Chemical Engineering Design

Chemical Engineering Design

Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design

2nd Edition - January 13, 2012

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  • Authors: Gavin Towler, Ray Sinnott
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080966601

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Chemical Engineering Design, Second Edition, deals with the application of chemical engineering principles to the design of chemical processes and equipment. Revised throughout, this edition has been specifically developed for the U.S. market. It provides the latest US codes and standards, including API, ASME and ISA design codes and ANSI standards. It contains new discussions of conceptual plant design, flowsheet development, and revamp design; extended coverage of capital cost estimation, process costing, and economics; and new chapters on equipment selection, reactor design, and solids handling processes. A rigorous pedagogy assists learning, with detailed worked examples, end of chapter exercises, plus supporting data, and Excel spreadsheet calculations, plus over 150 Patent References for downloading from the companion website. Extensive instructor resources, including 1170 lecture slides and a fully worked solutions manual are available to adopting instructors. This text is designed for chemical and biochemical engineering students (senior undergraduate year, plus appropriate for capstone design courses where taken, plus graduates) and lecturers/tutors, and professionals in industry (chemical process, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical sectors).

Key Features

New to this edition:

  • Revised organization into Part I: Process Design, and Part II: Plant Design. The broad themes of Part I are flowsheet development, economic analysis, safety and environmental impact and optimization. Part II contains chapters on equipment design and selection that can be used as supplements to a lecture course or as essential references for students or practicing engineers working on design projects.
  • New discussion of conceptual plant design, flowsheet development and revamp design
  • Significantly increased coverage of capital cost estimation, process costing and economics
  • New chapters on equipment selection, reactor design and solids handling processes
  • New sections on fermentation, adsorption, membrane separations, ion exchange and chromatography
  • Increased coverage of batch processing, food, pharmaceutical and biological processes
  • All equipment chapters in Part II revised and updated with current information
  • Updated throughout for latest US codes and standards, including API, ASME and ISA design codes and ANSI standards
  • Additional worked examples and homework problems 
  • The most complete and up to date coverage of equipment selection
  • 108 realistic commercial design projects from diverse industries
  • A rigorous pedagogy assists learning, with detailed worked examples, end of chapter exercises, plus supporting data and Excel spreadsheet calculations plus over 150 Patent References, for downloading from the companion website
  • Extensive instructor resources: 1170 lecture slides plus fully worked solutions manual available to adopting instructors


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering students (senior undergraduate year, plus appropriate for capstone design courses where taken, plus graduates) and lecturers/tutors; professionals in industry ¬– chemical process, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical sectors

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Second Edition

    How to Use This Book



    CHAPTER 1. Introduction to Design

    Key Learning Objectives

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Nature of Design

    1.3 The Organization of a Chemical Engineering Project

    1.4 Project Documentation

    1.5 Codes and Standards

    1.6 Design Factors (Design Margins)

    1.7 Systems of Units

    1.8 Product Design



    CHAPTER 2. Process Flowsheet Development

    Key Learning Objectives

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Flowsheet Presentation

    2.3 The Anatomy of a Chemical Manufacturing Process

    2.4 Selection, Modification, and Improvement of Commercially-Proven Processes

    2.5 Revamps of Existing Plants

    2.6 Synthesis of Novel Flowsheets

    2.7 PFD Review

    2.8 Overall Procedure for Flowsheet Development



    CHAPTER 3. Utilities and Energy Efficient Design

    Key Learning Objectives

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Utilities

    3.3 Energy Recovery

    3.4 Waste Stream Combustion

    3.5 Heat-exchanger Networks

    3.6 Energy Management in Unsteady Processes



    CHAPTER 4. Process Simulation

    Key Learning Objectives

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Process Simulation Programs

    4.3 Specification of Components

    4.4 Selection of Physical Property Models

    4.5 Simulation of Unit Operations

    4.6 User Models

    4.7 Flowsheets With Recycle

    4.8 Flowsheet Optimization

    4.9 Dynamic Simulation



    CHAPTER 5. Instrumentation and Process Control

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 The P&I Diagram

    5.3 Process Instrumentation and Control

    5.4 Conventional Control Schemes

    5.5 Alarms, Safety Trips, and Interlocks

    5.6 Batch Process Control

    5.7 Computer Control Systems


    CHAPTER 6. Materials of Construction

    Key Learning Objectives

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Material Properties

    6.3 Mechanical Properties

    6.4 Corrosion Resistance

    6.5 Selection for Corrosion Resistance

    6.6 Material Costs

    6.7 Contamination

    6.8 Commonly Used Materials of Construction

    6.9 Plastics as Materials of Construction for Chemical Plant

    6.10 Ceramic Materials (Silicate Materials)

    6.11 Carbon

    6.12 Protective Coatings

    6.13 Design for Corrosion Resistance



    CHAPTER 7. Capital Cost Estimating

    Key Learning Objectives

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Components of Capital Cost

    7.3 Accuracy and Purpose of Capital Cost Estimates

    7.4 Order of Magnitude Estimates

    7.5 Estimating Purchased Equipment Costs

    7.6 Estimating Installed Costs: The Factorial Method

    7.7 Cost Escalation

    7.8 Location Factors

    7.9 Estimating Offsite Capital Costs

    7.10 Computer Tools for Cost Estimating

    7.11 Validity of Cost Estimates



    CHAPTER 8. Estimating Revenues and Production Costs

    Key Learning Objectives

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Costs, Revenues, and Profits

    8.3 Product and Raw Material Prices

    8.4 Estimating Variable Production Costs

    8.5 Estimating Fixed Production Costs

    8.6 Summarizing Revenues and Production Costs



    CHAPTER 9. Economic Evaluation of Projects

    Key Learning Objectives

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Cash Flows during a Project

    9.3 Project Financing

    9.4 Taxes and Depreciation

    9.5 Simple Methods for Economic Analysis

    9.6 Present Value Methods

    9.7 Annualized Cost Methods

    9.8 Sensitivity Analysis

    9.9 Project Portfolio Selection



    CHAPTER 10. Safety and Loss Prevention

    Key Learning Objectives

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Materials Hazards

    10.3 Process Hazards

    10.4 Analysis of Product and Process Safety

    10.5 Failure-Mode Effect Analysis

    10.6 Safety Indices

    10.7 Hazard and Operability Studies

    10.8 Quantitative Hazard Analysis

    10.9 Pressure Relief



    CHAPTER 11. General Site Considerations

    Key Learning Objectives

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Plant Location and Site Selection

    11.3 Site Layout

    11.4 Plant Layout

    11.5 Environmental Considerations


    CHAPTER 12. Optimization in Design

    Key Learning Objectives

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The Design Objective

    12.3 Constraints and Degrees of Freedom

    12.4 Trade-Offs

    12.5 Problem Decomposition

    12.6 Optimization of a Single Decision Variable

    12.7 Search Methods

    12.8 Optimization of Two or More Decision Variables

    12.9 Linear Programming

    12.10 Nonlinear Programming

    12.11 Mixed Integer Programming

    12.12 Optimization in Industrial Practice




    CHAPTER 13. Equipment Selection, Specification, and Design

    Key Learning Objectives

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Sources of Equipment Design Information

    13.3 Guide to Equipment Selection And Design


    CHAPTER 14. Design of Pressure Vessels

    Key Learning Objectives

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Pressure Vessel Codes and Standards

    14.3 Fundamentals of Strength of Materials

    14.4 General Design Considerations for Pressure Vessels

    14.5 The Design of Thin-Walled Vessels Under Internal Pressure

    14.6 Compensation for Openings and Branches

    14.7 Design of Vessels Subject to External Pressure

    14.8 Design of Vessels Subject to Combined Loading

    14.9 Vessel Supports

    14.10 Bolted Flanged Joints

    14.11 Welded Joint Design

    14.12 Fatigue Assessment of Vessels

    14.13 Pressure Tests

    14.14 High-Pressure Vessels

    14.15 Liquid Storage Tanks



    CHAPTER 15. Design of Reactors and Mixers

    Key Learning Objectives

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Reactor Design: General Procedure

    15.3 Sources of Reaction Engineering Data

    15.4 Choice of Reaction Conditions

    15.5 Mixing

    15.6 Heating and Cooling of Reacting Systems

    15.7 Multiphase Reactors

    15.8 Reactor Design for Catalytic Processes

    15.9 Design of Bioreactors

    15.10 Multifunctional Batch Reactors

    15.11 Computer Simulation of Reactors

    15.12 Determining Actual Reactor Performance

    15.13 Safety Considerations in Reactor Design

    15.14 Capital Cost of Reactors



    CHAPTER 16. Separation of Fluids

    Key Learning Objectives

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Gas-Gas Separations

    16.3 Gas–Liquid Separators

    16.4 Liquid-Liquid Separation

    16.5 Separation of Dissolved Components



    CHAPTER 17. Separation Columns (Distillation, Absorption, and Extraction)

    Key Learning Objectives

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Continuous Distillation: Process Description

    17.3 Continuous Distillation: Basic Principles

    17.4 Design Variables In Distillation

    17.5 Design Methods for Binary Systems

    17.6 Multicomponent Distillation: General Considerations

    17.7 Multicomponent Distillation: Shortcut Methods for Stage and Reflux Requirements

    17.8 Multicomponent Distillation: Rigorous Solution Procedures (Computer Methods)

    17.9 Other Distillation Processes

    17.10 Plate Efficiency

    17.11 Approximate Column Sizing

    17.12 Plate Contactors

    17.13 Plate Hydraulic Design

    17.14 Packed Columns

    17.15 Column Auxiliaries

    17.16 Solvent Extraction (Liquid–Liquid Extraction)

    17.17 Capital Cost of Separation Columns



    CHAPTER 18. Specification and Design of Solids-Handling Equipment

    Key Learning Objectives

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Properties of Granular Materials

    18.3 Storage and Transport of Solids

    18.4 Separation and Mixing of Solids

    18.5 Gas-Solids Separations (Gas Cleaning)

    18.6 Separation of Solids from Liquids

    18.7 Separation of Liquids from Solids (Drying)

    18.8 Solids Formation, Shaping, and Size Enlargement Processes

    18.9 Particle Size Reduction (Comminution)

    18.10 Heat Transfer to Flowing Solid Particles

    18.11 Hazards of Solids Processing



    CHAPTER 19. Heat-Transfer Equipment

    Key Learning Objectives

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Basic Design Procedure and Theory

    19.3 Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    19.4 Fouling Factors (Dirt Factors)

    19.5 Shell and Tube Exchangers: Construction Details

    19.6 Mean Temperature Difference (Temperature Driving Force)

    19.7 Shell and Tube Exchangers: General Design Considerations

    19.8 Tube-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop (Single Phase)

    19.9 Shell-Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop (Single Phase)

    19.10 Condensers

    19.11 Reboilers and Vaporizers

    19.12 Plate Heat Exchangers

    19.13 Direct-Contact Heat Exchangers

    19.14 Finned Tubes

    19.15 Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers

    19.16 Air-Cooled Exchangers

    19.17 Fired Heaters (Furnaces and Boilers)

    19.18 Heat Transfer to Vessels

    19.19 Capital Cost of Heat Transfer Equipment



    CHAPTER 20. Transport and Storage of Fluids

    Key Learning Objectives

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Storage of Fluids

    20.3 Transport of Gases and Liquids

    20.4 Pressure Drop in Pipelines

    20.5 Valves

    20.6 Compression and Expansion of Gases

    20.7 Pumping of Liquids

    20.8 Selection of Drivers for Rotating Equipment

    20.9 Mechanical Design of Piping Systems

    20.10 Pipe Size Selection

    20.11 Sizing of Control Valves




    Appendix A: Graphical Symbols for Piping Systems and Plant

    Appendix B: Corrosion Charts

    Appendix C: Physical Property Data Bank

    Appendix D: Conversion Factors

    Appendix E: Design Projects (Shorter Problem Statements)

    Appendix F: Design Projects (Longer Problem Statements)

    Appendix G: Equipment Specification (Data) Sheets

    Appendix H: Typical Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube-Sheet Layouts

    Appendix I: Material Safety Data Sheet

    Subject Index


    A Graphical Symbols for Piping Systems and Plant

    B Corrosion Chart

    C Physical Property Data Bank

    E Design Projects I

    F Design Projects II

    G Equipment Specification (Data) Sheets

    H Typical Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube-Sheet Layouts

    I Material Safety Data Sheet

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1320
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: January 13, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080966601

About the Authors

Gavin Towler

Gavin Towler
Gavin Towler Ph.D. is the Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of UOP LLC, a Honeywell company. UOP is a leading supplier of catalysts, process technology, proprietary equipment and services to the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. In this capacity he is responsible for delivering process, catalyst and equipment innovations for UOP’s four businesses.

Gavin has 20 years of broad experience of process and product design and has 65 US patents. He is co-author of “Chemical Engineering Design”, a textbook on process design, and is an Adjunct Professor at Northwestern University, where he teaches the senior design classes.

Gavin has a B.A. and M.Eng. in chemical engineering from Cambridge University and a Ph.D. from U.C. Berkeley. He is a Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institute of Chemical Engineers, and is a Fellow of the AIChE.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Honeywell/UOP, Des Plaines, IL, USA

Ray Sinnott

Ray Sinnott's varied career, mainly in design and development, began with several major companies including Dupont and John Brown. The main areas covered within these appointments were: Gas Production and Distribution, Nuclear Energy, Elastomers and Textile fibres.

After his career in industry he joined the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Wales Swansea in 1970, specialising in teaching process and plant design, and other engineering practice subjects.

The first edition of Chemical Engineering Design (Coulson and Richardson’s Vol 6) was published in 1983. Subsequent editions have been published at approximately 5 year intervals.

Ray Sinnott retired from full time teaching in 1995 but has maintained close contact with the engineering profession.

Affiliations and Expertise

Formerly, University of Wales, Swansea, UK

Ratings and Reviews

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  • GregoryMarks Fri May 31 2019

    Chemical Engineering Design 2nd ED -Towler & Sinnott

    In depth coverage of Chemical Engineering including detailed sections on Cost Estimation and Project Economics. A must have for Chemical Engineering Students and Practising Engineers. Written in an easy to follow manner.

  • João S. Mon Jun 04 2018

    An excellent book for students and professionals in chemical engineering

    The book "Chemical Engineering Design" introduces topics of design of chemical processes, a subject of great relevance for the field of chemical engineering. In addition, the book also presents a good review of various topics such as mass and energy balance, unit operations and equipment selection, specification and design. I have used the book to teach the disciplines of Chemical Process Engineering I and II. In general, the text is easy to understand and presents many examples and good supplementary material, which is very useful.