Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research

1st Edition - November 1, 2013
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Rainer Matyssek, N Clarke, P. Cudlin, T.N. Mikkelsen, J-P. Tuovinen, G. Wieser, E. Paoletti
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080983424
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080983493

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Description

There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research” for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services.

Key Features

  • Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs
  • Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts
  • Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need

Readership

Forestry scientists, environmental scientists, policy makers

Table of Contents

  • Series Page

    Contributors

    Preface

    Part I: Introduction into the Scope and Structure of the Book

    Chapter 1. Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges: Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research

    Abstract

    1.1 Why Write This Book?

    1.2 Aims, Scope and Rationale

    1.3 Overview of the Book’s Structure

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part II: Interactions Between Trace Gases, Climate Change and Vegetation

    Chapter 2. Gaseous Exchange Between Forests and the Atmosphere

    Abstract

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Trace Gas Emissions from the Forest Floor

    2.3 Effects of Forest Fires

    2.4 Ozone Deposition

    2.5 Interactions with Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    2.6 Conclusions and Further Research Directions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 3. Nutrients or Pollutants? Nitrogen Deposition to European Forests

    Abstract

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Effects of Nitrogen Deposition to Forest Ecosystems

    3.3 The Components of Nitrogen Deposition

    3.4 Recent Developments to Assess Effects on Tree Growth

    3.5 Policy Relevance of the Knowledge on Nitrogen Deposition

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 4. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Impacts on Biosphere–Atmosphere Interactions

    4.1 Generalities on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    4.2 BVOC and the Atmosphere: Fluxes and Concentrations (Sinks, Sources)

    4.3 BVOC and Plant Physiology and Ecology: Membrane Protection, Anti-oxidants, Plant Communication

    4.4 BVOC and Climate Change: Warmer = More Fragrant World?

    References

    Chapter 5. Air Pollution Risks to Northern European Forests in a Changing Climate

    Abstract

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Interactions and Feedbacks

    5.3 Risk of Impacts

    5.4 Discussion and Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part III: Significance of Biotic Processes in Forest Ecosystem Response

    Chapter 6. Ozone Research, Quo Vadis? Lessons from the Free-Air Canopy Fumigation Experiment at Kranzberg Forest

    Abstract

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Ozone as Part of Factorial Complexes

    6.3 The Kranzberg Forest Experiment as a Starting Point

    6.4 The Ecological Significance of Biotic Factors for Developing New O3 Research

    6.5 Guiding O3 Research into the Future

    6.6 Quo Vadis? Conclusions, Perspectives and Policy Implications

    References

    Chapter 7. Soil Respiration and Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Response to Climate Change

    Abstract

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The Instantaneous Temperature Response of Soil Respiration

    7.3 Short-Term Fluctuation of Substrate Supply with Possible Long-Term Effects on Soil Respiration

    7.4 Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency as Affected by Temperature

    7.5 Scientific Conclusions

    7.6 Political Implications

    References

    Chapter 8. Mycorrhizosphere Complexity

    Abstract

    8.1 Introduction: The Role of Mycorrhizae in Ecosystem Functions and Processes

    8.2 Mycorrhizae Under Stress and Disturbance

    8.3 Mycorrhizal Influence on Carbon Stores and Biodiversity: The Facilitation Concept

    8.4 Conclusions and Prospects for Further Research and Monitoring

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 9. Tree and Forest Responses to Interacting Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Tropospheric O3: A Synthesis of Experimental Evidence

    Abstract

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Literature Survey Methods

    9.3 Forest Responses to Interacting eCO2 and eO3

    9.4 Summary of Physiology, Biomass Production and SOC Cycling Responses to eCO2 × eO3

    9.5 Moving Forward

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 10. Belowground Carbon Cycling at Aspen FACE: Dynamic Responses to CO2 and O3 in Developing Forests

    Abstract

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 The Aspen FACE Experiment

    10.3 Conclusions and Implications

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 11. Impacts of Atmospheric Change on Tree–Arthropod Interactions

    Abstract

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Tree Growth and Chemistry

    11.3 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Canopy and Soil Arthropods

    11.4 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Arthropod-Mediated Ecosystem Processes

    11.5 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part IV: Mechanistic and Diagnostic Understanding for Risk Assessment and Up-Scaling

    Chapter 12. Flux-Based Ozone Risk Assessment for Adult Beech and Spruce Forests

    Abstract

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The LRTAP Convention’s Stomatal O3 Flux Approach for Forest Trees

    12.3 The Kranzberg Forest Experiment: A Validation Experiment for the LRTAP Convention’s Stomatal Flux Approach for Forest Trees

    12.4 Conclusions and Perspectives for Future O3 Risk Assessments at Stand Level

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 13. Integrative Leaf-Level Phytotoxic Ozone Dose Assessment for Forest Risk Modelling

    Abstract

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Ozone and Carbon Metabolism

    13.3 Oxidative Stress and Carbon Metabolism

    13.4 Identification of the Gaps

    13.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 14. Integrated Studies on Abiotic Stress Defence in Trees: The Case of Ozone

    Abstract

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Ozone Exposure Under Controlled Chamber/Greenhouse Conditions

    14.3 Free-Air Exposure Systems

    14.4 Next-Generation Technologies

    14.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 15. Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Increase Our Understanding About Defence Responses and Genotypic Differences of Northern Deciduous Trees to Elevating Ozone, CO2 and Climate Warming

    Abstract

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Ozone Experiments

    15.3 Interactions of Ozone with CO2 and/or Elevated Temperature

    15.4 Key Findings and Specific Questions Arising from the Ozone Stress Experiments

    15.5 Future Developments and Socio-Economic Aspects

    References

    Part V: Global Dimension of Air Pollution as Part of Climate Change

    Chapter 16. Interactive Effects of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in the United States: Current Understanding and Future Scenarios

    Abstract

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Air Pollution, Climate, and Their Interactions: Present Status and Projections for the Future

    16.3 Present Knowledge on Impacts of Air Pollution, CC, Biotic Stressors and Management on Growth and Health of Forests

    16.4 Possible Future Changes in U.S. Forests Caused by Climate Change and Air Pollution

    16.5 Projected Hydrological, Nutritional, and Growth Changes in Mixed Conifer Forests of the SBM (Southern California) Due to CC, N Deposition, and O3

    16.6 Projecting Hydrological, Nutritional and Growth Responses of Forested Watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Reflective of the American Northeast

    16.7 Conclusions

    16.8 Research and Management Needs

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 17. Effects of Ozone on Forest Ecosystems in East and Southeast Asia

    Abstract

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Effect of Air Pollution on Forest Ecosystems in East and Southeast Asia

    17.3 Experimental and Process Studies on Effects and Uptake of Ozone

    17.4 Conclusions

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 18. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Plants: Implications for India

    Abstract

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 India’s Forest Cover and Forest Types

    18.3 Sources of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases in India

    18.4 Air Quality in India

    18.5 Impacts of O3 on Agriculture

    18.6 Future Perspectives on the O3 Problem in India

    18.7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 19. Land Use Change, Air Pollution and Climate Change—Vegetation Response in Latin America

    Abstract

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Latin America and Its Major Biomes

    19.3 Land Use Change, Air Pollutant Emission and Regional Climate Change

    19.4 Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Natural Savanna and Forest Ecosystems

    19.5 Ozone: A Growing Concern

    19.6 Vegetation Responses to Global Change

    19.7 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 20. Ozone Concentrations and Their Potential Impacts on Vegetation in Southern Africa

    Abstract

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 South African Biomes

    20.3 Air Pollution Sources in Southern Africa

    20.4 Ozone Levels in Southern Africa

    20.5 Previous Studies on Ecosystem Impacts of Ozone

    20.6 Effects of Growing Season on Ozone Uptake

    20.7 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 21. Wildland Fires: Monitoring, Plume Modelling, Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    Abstract

    21.1 Wildland Fires: Part of the Ecosystem Lifecycle or a Result of Anthropogenic Stress?

    21.2 Satellite Products Used for Wildland Fires Monitoring

    21.3 Fire Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Air Quality: Modelling Assessments and Available Observations

    21.4 Future Challenges and Major Research Directions

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Part VI: The Potential of “Supersites” for Research on Forest Ecosystems

    Chapter 22. Towards Supersites in Forest Ecosystem Monitoring and Research

    Abstract

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Monitoring Sites and Research Networks

    22.3 Harmonisation of Databases and Knowledge About Climate Change and Air Pollution Impact on Forest Ecosystems

    22.4 Knowledge Gaps and New Processes to be Studied

    22.5 Science and Policy Recommendations

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 23. Key Indicators of Air Pollution and Climate Change Impacts at Forest Supersites

    Abstract

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 General Parameters

    23.3 The Carbon Budget

    23.4 The Nitrogen Budget

    23.5 The Ozone Budget

    23.6 The Water Budget

    23.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Further Reading

    Part VII: Knowledge Transfer and Socio-Economic Aspects

    Chapter 24. Forest Ecosystem Services Under Climate Change and Air Pollution

    Abstract

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Adopting the Ecosystem Services Concept to Identify and Value Changes in Forests

    24.3 Ecosystem Processes/Functions Under Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Air Pollution—Sustainable Providers of Ecosystem Services

    24.4 Adaptive Governance and Communication to the Public Towards Sustainable Forest—Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration

    24.5 Evaluation of Selected Ecosystem Services on the Basis of Monitored Energy, Water and Material Flows Estimation: Case Study in the Forest–Agricultural Landscape of the Czech Republic

    24.6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 25. Targeting Sustainable Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services with Special Focus on Carbon Sequestration

    Abstract

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Conceptualising Forest Multi-Functionality

    25.3 Drivers of Forestry Changes

    25.4 Challenges to Sustainability in Provision of Ecosystems Services

    25.5 Stakeholder and Institutional Considerations

    25.6 Valuing Ecosystem Services'

    25.7 Implementing Forest Multi-Functionality

    25.8 Payments for Ecosystem Services

    25.9 Integrating Carbon Sequestration Objectives in multi-functional forestry to Tackle Climate Change

    25.10 Conclusions

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 26. Global Change and the Role of Forests in Future Land-Use Systems

    Abstract

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Forestry Sector

    26.3 The Agriculture Sector and the Role of Forests in Comprehensive Land-Use Concepts

    26.4 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part VIII: Synopsis

    Chapter 27. Conclusions and Perspectives

    Abstract

    27.1 Scope of the Conclusions

    27.2 Conclusions from and for Natural Sciences

    27.3 Conclusions for Socio-Economic Sciences and Policy

    27.4 Closing Thoughts

    Acknowledgements

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 648
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: November 1, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080983424
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080983493

About the Series Volume Editors

Rainer Matyssek

Affiliations and Expertise

Technische Universität München, Germany

N Clarke

Affiliations and Expertise

Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute

P. Cudlin

Affiliations and Expertise

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

T.N. Mikkelsen

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

J-P. Tuovinen

Affiliations and Expertise

Finnish Meteorological Institute

G. Wieser

Affiliations and Expertise

Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests

E. Paoletti

Affiliations and Expertise

IPP-CNR