Children as Teachers

Children as Teachers

Theory and Research on Tutoring

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Editor: Vernon L. Allen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215914

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Children as Teachers: Theory and Research on Tutoring covers topics on the use of children to tutor other children in school; helping relationships in general; and cross-age interaction by children. The book discusses the basic theoretical and empirical foundations for practical programs; original empirical research relevant to cross-age interaction and the impact of tutoring on both the tutor and the tutee; and a wide range of tutoring programs that operate in the schools. The text also reviews existing research on tutoring by children, as well as research and experience on the advantages and disadvantages of several alternative decisions when establishing a tutoring program in the school. Some of the papers in the book report interesting scientific information on topics having obvious practical implications: social class and ethnic differences in tutoring by young children; teaching by siblings; nonverbal skills and consequences of tutoring for the tutor; and the use of a variety of nonprofessionals as helpers. Educators, social scientists, psychologists, and policy makers will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    I Theoretical Considerations

    1 The Helping Relationship and Socialization of Children: Some Perspectives on Tutoring

    Historical Background

    Age Stratification, Socialization, and Tutoring


    2 Cross-Age Tutoring and Social Identity

    A Theoretical Framework

    The Role of Teacher

    The Role of Tutor

    The Problem of Individual Differences



    3 Cross-Age versus Same-Age Peer Interaction: Ethological and Cross-Cultural Perspectives

    An Ethological Perspective on Peer Group Composition

    Cross-Cultural Studies

    Interpretive Comment

    Some Thoughts for Designers of Cross-Age Programs



    4 Social Skills Theory

    Nonverbal Elements of Social Behavior

    Sequences of Behavior

    The Effects of Social Skills

    Acquisition of Social Skills

    Social Skills Training


    II Helping Relationships with Children

    5 Teaching Styles in Young Children: Implications for Peer Tutoring

    Reinforcement Styles in Teaching

    Cross-Cultural Studies of Reinforcement Style

    Teaching Style and Cognitive Competence



    6 Siblings Teaching Siblings

    Interaction within the Family

    Research on Siblings Teaching Siblings

    Theoretical Explanations

    Implications for Research and Practice


    7 Studies on the Role of Tutor

    Consequences of Enacting the Role of Tutor

    Social Interaction Processes


    8 Nonprofessional Human-Service Helping Programs for Young Children

    A Rationale for Nonprofessional Human-Service Intervention

    Housewives as Child-Aides

    Related Programs

    Discussion, Implications, and Conclusions


    III Tutoring Programs in Schools

    9 Learning through Cross-Age Helping: Why and How

    Rationale and Goals

    Ingredients for a Successful Program

    Designs for Cross-Age Helping Programs



    10 Structured Tutoring: Antidote for Low Achievement

    Training Nonprofessional Tutors



    11 A Model for the Development or Selection of School-Based Tutorial Systems

    Characteristics of an Effective Tutorial System


    12 The Tutorial Community

    Characteristics of the Tutorial Community

    Issues in School-Wide Tutoring Programs


    13 Tutoring and Psychological Growth

    The Tutoring Programs

    Expectations Associated with Tutoring

    Variations in the Chicago School Programs

    Dependent Measures

    Findings and Discussion


    14 Teenagers as Tutors of Academically Low-Achieving Children: Impact on Tutors and Tutees

    The Mobilization for Youth Tutorial Program

    Predicting Change in Tutors and Their Tutees



    IV Problems and Possibilities

    15 Children Tutoring Children: A Critical Review of Research

    Variables Affecting the Outcomes of Tutoring

    Comments on Research Design


    16 Implementing Tutoring Programs: Some Alternatives for Practitioners and Researchers

    Implementing a Tutoring Program

    Implementing Field Research


    Manuals, Tutoring Packages, and Tutoring Materials


Product details

  • No. of pages: 292
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215914

About the Editor

Vernon L. Allen

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