Chemical Engineering Design - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080966595, 9780080966601

Chemical Engineering Design

2nd Edition

Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design

Authors: Gavin Towler R K Sinnott
eBook ISBN: 9780080966601
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080966595
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 13th January 2012
Page Count: 1320
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Chemical Engineering Design, Second Edition, deals with the application of chemical engineering principles to the design of chemical processes and equipment. Revised throughout, this edition has been specifically developed for the U.S. market.

It provides the latest US codes and standards, including API, ASME and ISA design codes and ANSI standards. It contains new discussions of conceptual plant design, flowsheet development, and revamp design; extended coverage of capital cost estimation, process costing, and economics; and new chapters on equipment selection, reactor design, and solids handling processes.

A rigorous pedagogy assists learning, with detailed worked examples, end of chapter exercises, plus supporting data, and Excel spreadsheet calculations, plus over 150 Patent References for downloading from the companion website. Extensive instructor resources, including 1170 lecture slides and a fully worked solutions manual are available to adopting instructors.

This text is designed for chemical and biochemical engineering students (senior undergraduate year, plus appropriate for capstone design courses where taken, plus graduates) and lecturers/tutors, and professionals in industry (chemical process, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical sectors).

Key Features

New to this edition:

  • Revised organization into Part I: Process Design, and Part II: Plant Design. The broad themes of Part I are flowsheet development, economic analysis, safety and environmental impact and optimization. Part II contains chapters on equipment design and selection that can be used as supplements to a lecture course or as essential references for students or practicing engineers working on design projects.
  • New discussion of conceptual plant design, flowsheet development and revamp design
  • Significantly increased coverage of capital cost estimation, process costing and economics
  • New chapters on equipment selection, reactor design and solids handling processes
  • New sections on fermentation, adsorption, membrane separations, ion exchange and chromatography
  • Increased coverage of batch processing, food, pharmaceutical and biological processes
  • All equipment chapters in Part II revised and updated with current information
  • Updated throughout for latest US codes and standards, including API, ASME and ISA design codes and ANSI standards
  • Additional worked examples and homework problems 
  • The most complete and up to date coverage of equipment selection
  • 108 realistic commercial design projects from diverse industries
  • A rigorous pedagogy assists learning, with detailed worked examples, end of chapter exercises, plus supporting data and Excel spreadsheet calculations plus over 150 Patent References, for downloading from the companion website
  • Extensive instructor resources: 1170 lecture slides plus fully worked solutions manual available to adopting instructors


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering students (senior undergraduate year, plus appropriate for capstone design courses where taken, plus graduates) and lecturers/tutors; professionals in industry ¬– chemical process, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical sectors

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

How to Use This Book



CHAPTER 1. Introduction to Design

Key Learning Objectives

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Nature of Design

1.3 The Organization of a Chemical Engineering Project

1.4 Project Documentation

1.5 Codes and Standards

1.6 Design Factors (Design Margins)

1.7 Systems of Units

1.8 Product Design



CHAPTER 2. Process Flowsheet Development

Key Learning Objectives

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Flowsheet Presentation

2.3 The Anatomy of a Chemical Manufacturing Process

2.4 Selection, Modification, and Improvement of Commercially-Proven Processes

2.5 Revamps of Existing Plants

2.6 Synthesis of Novel Flowsheets

2.7 PFD Review

2.8 Overall Procedure for Flowsheet Development



CHAPTER 3. Utilities and Energy Efficient Design

Key Learning Objectives

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Utilities

3.3 Energy Recovery

3.4 Waste Stream Combustion

3.5 Heat-exchanger Networks

3.6 Energy Management in Unsteady Processes



CHAPTER 4. Process Simulation

Key Learning Objectives

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Process Simulation Programs

4.3 Specification of Components

4.4 Selection of Physical Property Models

4.5 Simulation of Unit Operations

4.6 User Models

4.7 Flowsheets With Recycle

4.8 Flowsheet Optimization

4.9 Dynamic Simulation



CHAPTER 5. Instrumentation and Process Control

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The P&I Diagram

5.3 Process Instrumentation and Control

5.4 Conventional Control Schemes

5.5 Alarms, Safety Trips, and Interlocks

5.6 Batch Process Control

5.7 Computer Control Systems


CHAPTER 6. Materials of Construction

Key Learning Objectives

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Material Properties

6.3 Mechanical Properties

6.4 Corrosion Resistance

6.5 Selection for Corrosion Resistance

6.6 Material Costs

6.7 Contamination

6.8 Commonly Used Materials of Construction

6.9 Plastics as Materials of Construction for Chemical Plant

6.10 Ceramic Materials (Silicate Materials)

6.11 Carbon

6.12 Protective Coatings

6.13 Design for Corrosion Resistance



CHAPTER 7. Capital Cost Estimating

Key Learning Objectives

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Components of Capital Cost

7.3 Accuracy and Purpose of Capital Cost Estimates

7.4 Order of Magnitude Estimates

7.5 Estimating Purchased Equipment Costs

7.6 Estimating Installed Costs: The Factorial Method

7.7 Cost Escalation

7.8 Location Factors

7.9 Estimating Offsite Capital Costs

7.10 Computer Tools for Cost Estimating

7.11 Validity of Cost Estimates



CHAPTER 8. Estimating Revenues and Production Costs

Key Learning Objectives

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Costs, Revenues, and Profits

8.3 Product and Raw Material Prices

8.4 Estimating Variable Production Costs

8.5 Estimating Fixed Production Costs

8.6 Summarizing Revenues and Production Costs



CHAPTER 9. Economic Evaluation of Projects

Key Learning Objectives

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Cash Flows during a Project

9.3 Project Financing

9.4 Taxes and Depreciation

9.5 Simple Methods for Economic Analysis

9.6 Present Value Methods

9.7 Annualized Cost Methods

9.8 Sensitivity Analysis

9.9 Project Portfolio Selection



CHAPTER 10. Safety and Loss Prevention

Key Learning Objectives

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Materials Hazards

10.3 Process Hazards

10.4 Analysis of Product and Process Safety

10.5 Failure-Mode Effect Analysis

10.6 Safety Indices

10.7 Hazard and Operability Studies

10.8 Quantitative Hazard Analysis

10.9 Pressure Relief



CHAPTER 11. General Site Considerations

Key Learning Objectives

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Plant Location and Site Selection

11.3 Site Layout

11.4 Plant Layout

11.5 Environmental Considerations


CHAPTER 12. Optimization in Design

Key Learning Objectives

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The Design Objective

12.3 Constraints and Degrees of Freedom

12.4 Trade-Offs

12.5 Problem Decomposition

12.6 Optimization of a Single Decision Variable

12.7 Search Methods

12.8 Optimization of Two or More Decision Variables

12.9 Linear Programming

12.10 Nonlinear Programming

12.11 Mixed Integer Programming

12.12 Optimization in Industrial Practice




CHAPTER 13. Equipment Selection, Specification, and Design

Key Learning Objectives

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sources of Equipment Design Information

13.3 Guide to Equipment Selection And Design


CHAPTER 14. Design of Pressure Vessels

Key Learning Objectives

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Pressure Vessel Codes and Standards

14.3 Fundamentals of Strength of Materials

14.4 General Design Considerations for Pressure Vessels

14.5 The Design of Thin-Walled Vessels Under Internal Pressure

14.6 Compensation for Openings and Branches

14.7 Design of Vessels Subject to External Pressure

14.8 Design of Vessels Subject to Combined Loading

14.9 Vessel Supports

14.10 Bolted Flanged Joints

14.11 Welded Joint Design

14.12 Fatigue Assessment of Vessels

14.13 Pressure Tests

14.14 High-Pressure Vessels

14.15 Liquid Storage Tanks



CHAPTER 15. Design of Reactors and Mixers

Key Learning Objectives

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Reactor Design: General Procedure

15.3 Sources of Reaction Engineering Data

15.4 Choice of Reaction Conditions

15.5 Mixing

15.6 Heating and Cooling of Reacting Systems

15.7 Multiphase Reactors

15.8 Reactor Design for Catalytic Processes

15.9 Design of Bioreactors

15.10 Multifunctional Batch Reactors

15.11 Computer Simulation of Reactors

15.12 Determining Actual Reactor Performance

15.13 Safety Considerations in Reactor Design

15.14 Capital Cost of Reactors



CHAPTER 16. Separation of Fluids

Key Learning Objectives

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Gas-Gas Separations

16.3 Gas–Liquid Separators

16.4 Liquid-Liquid Separation

16.5 Separation of Dissolved Components



CHAPTER 17. Separation Columns (Distillation, Absorption, and Extraction)

Key Learning Objectives

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Continuous Distillation: Process Description

17.3 Continuous Distillation: Basic Principles

17.4 Design Variables In Distillation

17.5 Design Methods for Binary Systems

17.6 Multicomponent Distillation: General Considerations

17.7 Multicomponent Distillation: Shortcut Methods for Stage and Reflux Requirements

17.8 Multicomponent Distillation: Rigorous Solution Procedures (Computer Methods)

17.9 Other Distillation Processes

17.10 Plate Efficiency

17.11 Approximate Column Sizing

17.12 Plate Contactors

17.13 Plate Hydraulic Design

17.14 Packed Columns

17.15 Column Auxiliaries

17.16 Solvent Extraction (Liquid–Liquid Extraction)

17.17 Capital Cost of Separation Columns



CHAPTER 18. Specification and Design of Solids-Handling Equipment

Key Learning Objectives

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Properties of Granular Materials

18.3 Storage and Transport of Solids

18.4 Separation and Mixing of Solids

18.5 Gas-Solids Separations (Gas Cleaning)

18.6 Separation of Solids from Liquids

18.7 Separation of Liquids from Solids (Drying)

18.8 Solids Formation, Shaping, and Size Enlargement Processes

18.9 Particle Size Reduction (Comminution)

18.10 Heat Transfer to Flowing Solid Particles

18.11 Hazards of Solids Processing



CHAPTER 19. Heat-Transfer Equipment

Key Learning Objectives

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Basic Design Procedure and Theory

19.3 Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient

19.4 Fouling Factors (Dirt Factors)

19.5 Shell and Tube Exchangers: Construction Details

19.6 Mean Temperature Difference (Temperature Driving Force)

19.7 Shell and Tube Exchangers: General Design Considerations

19.8 Tube-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop (Single Phase)

19.9 Shell-Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop (Single Phase)

19.10 Condensers

19.11 Reboilers and Vaporizers

19.12 Plate Heat Exchangers

19.13 Direct-Contact Heat Exchangers

19.14 Finned Tubes

19.15 Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers

19.16 Air-Cooled Exchangers

19.17 Fired Heaters (Furnaces and Boilers)

19.18 Heat Transfer to Vessels

19.19 Capital Cost of Heat Transfer Equipment



CHAPTER 20. Transport and Storage of Fluids

Key Learning Objectives

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Storage of Fluids

20.3 Transport of Gases and Liquids

20.4 Pressure Drop in Pipelines

20.5 Valves

20.6 Compression and Expansion of Gases

20.7 Pumping of Liquids

20.8 Selection of Drivers for Rotating Equipment

20.9 Mechanical Design of Piping Systems

20.10 Pipe Size Selection

20.11 Sizing of Control Valves




Appendix A: Graphical Symbols for Piping Systems and Plant

Appendix B: Corrosion Charts

Appendix C: Physical Property Data Bank

Appendix D: Conversion Factors

Appendix E: Design Projects (Shorter Problem Statements)

Appendix F: Design Projects (Longer Problem Statements)

Appendix G: Equipment Specification (Data) Sheets

Appendix H: Typical Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube-Sheet Layouts

Appendix I: Material Safety Data Sheet

Subject Index


A Graphical Symbols for Piping Systems and Plant

B Corrosion Chart

C Physical Property Data Bank

E Design Projects I

F Design Projects II

G Equipment Specification (Data) Sheets

H Typical Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube-Sheet Layouts

I Material Safety Data Sheet


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About the Author

Gavin Towler

Gavin Towler is the Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of UOP LLC, a Honeywell company. UOP is a leading supplier of catalysts, process technology, proprietary equipment and services to the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. In this capacity he is responsible for delivering process, catalyst and equipment innovations for UOP’s four businesses.

Gavin has 20 years of broad experience of process and product design and has 65 US patents. He is co-author of “Chemical Engineering Design”, a textbook on process design, and is an Adjunct Professor at Northwestern University, where he teaches the senior design classes.

Gavin has a B.A. and M.Eng. in chemical engineering from Cambridge University and a Ph.D. from U.C. Berkeley. He is a Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institute of Chemical Engineers, and is a Fellow of the AIChE.

Affiliations and Expertise

Honeywell/UOP, Des Plaines, IL, USA

R K Sinnott

Ray Sinnott's varied career, mainly in design and development, began with several major companies including Dupont and John Brown. The main areas covered within these appointments were: Gas Production and Distribution, Nuclear Energy, Elastomers and Textile fibres.

After his career in industry he joined the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Wales Swansea in 1970, specialising in teaching process and plant design, and other engineering practice subjects.

The first edition of Chemical Engineering Design (Coulson and Richardson’s Vol 6) was published in 1983. Subsequent editions have been published at approximately 5 year intervals.

Ray Sinnott retired from full time teaching in 1995 but has maintained close contact with the engineering profession.

Affiliations and Expertise

Previously of the University of Wales, Swansea, UK


"An essential support text for the traditional design product. ...Well written, it is easy to read and is superbly indexed" --Trans IChemE

 "Bottom line: For a holistic view of chemical engineering design, this book provides as much, if not more, than any other book available on the topic. Nearly every subject is accompanied by examples and new technologies are also addressed. In short, a complete, well-written and illustrated resource that is a pleasure to use." --From (Chemical Engineering Resources)

"Chemical Engineering Design is a complete text for students of chemical engineering. Written for the senior design course, and also suitable for introduction to chemical engineering courses, it covers the basics of unit operations and the latest aspects of process design, equipment selection, plant and operating economics, safety and loss prevention. It includes detailed worked examples, case studies, end-of-chapter exercises, plus supporting data, spreadsheet calculations and equipment specification sheets for downloading." --Chemical Engineering Progress

"The book was originally written by British chemical engineer Sinnott as Volume Six of the Chemical Engineering series edited by Coulson and Richardson. It was intended as a stand-alone design textbook for undergraduate design projects that would supplement the other volumes, so it was no long stretch to publish it separately in 2008. Towler (chemical engineering, Northwestern U., Illinois) helped update and revise it, and integrated US laws, codes, and standards into it. This second edition takes account of comments about strengths and weaknesses by students and instructors. It also is rearranged to fit a typical two-course senior design sequence better, focusing first on process design then on plant design." --Reference and Research Book News, Inc.