I. Background. Nomenclature. II. Structure and Composition. Kaolin. Serpentine. Illite. Phengite. Smectite. Mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S). Chlorite and chloritics. Vermiculite. Glauconite, celadonite. Talc, kerolite. Sepiolite, palygorskite. III. Soils and Weathering. Soil formation. Climate (and other factors). Chemical weathering processes. Pedogenic formation of physils. IV. Continental Transport and Deposition. Rivers. Estuaries. Marshes and tidal flats. Deltas. Lakes. V. Marine Transport and Deposition. Water transport. Atmospheric transport. Ice transport. Distribution of physils in the oceans. VI. ``Authigenic Marine'' Physils. Exchange reactions. Physil dissolution and precipitation. Formation of physils from marine volcanics. Physils that grow in shallow marine, brackish, and evaporitic environments. VII. Diagenesis Metamorphism. Diagenesis. Beyond diagenesis. Organic and physil paleothermometers. VIII. Physils in Sandstones. Introduction. Examples. IX. Evolution of Physils and Continents. Introduction. Precambrian. Early Paleozoic. Cambrian. Ordovician. Silurian. Devonian. Carboniferous. Permian. Triassic. Jurassic. Cretaceous. Cenozoic. Pleistocene. Paleoatlantic. X. Lithification and Petrology. Compaction. Sedimentary structures. Composition. Color. Thin sections. References. Author Index. Subject Index.