Chronic Radiation Hazards

Chronic Radiation Hazards

An Experimental Study with Fast Neutrons

1st Edition - January 1, 1957

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  • Authors: G.J. Neary, R.J. Munson, R H Mole
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155968

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Chronic Radiation Hazards: An Experimental Study with Fast Neutrons describes a large-scale experiment on the hazards to be expected from low and very low levels of chronic irradiation by fast neutrons. Fast neutrons may be an environmental hazard around nuclear reactors and some machines for accelerating particles, and it is therefore of practical as well as academic importance to get some idea of the likely ill-effects of chronic irradiation by fast neutrons. The book is organized into four parts. Part I describes the experimental design, including factors such choice of animal, choice of dose rate, observation of radiation effects, dose measurements, and energy of the neutrons. Part II deals with the measurement of fast neutron dose. Topics discussed include Interaction of neutrons with light elements; energy absorption due to fast neutrons; energy absorption due to gamma rays; and ionization-dose and ionization-flux relations for fast neutrons. Part III discusses the results of fast neutron irradiation while Part IV covers the relative biological efficiency of fast neutrons and gamma rays for chronic exposures.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    I. Experimental Design

    1. Introduction

    2. Choice of Animal

    3. Choice of Dose Rate

    4. Continuity of Irradiation

    5. Contaminating Radiations

    6. Animal Care

    7. Observation of Radiation Effects

    8. General Structural Lay-out

    9. The Radiations in the Tanks

    (i) Fast Neutron Radiation

    (ii) Background Fast Neutron Radiation

    (iii) Thermal Neutrons

    (iv) Gamma Radiation

    10. Dose Levels in the Tanks

    11. The Energy of the Neutrons

    12. Dose Distribution in the Mouse

    II. Dosimetry

    1. Introduction

    2. Interaction of Neutrons with Light Elements

    3. Energy Absorption Due to Fast Neutrons

    (i) Elastic Scattering of Fast Neutrons

    (ii) Inelastic Scattering and Nuclear Reactions of Fast Neutrons

    4. Energy Absorption Due to Slow Neutrons

    5. Energy Absorption Due to Gamma Rays

    6. Principle of Method of Measurement of Fast Neutron Dose

    7. Ionization-dose Relations for Fast Neutrons

    (i) Homogeneous Acetylene and Tissue Chambers

    (ii) Non-homogeneous Chambers

    8. Ionization-flux Relations for Slow Neutrons

    (i) Boron Trifluoride Chamber

    (ii) Magnesium-argon Chamber

    (iii) Acetylene Chamber

    (iv) Tissue Chamber

    (v) Relative Ionizations by Fast and Slow Neutrons

    9. Ionization-dose Relations for Gamma Rays

    10. Attenuation of Radiations in the Chamber Walls

    11. Expressions for Fast Neutron and Gamma Ray Dose Rates and for Slow Neutron Flux

    12. Accuracy of the Estimates of Dose Rate

    (i) Fast Neutron Dose Rate

    (ii) Gamma Ray Dose Rate

    (iii) Slow Neutron Flux

    13. Comparison of the Fast Neutron Dose Rates from Observations with Acetylene, Tissue and Aluminum-argon Chambers

    14. Apparatus and Experimental Procedures

    (i) The Ionization Chambers

    (ii) Ionization Current Measurement

    (iii) Saturation Curves

    (iv) Calibration of the Chambers

    15. Energy of the Gamma Rays in the Irradiation Tanks

    (i) Experimental Details

    (ii) Results

    16. Energy Loss per Ion Pair in Gases

    (i) Experimental Work since 1944

    (ii) Energy per Ion Pair in Argon

    (iii) Energy per Ion Pair in Acetylene

    (iv) Energy per Ion Pair in Nitrogen, Oxygen, Air, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor and Boron Trifluoride

    (v) General Conclusions for Pure Gases

    (vi) Ionization by Neutron Recoils

    (vii) Energy per Ion Pair in Gas Mixtures

    17. Summary

    Appendix. Ionization Currents in Chambers Exposed to Slow Neutrons

    III. Results of Fast Neutron Irradiation

    1. Records of Dosage and Environment

    (i) Dosage

    (ii) Environmental Temperature

    2. Effects of Continued Exposure to Death

    (i) Survival Times: Analysis and Interpretation

    (ii) Body Weight

    (iii) Causes of Death and Other Pathological Observations

    (iv) Incidence of Tumors

    3. Effects of Limited Exposure

    (i) Hematology

    (ii) Weights of Organs

    (iii) Male and Female Fertility

    (iv) Survival after Limited Exposures

    (v) Observations on Mice Bred in the Irradiation Field

    (vi) Testis Weight after a Single Dose of Fast Neutrons

    4. Discussion

    5. Summary

    IV. Relative Biological Efficiency of Fast Neutrons and Gamma Rays for Chronic Exposures

    1. Radiation Sources

    2. Testis Weight

    3. Male Fertility

    4. Female Fertility

    5. Hematological Changes

    6. Weight of Spleen and Thymus

    7. Discussion

    8. Summary

    General Summary and Conclusions

    Glossary of Symbols


Product details

  • No. of pages: 202
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1957
  • Published: January 1, 1957
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155968

About the Authors

G.J. Neary

R.J. Munson

R H Mole

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