Cholesterol Metabolism, LDL, and the LDL Receptor - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125123006, 9780323148870

Cholesterol Metabolism, LDL, and the LDL Receptor

1st Edition

Authors: N Myant
eBook ISBN: 9780323148870
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th June 1990
Page Count: 480
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Description

Cholesterol Metabolism, LDL, and the LDL Receptor focuses on the cholesterol biochemistry and lipoprotein metabolism. This book is organized into 10 chapters that describe the coordinated actions of three regulated processes, namely, the intracellular synthesis of cholesterol, its esterification by ACAT, and the receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), for optimal level of free cholesterol. The first five chapters explore the various aspects of cholesterol biology, including discussions on the interaction of ligands with their cell-surface receptors; the role of coated pits in the endocytosis of receptor-bound ligands; and the recycling of receptors through the interior of the cell. These chapters also examine the regulation of gene expression encoding inducible proteins and the use of natural and synthetic mutations in studies of the functions of the separate domains of a multifunctional protein. A chapter describes the cloning of the apoB gene, the receptor-binding domain of apoB-100, and the unusual mode of derivation of apoB-48. Considerable chapters are devoted to LDL receptor and its pathway. The concluding chapter deals with the clinical consequences of genetic dysfunction of the LDL receptor, with particular emphasis on the diagnostic and treatment approaches of familial hypercholesterolemia that are based wholly or in part on knowledge of the LDL receptor or its gene.
This book is an indispensable guide for biologists, physiologists, and clinicians who are interested in the epidemiological field of cholesterol and heart attacks.

Table of Contents


Foreword: Simplifying Cholesterol Metabolism

Preface

Acknowledgments

1. The LDL Receptor in Perspective

2. Cholesterol in Animal Tissues

I. Functions and Distribution

II. Sources of Cholesterol in Different Tissues

III. Measurement of Whole-Body Synthesis of Cholesterol

References

3. HMG-CoA Reductase

I. The Rate-Limiting Step in Cholesterol Biosynthesis

II. Composition, Structure, and Orientation

III. The HMG-CoA Reductase Gene and Its mRNA

IV. Somatic-Cell Mutants in the Study of Cholesterol Metabolism

V. The Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase

References

4. Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase

I. Biological Functions

II. Properties and Methods of Assay

III. ACAT and the Metabolism of Intracellular Cholesteryl Esters

IV. Regulation of ACAT

References

5. LDL: Physical and Chemical Characteristics

I. Composition and Physical Characteristics

II. Structure

III. Heterogeneity and Genetic Polymorphism

References

6. Apolipoprotein Β (apoB)

I. LDL ApoB: Definition and Some Properties

II. ApoB Species in Human Plasma

III. Composition and Structure of ApoB-100

IV. Lp(a): A Lipoprotein Containing ApoB-100

V. The LDL-Receptor-Binding Site on ApoB

VI. The ApoB Gene and Its mRNA

VII. Polymorphism in the Human ApoB Gene

VIII. Polymorphism in the ApoB Gene in Animals

IX. ApoB (Arg3500→Gln): A Rare Variant

X. Mutations Causing Absence or Deficiency of Plasma ApoB

References

7. LDL: Origin and Metabolism

I. The Production of LDL

II. LDL Catabolism In Vivo

References

8. The LDL Receptor: Biochemistry and Cell Biology

I. Historical Background

II. Surface Binding and Intracellular Degradation of LDL

III. LDL Receptors in Nonfibroblast Cells

IV. Effects of Growth Factors and Hormones In Vitro

References

9. The LDL Receptor: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Molecular Genetics

I. The Route to Isolation of the Human Receptor and Its Gene

II. The Normal LDL Receptor

III. The LDL-Receptor Gene and Its Message

IV. Regulation of Expression of the Receptor Gene

V. Natural Mutations at the Receptor Locus

VI. Somatic-Cell Mutations

VII. Polymorphism in the LDL-Receptor Gene

VIII. Evolutionary Aspects of the Receptor Gene

References

10. Normal and Defective LDL-Receptor Function In Vivo

I. Introduction

II. Comparison between LDL-Receptor Function In Vitro and In Vivo

III. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Consequence of LDL-Receptor Deficiency

IV. The WHHL Rabbit

References

Glossary

Appendix A: Abbreviations for Amino Acids

Appendix B: Abbreviations for Nucleotide Bases

Index


Details

No. of pages:
480
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323148870

About the Author

N Myant