Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food

Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food

1st Edition - August 23, 2012
  • Editor: D Schrenk
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095794

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Description

Chemical contaminants are a major concern for the food industry. Chemical contaminants and residues in food provides an essential guide to the main chemical contaminants, their health implications, the processes by which they contaminate food products, and methods for their detection and control.Part one focuses on risk assessment and analytical methods. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy techniques for the detection of chemical contaminants and residues are discussed, as are applications of HPLC-MS techniques and cell-based bioassays. Major chemical contaminants are then discussed in part two, including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, veterinary drug and pesticide residues, heat-generated and non-thermally-produced toxicants, D- and cross-linked amino acids, mycotoxins and phycotoxins, and plant-derived contaminants. Finally, part three goes on to explore the contamination of specific foods. Chemical contamination of cereals, red meat, poultry and eggs are explored, along with contamination of finfish and marine molluscs.With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Chemical contaminants and residues in food is an invaluable tool for all industrial and academic researchers involved with food safety, from industry professionals responsible for producing safe food, to chemical analysts involved in testing the final products.

Key Features

  • Provides an essential guide to the main chemical contaminants, their health implications, the processes by which they contaminate food products, and methods for their detection and control
  • Sections provide in-depth focus on risk assessment and analytical methods, major chemical contaminants, and the contamination of specific foods
  • Chemical contamination of cereals, red meat, poultry and eggs are explored, along with contamination of finfish and marine molluscs

Readership

Industrial and academic researchers with an interest in food chemical safety; Professionals in the food industry responsible for the provision of safe food; Managers in analytical laboratories testing food chemical safety

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

    Preface

    Part I: Risk assessment and selected analytical methods

    Chapter 1: Risk assessment of chemical contaminants and residues in food

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Risk assessment

    1.3 Risk characterisation

    1.4 Role of risk assessment in risk management

    Chapter 2: Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy techniques for the detection of chemical contaminants and residues in foods

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Gas chromatography injection techniques

    2.3 Gas chromatography separation strategies 2.3.1 Conventional GC

    2.4 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection

    2.5 Validation of new analytical methods

    2.6 Applications and future trends

    2.7 Acknowledgements

    2.8 Sources of further information

    Chapter 3: Applications of HPLC-MS techniques for the analysis of chemical contaminants and residues in food

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Ionisation techniques

    3.3 Mass spectrometer systems

    3.4 Screening and identification using HPLC-MS

    3.5 Quantification using HPLC-MS

    Chapter 4: Cell-based bioassays for the screening of chemical contaminants and residues in foods

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Description of bioassays

    4.3 Transcriptomics fingerprinting technologies

    4.4 Workflow of a transcriptomics fingerprinting-based screening strategy

    4.5 Applications of transcriptomics fingerprinting for the screening of chemical contaminants and residues in foods

    4.6 Conclusion and future trends

    4.7 Acknowledgements

    4.9 Appendix: Abbreviations

    Part II: Major chemical contaminants of foods

    Chapter 5: Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in foods

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Properties and occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)

    5.3 Toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)

    5.4 Toxic effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in humans and experimental animals

    5.5 Properties and occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    5.6 Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Chapter 6: Emerging environmental organic contaminants in foods

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)

    6.3 Brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

    6.4 Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs)

    6.5 Mixed bromo-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) and mixed bromo-chloro biphenyls (PXBs)

    6.6 Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and related substances

    6.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 7: Veterinary drug residues in foods

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction: risk assessment and risk management of veterinary drug residues

    7.2 Major causes of the presence of drug residues

    7.3 Group A – residues of substances which have an anabolic effect and unauthorised substances

    7.4 Group B – residues of veterinary drugs: antibacterial substances

    7.5 Residues of other veterinary drugs

    7.6 Analytical methods for drug residue control

    7.7 Residue monitoring programmes

    Chapter 8: Pesticide residues in foods

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Regulation of pesticides in food

    8.3 Pesticide residue monitoring

    8.4 Risk assessment for pesticide residues in food

    8.5 Special topics: organic and imported foods

    Chapter 9: Heat-generated toxicants in foods: acrylamide, MCPD esters and furan

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Acrylamide in food

    9.3 Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD) esters and related compounds

    9.4 Furan in food

    9.5 Future trends and conclusions

    Chapter 10: Toxic metals and metalloids in foods

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Aluminium in foods

    10.3 Arsenic in foods

    10.4 Cadmium in foods

    10.5 Copper in foods

    10.6 Iron in foods

    10.7 Lead in foods

    10.8 Mercury in foods

    10.9 Tin in foods

    10.10 Zinc in foods

    10.11 Risk assessment of toxic metals and metalloids in foods

    Chapter 11: Toxicants in foods generated by non-thermal processes

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Ethyl carbamate

    11.3 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol and glycidol

    11.4 Biogenic amines in fermented food

    11.5 Other examples of toxicants in foods

    Chapter 12: D-Amino acids and cross-linked amino acids as food contaminants

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 D -Amino acids in food

    12.3 Digestibility and utilization of d-amino acids

    12.4 Toxicokinetics and pharmacological and toxicological properties of individual d-amino acids

    12.5 Cross-linked amino acids in food

    12.6 Lysinoalanine contents in food

    12.7 Nutrition and safety: digestibility, utilization and toxic properties of lysinoalanine and lanthionine

    12.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 13: Mycotoxins in foods

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin occurrence in foods

    13.3 Toxicity of mycotoxins

    13.4 Analytical methods for mycotoxins

    13.5 Regulation of mycotoxins in foods

    13.6 Future trends

    Chapter 14: Phycotoxins and food safety

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Marine biotoxins

    14.3 Application of LC-MS/MS methods for determination of assorted marine biotoxins in compliance with legislation

    14.4 Cyanobacterial toxins

    14.5 Application of LC-MS/MS methods for determination of assorted cyanobacterial toxins in compliance with legislation

    14.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 15: Plant-derived contaminants in food

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)

    15.3 Ethyl carbamate

    15.4 Tropane alkaloids (TAs)

    15.5 Opium alkaloids

    15.6 Grayanotoxins

    15.7 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

    15.8 Conclusion and future trends

    15.10 Appendix: Abbreviations

    Part III: Contamination of particular foods

    Chapter 16: Chemical contamination of cereals

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Inherent toxicants

    16.3 Mycotoxins

    16.4 Heavy metals

    16.5 Pesticides

    16.6 Process toxicants

    16.7 Food additives

    16.8 Conclusion

    16.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 17: Chemical contamination of red meat

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs)

    17.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    17.4 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    17.5 Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

    17.6 Pesticides

    17.7 Toxic metals

    17.8 Veterinary drugs

    17.9 Analytical methods for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs

    17.10 Prevention and regulations of chemical contaminants in red meat

    17.11 Conclusion

    17.12 Acknowledgment

    Chapter 18: Chemical contamination of poultry meat and eggs

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Unintentional exposure of poultry to chemical contaminants

    18.3 Veterinary medicines as potential sources of residues in poultry products

    18.4 Regulation of veterinary drugs in animal food products in the US

    18.5 Future trends

    18.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 19: Contamination of finfish with persistent organic pollutants and metals

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Environmental contaminants in finfish and human exposure

    19.3 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in finfish

    19.4 Chlorinated pesticides

    19.5 Polychlorinated biphenyls

    19.6 Fluorinated compounds

    19.7 Metals in feral finfish

    19.8 Chemical contaminants in farmed finfish

    Chapter 20: Contamination of marine molluscs with heavy metals

    Abstract:

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Metals in marine bivalves

    20.3 Metals in marine gastropods

    20.4 Bioaccessibility of metals from shellfish consumption

    20.5 Metal contamination in shellfish from particular areas

    Appendix: Heat-generated toxicants in foods: heterocyclic aromatic amines

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 608
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: August 23, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095794

About the Editor

D Schrenk

Professor Dieter Schrenk leads a research team at the Institute of Food Chemistry and Toxicology at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. Professor Schrenk has published extensively on a wide variety of topics within food science, with particular focus on health-related effects of food ingredients.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical University of Kaiserlautern, Germany