Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080983493, 9780080983424

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges, Volume 13

1st Edition

Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research

Series Volume Editors: Rainer Matyssek N Clarke P. Cudlin T.N. Mikkelsen J-P. Tuovinen G Wieser E. Paoletti
eBook ISBN: 9780080983424
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080983493
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st November 2013
Page Count: 648
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Table of Contents

Series Page



Part I: Introduction into the Scope and Structure of the Book

Chapter 1. Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges: Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research


1.1 Why Write This Book?

1.2 Aims, Scope and Rationale

1.3 Overview of the Book’s Structure



Part II: Interactions Between Trace Gases, Climate Change and Vegetation

Chapter 2. Gaseous Exchange Between Forests and the Atmosphere


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Trace Gas Emissions from the Forest Floor

2.3 Effects of Forest Fires

2.4 Ozone Deposition

2.5 Interactions with Atmospheric Composition and Climate

2.6 Conclusions and Further Research Directions



Chapter 3. Nutrients or Pollutants? Nitrogen Deposition to European Forests


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Effects of Nitrogen Deposition to Forest Ecosystems

3.3 The Components of Nitrogen Deposition

3.4 Recent Developments to Assess Effects on Tree Growth

3.5 Policy Relevance of the Knowledge on Nitrogen Deposition



Chapter 4. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Impacts on Biosphere–Atmosphere Interactions

4.1 Generalities on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

4.2 BVOC and the Atmosphere: Fluxes and Concentrations (Sinks, Sources)

4.3 BVOC and Plant Physiology and Ecology: Membrane Protection, Anti-oxidants, Plant Communication

4.4 BVOC and Climate Change: Warmer = More Fragrant World?


Chapter 5. Air Pollution Risks to Northern European Forests in a Changing Climate


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Interactions and Feedbacks

5.3 Risk of Impacts

5.4 Discussion and Conclusions



Part III: Significance of Biotic Processes in Forest Ecosystem Response

Chapter 6. Ozone Research, Quo Vadis? Lessons from the Free-Air Canopy Fumigation Experiment at Kranzberg Forest


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Ozone as Part of Factorial Complexes

6.3 The Kranzberg Forest Experiment as a Starting Point

6.4 The Ecological Significance of Biotic Factors for Developing New O3 Research

6.5 Guiding O3 Research into the Future

6.6 Quo Vadis? Conclusions, Perspectives and Policy Implications


Chapter 7. Soil Respiration and Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Response to Climate Change


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Instantaneous Temperature Response of Soil Respiration

7.3 Short-Term Fluctuation of Substrate Supply with Possible Long-Term Effects on Soil Respiration

7.4 Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency as Affected by Temperature

7.5 Scientific Conclusions

7.6 Political Implications


Chapter 8. Mycorrhizosphere Complexity


8.1 Introduction: The Role of Mycorrhizae in Ecosystem Functions and Processes

8.2 Mycorrhizae Under Stress and Disturbance

8.3 Mycorrhizal Influence on Carbon Stores and Biodiversity: The Facilitation Concept

8.4 Conclusions and Prospects for Further Research and Monitoring



Chapter 9. Tree and Forest Responses to Interacting Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Tropospheric O3: A Synthesis of Experimental Evidence


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Literature Survey Methods

9.3 Forest Responses to Interacting eCO2 and eO3

9.4 Summary of Physiology, Biomass Production and SOC Cycling Responses to eCO2 × eO3

9.5 Moving Forward



Chapter 10. Belowground Carbon Cycling at Aspen FACE: Dynamic Responses to CO2 and O3 in Developing Forests


10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Aspen FACE Experiment

10.3 Conclusions and Implications



Chapter 11. Impacts of Atmospheric Change on Tree–Arthropod Interactions


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Tree Growth and Chemistry

11.3 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Canopy and Soil Arthropods

11.4 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Arthropod-Mediated Ecosystem Processes

11.5 Conclusions and Future Directions



Part IV: Mechanistic and Diagnostic Understanding for Risk Assessment and Up-Scaling

Chapter 12. Flux-Based Ozone Risk Assessment for Adult Beech and Spruce Forests


12.1 Introduction

12.2 The LRTAP Convention’s Stomatal O3 Flux Approach for Forest Trees

12.3 The Kranzberg Forest Experiment: A Validation Experiment for the LRTAP Convention’s Stomatal Flux Approach for Forest Trees

12.4 Conclusions and Perspectives for Future O3 Risk Assessments at Stand Level



Chapter 13. Integrative Leaf-Level Phytotoxic Ozone Dose Assessment for Forest Risk Modelling


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Ozone and Carbon Metabolism

13.3 Oxidative Stress and Carbon Metabolism

13.4 Identification of the Gaps

13.5 Conclusions



Chapter 14. Integrated Studies on Abiotic Stress Defence in Trees: The Case of Ozone


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Ozone Exposure Under Controlled Chamber/Greenhouse Conditions

14.3 Free-Air Exposure Systems

14.4 Next-Generation Technologies

14.5 Conclusions



Chapter 15. Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Increase Our Understanding About Defence Responses and Genotypic Differences of Northern Deciduous Trees to Elevating Ozone, CO2 and Climate Warming


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Ozone Experiments

15.3 Interactions of Ozone with CO2 and/or Elevated Temperature

15.4 Key Findings and Specific Questions Arising from the Ozone Stress Experiments

15.5 Future Developments and Socio-Economic Aspects


Part V: Global Dimension of Air Pollution as Part of Climate Change

Chapter 16. Interactive Effects of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in the United States: Current Understanding and Future Scenarios


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Air Pollution, Climate, and Their Interactions: Present Status and Projections for the Future

16.3 Present Knowledge on Impacts of Air Pollution, CC, Biotic Stressors and Management on Growth and Health of Forests

16.4 Possible Future Changes in U.S. Forests Caused by Climate Change and Air Pollution

16.5 Projected Hydrological, Nutritional, and Growth Changes in Mixed Conifer Forests of the SBM (Southern California) Due to CC, N Deposition, and O3

16.6 Projecting Hydrological, Nutritional and Growth Responses of Forested Watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Reflective of the American Northeast

16.7 Conclusions

16.8 Research and Management Needs



Chapter 17. Effects of Ozone on Forest Ecosystems in East and Southeast Asia


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Effect of Air Pollution on Forest Ecosystems in East and Southeast Asia

17.3 Experimental and Process Studies on Effects and Uptake of Ozone

17.4 Conclusions



Chapter 18. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Plants: Implications for India


18.1 Introduction

18.2 India’s Forest Cover and Forest Types

18.3 Sources of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases in India

18.4 Air Quality in India

18.5 Impacts of O3 on Agriculture

18.6 Future Perspectives on the O3 Problem in India

18.7 Conclusions


Chapter 19. Land Use Change, Air Pollution and Climate Change—Vegetation Response in Latin America


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Latin America and Its Major Biomes

19.3 Land Use Change, Air Pollutant Emission and Regional Climate Change

19.4 Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Natural Savanna and Forest Ecosystems

19.5 Ozone: A Growing Concern

19.6 Vegetation Responses to Global Change

19.7 Conclusions and Future Directions



Chapter 20. Ozone Concentrations and Their Potential Impacts on Vegetation in Southern Africa


20.1 Introduction

20.2 South African Biomes

20.3 Air Pollution Sources in Southern Africa

20.4 Ozone Levels in Southern Africa

20.5 Previous Studies on Ecosystem Impacts of Ozone

20.6 Effects of Growing Season on Ozone Uptake

20.7 Conclusions and Future Directions



Chapter 21. Wildland Fires: Monitoring, Plume Modelling, Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Climate


21.1 Wildland Fires: Part of the Ecosystem Lifecycle or a Result of Anthropogenic Stress?

21.2 Satellite Products Used for Wildland Fires Monitoring

21.3 Fire Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Air Quality: Modelling Assessments and Available Observations

21.4 Future Challenges and Major Research Directions



Part VI: The Potential of “Supersites” for Research on Forest Ecosystems

Chapter 22. Towards Supersites in Forest Ecosystem Monitoring and Research


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Monitoring Sites and Research Networks

22.3 Harmonisation of Databases and Knowledge About Climate Change and Air Pollution Impact on Forest Ecosystems

22.4 Knowledge Gaps and New Processes to be Studied

22.5 Science and Policy Recommendations



Chapter 23. Key Indicators of Air Pollution and Climate Change Impacts at Forest Supersites


23.1 Introduction

23.2 General Parameters

23.3 The Carbon Budget

23.4 The Nitrogen Budget

23.5 The Ozone Budget

23.6 The Water Budget

23.7 Concluding Remarks


Further Reading

Part VII: Knowledge Transfer and Socio-Economic Aspects

Chapter 24. Forest Ecosystem Services Under Climate Change and Air Pollution


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Adopting the Ecosystem Services Concept to Identify and Value Changes in Forests

24.3 Ecosystem Processes/Functions Under Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Air Pollution—Sustainable Providers of Ecosystem Services

24.4 Adaptive Governance and Communication to the Public Towards Sustainable Forest—Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration

24.5 Evaluation of Selected Ecosystem Services on the Basis of Monitored Energy, Water and Material Flows Estimation: Case Study in the Forest–Agricultural Landscape of the Czech Republic

24.6 Conclusions



Chapter 25. Targeting Sustainable Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services with Special Focus on Carbon Sequestration


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Conceptualising Forest Multi-Functionality

25.3 Drivers of Forestry Changes

25.4 Challenges to Sustainability in Provision of Ecosystems Services

25.5 Stakeholder and Institutional Considerations

25.6 Valuing Ecosystem Services'

25.7 Implementing Forest Multi-Functionality

25.8 Payments for Ecosystem Services

25.9 Integrating Carbon Sequestration Objectives in multi-functional forestry to Tackle Climate Change

25.10 Conclusions



Chapter 26. Global Change and the Role of Forests in Future Land-Use Systems


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Forestry Sector

26.3 The Agriculture Sector and the Role of Forests in Comprehensive Land-Use Concepts

26.4 Concluding Remarks



Part VIII: Synopsis

Chapter 27. Conclusions and Perspectives


27.1 Scope of the Conclusions

27.2 Conclusions from and for Natural Sciences

27.3 Conclusions for Socio-Economic Sciences and Policy

27.4 Closing Thoughts




There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research” for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services.

Key Features

  • Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs
  • Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts
  • Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need


Forestry scientists, environmental scientists, policy makers


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"...invaluable and indispensible for all who wish to take part in the discussion on an informed level and especially for those who are in a position where they need to make sociopolitical decisions…"--Journal of Forest Science, 60, 2014 (8)

"This is the report from a 2009-13 study…to increase understanding of the state of forest ecosystems and their potential to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment; and to reconcile process-oriented research, long-term monitoring, and applied modeling at comprehensive forest research sites to be established.", April 2014

About the Series Volume Editors

Rainer Matyssek Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Technische Universität München, Germany

N Clarke Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute

P. Cudlin Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

T.N. Mikkelsen Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

J-P. Tuovinen Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Finnish Meteorological Institute

G Wieser Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests

E. Paoletti Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise