Clinical Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123969613, 9780123972385

Clinical Engineering

1st Edition

A Handbook for Clinical and Biomedical Engineers

Editors: Azzam Taktak Paul Ganney David Long Paul White
eBook ISBN: 9780123972385
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969613
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th November 2013
Page Count: 480
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Description

Clinical Engineering is intended for professionals and students in the clinical engineering field who need to successfully deploy medical technologies. The book provides a broad reference to the core elements of the subject and draws from the expertise of a range of experienced authors.

In addition to engineering skills, clinical engineers must be able to work with patients and with a range of professional staff, including technicians and clinicians, and with equipment manufacturers. They have to keep up-to-date with fast-moving scientific and medical research in the field and be able to develop laboratory, design, workshop, and management skills. This book is the ideal companion in such studies, covering fundamentals such as IT and software engineering as well as topics in rehabilitation and assistive technology.

Key Features

  • Provides engineers in core medical disciplines and related fields with the skills and knowledge to successfully collaborate to in developing medical devices to approved procedures and standards
  • Covers US and EU standards (FDA and MDD, respectively, plus related ISO requirements), the de facto international standards, and is backed up by real-life clinical examples, case studies, and separate tutorials for training and class use
  • The first comprehensive and practical guide for engineers working in a clinical environment

Readership

Medical and Biomedical Engineers, plus medical and clinical professionals, involved with medical device design, from concept through to commercialization and FDA/regulatory approval.

Table of Contents

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Preface

Foreword

List of Contributors

Part I: General

Introduction

Overview

Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology

Introduction

Cell Physiology

Principles of Cell Replication

Bone and Skeletal Physiology

Nerve and Muscle Physiology

Cardiac Physiology

Vascular Physiology

Pulmonary Physiology

Introduction to Blood

Thrombosis, Hemostasis, and Inflammation

Homeostasis and Regulation

Renal Physiology and Homeostasis

Nutrition, the Pancreas, and Glucose Regulation

Chapter 2. Research Methodology

Study Design

Hypothesis Generation and Testing

Application and Interpretation of Statistical Techniques

Literature Searching and Referencing

References

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Good Clinical Practice

Background

Phases of Clinical Research

Standards in Clinical Research

Good Clinical Practice

Clinical Investigations for Medical Devices

Comparing Clinical Trials and Clinical Investigations

ISO 14155 Standard

Clinical Investigation Plan

Approvals to Undertake Research

References

Further Reading

Useful Websites

Chapter 4. Health Technology Management

Introduction

The Strategic Healthcare Technology Management System

Implementing the Healthcare Technology Management Program

Summary of the Healthcare Technology Management Program

References

Chapter 5. Leadership

Introduction

Leadership and Management

Emotional Intelligence

Listening on Three Levels

Seven Habits of Effective Leaders

Examples

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6. Risk Management

Introduction

Definition

Consequences and Likelihood

Third Dimension of Risk

Risk Appetite

Risk Acceptability

Medical Devices Directives

BS ISO 31000:2009

AS/NZS 4360:2004

ISO 14971:2007

Risk Tools

References

Further Reading

Chapter 7. The Role of Clinical Engineers in Hospitals

Introduction

Clinical Engineering as Applied Biomedical Engineering

Clinical Engineering Activities

Patient-Focused Engineering

References

Part II: Information Technology and Software Engineering

Introduction

Overview

Chapter 8. Information Communications Technology

The Regulation of Clinical Computing

Data Security Requirements

Data Exchange Protocols

References

Chapter 9. Software Engineering

Software Development and Management

Typical Applications

References

Chapter 10. Web Development

Web Technology

Programming

Security

Further Reading

Part III: Clinical Instrumentation and Measurement

Introduction

Overview

Chapter 11. Medical Electronics

Electronic Components

AC Signals’ Complex Ohm’s Law

Basic Circuit Design in Instrumentation

Filter

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Clinical Measurement

Accuracy and Precision

Measurement Device Errors

Measurement Errors

Calibration

Traceability

Uncertainty

Sensitivity and Specificity of Measurement Technique

Type I and Type II Errors

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Cardiology

Anatomy and Physiology

Echocardiography

Electrocardiography

Further Reading

Chapter 14. Pressure and Flow

Introduction

Blood Pressure

References

Chapter 15. Neurological Measurement

Electromyography

Evoked Potentials

Chapter 16. Respiratory

Introduction

Lung Volumes and Physiological Parameters

Volume Conversions

Lung Conditions

Reference Values

Spirometry

Whole Body Plethysmography

Gas Transfer

References

Part IV: Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology

Introduction

Overview

Chapter 17. Introduction: Medical Engineering Design, Regulations, and Risk Management

Introduction

Medical Engineering Design

Regulations and Risk Management

References

Further Reading

Chapter 18. Functional Electrical Stimulation

Introduction

Defining FES

Physiological Principles of FES

Designing a Practical FES System

The Desired Outcome for the Patient

Correct Muscles and Nerves to Produce the Desired Response

Generating the Required Muscle Response

How to Control the Stimulated Movement for the Specific Application

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 19. Posture Management

Introduction

Posture

Effects of Gravity

The Role of the Supporting Surface

24-Hour Postural Management

Biomechanics as Applied to Postural Management

Introduction to the Physical Assessment

Body Configuration

Critical Measures: Joint Range of Motion and Pelvic/Trunkal Asymmetry

Modeling a Stable and Functional Seated Posture

Summary of the Physical Assessment Process

Recommendations and Rationale for Posture Management

Secondary Complications

Summary

References

Chapter 20. Pressure Ulceration

Skin and Soft Tissues

Pressure Ulcers (PUs)

Care Quality and Financial Implications

Mechanical Loading at the Patient-Support Interface

Interface Pressure Mapping

Internal Mechanical State of Loaded Soft Tissues

Support Surfaces and Pressure Relief Regimens

Summary

References

Chapter 21. Introduction to Mobility and Wheelchair Assessment

Introduction to Mobility

Wheelchair Assessment Process

References

Chapter 22. Wheelchair Prescription

Getting into the Details

Custom-Contoured Seating

Wheelchair Stability

References

Chapter 23. Powered Wheelchairs

Introduction

Wheel Layout

Powered Adjustment to Position

Aspects of Clinical Assessment Specific to Powered Wheelchairs

Control Interfaces for Powered Wheelchairs

Specialized Controls

Powered Assistance to Manual Wheelchairs

References

Chapter 24. Electronic Assistive Technology

Introduction and Assessment

Environmental Control Systems

Augmentative and Alternative Communication

Access to Electronic Assistive Technology

Integrated Systems

Using and Adapting Mainstream Technology for Assistive Technology

Brain–Computer Interfaces

Disability and Smart House Technology

Telecommunications in the Provision of Healthcare

References

Further Readings

Web Resources

Chapter 25. Clinical Gait Analysis

Introduction

Normal Gait

Patient Functional Self-Assessment Questionnaires

Clinical or Physical Examination

Observational Gait Analysis and Video Vector

Kinematics and Kinetics

Electromyography

Energy Expenditure

Data Interpretation

Role of the Clinical Movement Analysis Society U.K. and Ireland (CMAS)

Summary

Subchapter 25.1 Principles of Kinematics and Kinetics

References

References

Further Reading

Resources

Chapter 26. Mechanical and Electromechanical Devices

Aids for Daily Living

Prosthetics

Orthotics

Orthopedic Biomechanics

Mobile Arm Supports

Robotics

References

Further Reading

Resources

Index

Details

No. of pages:
480
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123972385
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123969613

About the Editor

Azzam Taktak

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Medical Physics & Clinical Engineering, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK

Paul Ganney

Affiliations and Expertise

University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, UK

David Long

Affiliations and Expertise

Oxford Centre for Enablement, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK

Paul White

Affiliations and Expertise

Medical Physics & Clinical Engineering, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; Post Graduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, UK