Chemical Metallurgy

Chemical Metallurgy

1st Edition - March 24, 1981

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  • Authors: J. J. Moore, E. A. Boyce, M. J. Brooks
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483145013

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Chemical Metallurgy provides an understanding of the fundamental chemical principles and demonstrates the application of these principles to process metallurgy and corrosion protection. The book discusses the fundamental chemical principles involved in metallurgical reactions. Since it is felt that the understanding of quantitative thermodynamics and its application to process metallurgy often prove to be a major problem area for students, example calculations and exercises are included at the end of each section in Chapter 2. The final three chapters deal with the applications of the chemical principles to the extraction and refining of metals, metal melting and recycling, and metallic corrosion. The book is intended as an introductory text for metallurgy students studying for first degrees, TEC higher diplomas and certificates, and Graduateship of the Institution of Metallurgists. It should also be of use to scientists and engineers entering employment in the metallurgical and metal finishing industries or the teaching profession.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Bonding and Periodicity

    1.1 The Atomic Structure of Elements

    1.1.1 The Nucleus

    1.1.2 Atomic Spectra

    1.2 The Periodic Table of the Elements

    1.3 Chemical Bonds

    1.3.1 The Ionic Bond (Electrovalency)

    1.3.2 The Covalent Bond

    1.3.3 The Metallic Bond

    1.4 A More Detailed Study of the Periodic Table of the Elements

    1.4.1 The s-Block Elements

    1.4.2 Transition Elements (d-Block)

    1.4.3 The P-Block Elements

    2 Metallurgical Thermodynamics

    2.1 Thermochemistry

    2.1.1 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

    2.1.2 Calculating Enthalpies and Enthalpy Change

    2.1.3 Measurements of Enthalpy Changes of reactions

    2.1.4 Enthalpy Changes: The Effect of Temperature

    2.2 Thermodynamics

    2.2.1 Energy: The Driving Force for Chemical Change

    2.2.2 Free Energy: The Driving Force of a Chemical Reaction

    2.2.3 Chemical Equilibrium

    3 Reaction Kinetics

    3.1 Rate of Reaction

    3.1.1 Effect of Conditions on Rate of Reaction

    3.1.2 Concentration-Time Graphs

    3.1.3 Kinetics and Mechanism

    3.2 Experimental Rate Laws

    3.2.1 Order of Reaction

    3.2.2 The Rate Constant

    3.2.3 Molecularity

    3.2.4 Stoichiometry

    3.2.5 Integrated Equations

    3.3 Determination of Order of Reaction

    3.3.1 Integral Method

    3.3.2 Differential Method

    3.3.3 Half-Life Method

    3.4 Experimental Techniques

    3.4.1 General Considerations

    3.4.2 Techniques - In General

    3.4.3 Techniques - In Detail

    3.5 Kinetics and Temperature

    3.5.1 The Arrhenius Equation

    3.5.2 Determination of Activation Energy

    3.5.3 Potential Energy Profiles

    3.5.4 Effect of Temperature

    3.5.5 Catalysis

    3.6 Mechanism

    3.6.1 Rate Determining Step

    3.6.2 Elucidation of Mechanism

    3.7 Theories of Reaction Rates

    3.7.1 Collision Theory

    3.7.2 Potential Energy Surfaces

    3.7.3 Transition State Theory

    4 Liquid Metal Solutions

    4.1 Solution and Composition

    4.2 Surface and Interfacial Energy

    4.3 Thermodynamics of Solutions

    4.3.1 Partial and Integral Quantities

    4.3.2 Ideal Solutions and Activity

    4.3.3 Raoult's Law

    4.3.4 Non-Ideal or Real Solutions

    4.3.5 The Gibbs-Duhem Equation

    4.3.6 Henry's Law and Dilute Solutions

    4.3.7 Multicomponent Solution and Interaction Coefficients

    4.3.8 Thermodynamics of Mixing Solutions

    4.3.9 Excess Thermodynamic Quantities

    4.3.10 Construction of Equilibrium Phase Diagram from Integral Free Energy-Composition Curves

    4.3.11 Free Energy of Nucleation

    4.4 Slags and Fluxes

    4.4.1 Functions and Properties of a Slag

    4.4.2 Structures of Slags

    4.4.3 Slag-Metal Reactions

    4.4.4 Fluxes Used for Non-Ferrous Metals

    4.4.5 Structures of Flux Materials (Fused Salts)

    4.5 Gases in Metals

    5 Aqueous Metal Solutions and Electrochemistry

    5.1 Ionics I: Ions in Solution

    5.5.1 Electrolytes

    5.1.2 Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes

    5.1.3 Ionic Activity

    5.1.4 Mean Ionic Activity

    5.1.5 Debye-Huckel Theory

    5.1.6 Measurement of Mean Ionic Activity

    5.1.7 Acids and Bases

    5.1.8 The Ph Scale

    5.1.9 Buffer Solutions

    5.1.10 Ph Measurement

    5.2 Ionics II: Electrolytic Conduction

    5.2.1 Measurement of Conductivity

    5.2.2 Molar Conductivity

    5.2.3 Variation of Molar Conductivity with Concentration

    5.2.4 Kohlrausch's Law of Independent Migration

    5.2.5 Transport Numbers

    5.2.6 Conduction in Fused Salts

    5.3 Electrodics I

    5.3.1 Electrode Potentials

    5.3.2 The Metal Electrode

    5.3.3 Comparison of Electrode Potentials - Electrochemical Series

    5.3.4 Diagrammatic Representation of Cells

    5.3.5 The Standard Electrode Potential

    5.3.6 Reference Electrodes

    5.3.7 Indicator Electrodes

    5.3.8 Cell Mechanism

    5.3.9 Concentration Cell

    5.3.10 Redox Potentials

    5.3.11 Cell Thermodynamics

    5.3.12 The Nernst Equation

    5.3.13 Calculation of Emf (Cell Potential)

    5.3.14 Concentration Cell Potentials

    5.3.15 Application of the Redox Series

    5.3.16 Kinetic Considerations

    5.3.17 Variation of Redox Potential with pH

    5.4 Electrolysis

    5.4.1 Basic Considerations

    5.4.2 Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis

    5.4.3 Current Efficiency

    5.4.4 Energy Efficiency

    5.4.5 Current Density

    5.4.6 Theoretical Cell Voltage

    5.4.7 Polarization and Overpotential

    5.4.8 Decomposition Voltage

    5.4.9 Discharge Potential

    5.4.10 Electroplating

    5.5 Partition (Distribution) נof Solutes between Immiscible Phases

    5.5.1 Extraction

    5.6 Ion Exchange

    5.7 Adsorption

    5.7.1 Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm

    5.7.2 Adsorption of Gases

    6 Metal Extraction Processes

    6.1 Ore Preparation

    6.1.1 Comminution Processes

    6.1.2 Classification Processes

    6.1.3 Separation Processes

    6.1.4 Agglomeration Processes

    6.2 Pyrometallurgical Extraction Processes

    6.2.1 Drying and Calcination

    6.2.2 Roasting of Metal Concentrates

    6.2.3 Smelting

    6.2.4 Matte Converting

    6.2.5 Reduction of Metal Oxides

    6.2.6 Fire Refining

    6.2.7 Distillation

    6.2.8 Halide Metallurgy

    6.2.9 Continuous Extraction Processes

    6.2.10 Pyrometallurgical Extraction Procedures for Selected Metals

    6.3 Hydrometallurgical Extraction Processes

    6.3.1 Leaching

    6.3.2 Precipitation Techniques

    6.3.3 Isolation Techniques

    6.4 Electrometallurgical Extraction Processes

    6.4.1 Electrowinning and Electrorefining of Metals from Aqueous Solutions

    6.4.2 Electrowinning and Electrorefining of Aluminum and Magnesium and the More Reactive Metals from Fused Salt Electrolytes

    7 Metal Melting and Recycling

    7.1 Metal Melting

    7.1.1 Physical and Chemical Considerations

    7.1.2 Removal of Gases from Liquid Metals

    7.1.3 Melting Units

    7.1.4 Cast Iron Production

    7.1.5 Steelmelting and Refining

    7.1.6 Melting Non-Ferrous Metals

    7.2 Metal Recycling

    7.2.1 Scrap Processing

    7.2.2 Extraction of Secondary Metals

    8 Corrosion of Metals

    8.1 Aqueous Corrosion

    8.1.1 The Basic Corrosion Cell

    8.1.2 Classification of Electrochemical Corrosion Cells

    8.1.3 Types of Corrosion Damage

    8.1.4 Pourbaix Diagrams

    8.1.5 Electrode Kinetics

    8.1.6 Determination of E-Log I Curves

    8.1.7 Anodizing

    8.1.8 Electropolishing and Electrochemical Machining

    8.1.9 Environmental Aspects of Aqueous Corrosion

    8.1.10 Prevention of Aqueous Corrosion

    8.2 Oxidation - Dry Corrosion

    8.2.1 Formation of the Oxide Layer

    8.2.2 The Rate Laws for Oxide Growth

    8.2.3 The Structure of Oxides

    8.2.4 The Wagner Theory of Parabolic Growth

    8.2.5 Growth of Thin Oxide Films

    8.2.6 Scales on Multivalent Metals

    8.2.7 Oxidation of Alloys

    8.2.8 Oxidizing Atmospheres

    8.2.9 Oxidation Protection

    Appendix 1. Electron Configuration of the Elements

    Appendix 2. The Electrochemical (Redox) Series

    Appendix 3. Electrode Polarity and Ion Discharge in Electrochemicals and Electrolytic Cells

    Appendix 4. Galvanic Series

    Appendix 5. Solutions to Calculations in Chapter 2


Product details

  • No. of pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1981
  • Published: March 24, 1981
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483145013

About the Authors

J. J. Moore

E. A. Boyce

M. J. Brooks

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