medicine. Beginning with the introduction of clove, this book aims to establish a multidisciplinary discussion on the development of Syzygium aromaticum phytochemistry, technology, processing, agricultural practices, functional traits, health-enhancing potential, mechanism of action, and toxicity as well as food and nonfood uses. The studies reported in this book confirm the functional applications of Syzygium aromaticum as a medicinal plant, standing out for the significance of novel applications. This book delves into the functional, nutritional, and pharmacological traits of clove. Therefore, the book will serve as a valuable reference for food scientists, technologists, chemists, nutritionists, and pharmacists developing new pharmaceutical and food products.

Key Features

  • Explores the chemistry and functionality of clove buds, clove oils and clove extracts
  • Discusses clove bioactive phytochemicals and their health-promoting potential
  • Presents the functional applications of clove buds, clove oils and clove extracts in food
  • Includes applications, literature reviews, and coverage of recent developments

Readership

Food scientists, technologists, and chemists, nutritionists, and pharmacists as well as students studying related fields

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • About the editor
  • Preface
  • Description
  • Key features
  • Readership
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to clove: Chemistry, functionality, and techno-applications
  • Abstract
  • 1: United Nations sustainable development goals and applications of medical plants
  • References
  • Section 1: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): Cultivation, composition and applications
  • Chapter 2: Composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) buds
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Production of clove buds in the Pacific Ocean
  • 3: Development stages of clove flowers
  • 4: Description of clove buds
  • 5: Clove genetics
  • 6: Chemical compositions of clove buds
  • 7: Application of clove buds
  • 8: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) leaves
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Description of clove leaves
  • 3: Chemical composition of clove leaves
  • 4: Application of clove leaves
  • 5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) polysaccharides
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove polysaccharides structure and composition
  • 3: Clove polysaccharides’ biological activities
  • 4: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oleoresins
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove oleoresins characteristics and compositions
  • 3: Clove oleoresins from different plant varieties
  • 4: Clove oleoresins extraction
  • 5: Detection of compounds in clove oleoresins
  • 6: Clove oleoresins application
  • 7: Prospect in clove oleoresins application
  • 8: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) cultivars: Convenient source of eugenol and its role in commercially important formulations
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Useful compounds of clove
  • 3: Eugenol and its derivatives
  • 4: Eugenol-based formulations
  • 5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Chemistry and functionality of clove oil nanoemulsions
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove oil and eugenol
  • 3: Biofunctional properties of clove oil
  • 4: Challenges for using the clove oil in the food matrix
  • 5: Encapsulation of clove oil
  • 6: Nanoemulsions for delivery of clove oil
  • 7: Importance of emulsifiers/surfactants in an emulsion system
  • 8: Stability of clove oil nanoemulsions
  • 9: Characterization of clove oil nanoemulsions
  • 10: Functionalities of clove oil nanoemulsions
  • 11: Application of clove oil/eugenol nanoemulsions as an antimicrobial agent in food
  • 12: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Eugenol-based nutraceuticals
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Source, extraction, and chemistry of eugenol
  • 3: Nanoformulation-based nutraceuticals
  • 4: Eugenol’s pharmacology and toxicological effects
  • 5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) volatiles
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove volatile oil characteristics and compositions
  • 3: Clove volatile oil from different plant varieties
  • 4: Clove volatile oil from different plant ages
  • 5: Clove volatile oil from different maturity of plant organs
  • 6: Clove volatile oil from different cultivation areas
  • 7: The volatile oil in cloves with different post-harvesting processes
  • 8: Clove volatile oil extraction and storage
  • 9: Clove volatile oil composition detection
  • 10: Clove volatiles application
  • 11: Prospect in clove volatiles application
  • 12: Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 10: Secondary metabolites of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Economic value of clove
  • 3: Phytochemistry
  • 4: Biological activities
  • 5: Conclusions and future prospective
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Health-promoting activities of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Health-promoting and other pharmacological activities of clove extracts
  • 3: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Nanocomposites using clove (Syzygium aromaticum) chemical constituents
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Nanocomposites
  • 3: Conclusions
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 13: Food applications of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) buds
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Food applications (culinary uses)
  • 3: Traditional medicinal uses
  • 4: Other uses
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 14: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) phenolics: Extraction, compositions, and biological activities
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove phenolics extraction, structure, and composition
  • 3: Clove phenolics biological activities
  • 4: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) in poultry feed
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove as alternative of phyto-additive
  • 3: Clove in poultry diet
  • 4: Essential oil of clove
  • 5: Essential oil in diet of poultry
  • 6: Clove as phyto-additive in drinking water
  • 7: Phytochemicals of clove for intestinal health
  • 8: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and its derivatives in fish feed
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and eugenol toxicity
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Bioactive compounds of clove and their toxic effects
  • 3: Eugenol
  • 4: Uses areas of eugenol
  • 5: Toxicity of eugenol and its effects
  • 6: Acute toxicity of eugenol
  • 7: Subacute and sub-chronic toxicity of eugenol
  • 8: Chronic toxicity of eugenol
  • 9: Ecotoxicity of eugenol
  • 10: Regulatory requirements
  • 11: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Anticancer effects of the active fraction from clove in vitro and in vivo
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Anticancer effect of liposoluble fraction of clove
  • 3: The anticancer effect of the aqueous fraction of clove
  • 4: Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Clove and its constituents against urban pests: Examples from ants and cockroaches
  • Abstract
  • 1: Urban pests
  • 2: Control methods of urban pests
  • 3: Application of clove and its constituents to control ants and cockroaches
  • 4: Mortality and repellency of clove products against ants
  • 5: Mortality and repellency of clove products against cockroaches
  • 6: Mode of action of bioactive compounds of cloves
  • 7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and clove extracts applications in the meat industry
  • Abstract
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove oil production
  • 3: Chemical composition and mechanisms of action of clove
  • 4: Quality control of meats with clove and clove eugenol
  • 5: Antibacterial activity of clove and clove eugenol in meat and meat products
  • 6: Antioxidant activity of clove in meat and meat products
  • 7: Conclusion and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Nanostructured pharmaceutical formulations for topical application of clove oil and eugenol
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove oil as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations for topical drug delivery
  • 3: Clove oil as a bioactive molecule in pharmaceutical formulations: Biological and pharmacological role
  • 4: Wound healing properties
  • 5: Nanostructured systems used in the encapsulation of clove oil
  • 6: Lipid-based nanoparticles: Liposomes, SLN, and NLC
  • 7: Polymeric nanoparticles
  • 8: Electrospun nanofibers
  • 9: Hydrogel-based nanomaterials
  • 10: Other vesicle-derived carriers
  • 11: Inclusion complexes and cyclodextrins
  • 12: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Extraction of bioactive compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Extraction of bioactive compounds
  • 3: Applications of clove extracts
  • 4: Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 2: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) fixed oil: Chemistry, functionality and applications
  • Chapter 23: Composition and functionality of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) fixed oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Fatty acid profile of CFOil
  • 3: Lipid classes and subclasses of CFOil
  • 4: Tocol profile of CFOil
  • 5: Antiradical potential of CFOil
  • 6: Antimicrobial activity of CFOil
  • 7: Hepatoprotective effect of CFOil against CCl4-induced toxicity in animals
  • 8: Application of CFOil in meat products
  • 9: Application of CFOil in edible oil blends
  • 10: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Food applications of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) fixed oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Applications of clove oil in edible oil blends
  • 3: Applications of microencapsulated clove oil
  • 4: Applications of clove oil in meat products
  • 5: Clove oil, baked product, and vegetable plant
  • 6: Applications of clove oil in edible coating
  • 7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Health-promoting activities of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) fixed oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Chemical composition of clove fixed oil
  • 3: Extraction of clove oil
  • 4: Pharmacological activities of clove
  • 5: Toxicity doses
  • 6: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Clove oil as bio-additives in biodiesel-diesel fuel
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: The effect of clove oil on diesel-biodiesel fuel
  • 3: Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 3: Clove essential oil: Chemistry, functionality and applications
  • Chapter 27: Composition and functionality of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Distribution
  • 3: Morphology
  • 4: Chemical constituents of clove essential oil
  • 5: The functionality of clove essential oil
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Effect of extraction techniques on the yield, composition, and quality of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Methods for extraction of essential oil
  • 3: Comparative studies
  • 4: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Health-promoting activities of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Health-promoting biological activities
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 30: Encapsulation of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove oil encapsulation methods
  • 3: Biologic activities of encapsulated clove essential oil
  • 4: Potential uses of encapsulated clove essential oil in food matrices
  • 5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of clove essential oil: Optimization and characterization
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Supercritical SC-CO2 apparatus
  • 3: Optimization of essential oil yield
  • 4: Chemical characteristics
  • 5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 32: Clove essential oil nanoemulsion: Optimization using artificial neural network
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Optimization techniques
  • 3: Techniques of essential oil nanoemulsions
  • 4: Comparison between RSM, ANN, and ANFIS
  • 5: Optimal conditions of stable O/W nanoemulsion
  • 6: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Preparation of oil-in-water (O/W) clove essential oil nanoemulsion: Characterization and stability
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Clove oil nanoemulsions
  • 3: Emulsification process
  • 4: Nanoemulsion morphology
  • 5: Stability studies of clove nanoemulsion
  • 6: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Storage quality of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Extraction of clove bud essential oil
  • 3: Chemistry of clove bud essential oil
  • 4: Storage stability
  • 5: Storage quality of food products supplemented with clove bud essential oil
  • 6: Biological activities
  • 7: Multidisciplinary applications
  • 8: Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 4: Clove extracts: Chemistry, functionality and applications
  • Chapter 35: Composition and functionality of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extracts
  • Abstract
  • 1: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • 2: Extraction of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • 3: Composition of clove extracts
  • 4: Functionality of clove extracts
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Food applications of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extracts
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of clove extracts
  • 3: Food applications of clove extracts
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Health-promoting activities of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extracts
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional uses
  • 3: Biological activities
  • 4: Other health benefits
  • 5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)-mediated metallic nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and possible pharmacological and industrial applications
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Role of clove phytochemicals in the synthesis
  • 3: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Toxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extract
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Extraction types and active compounds identified
  • 3: Toxicity studies
  • 4: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Antiviral properties of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Antiherpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of S. aromaticum
  • 3: Antiviral activity of green silver nanoparticles produced using Syzygium aromaticum aqueous buds extract
  • 4: Antiviral activity of eugenol
  • 5: Antiviral activities of clove oil
  • 6: Antiviral effects of Syzygium aromaticum against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
  • 7: Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 730
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: July 12, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323851770
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323885515

About the Editor

Mohamed Ramadan

Mohamed Ramadan
Dr. Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan is a Professor of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia. Since 2014, Ramadan has been Professor of Biochemistry at Zagazig University, Egypt. He obtained his PhD in food chemistry from Berlin University of Technology (2004). Prof. Ramadan continued his postdoctoral research at ranked universities, including the University of Helsinki, Finland; the Max-Rubner Institute, Germany; Berlin University of Technology, Germany; and the University of Maryland, United States. In 2010, he was invited to be a visiting professor (100% research) at King Saud University (KSU). In 2012, he was invited to be a visiting professor (100% teaching) in the School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University in Vladivostok, Russia.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of biochemistry, Zagazig University, Egypt and Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

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