Chagas Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123858634, 9780123858641

Chagas Disease, Volume 75

1st Edition

Part A

Serial Volume Editors: Herbert Tanowitz Louis M. Weiss
Series Volume Editors: Louis V Kirchhoff
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123858634
eBook ISBN: 9780123858641
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th August 2011
Page Count: 390
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Table of Contents

Series Editors

Contributors

Preface

Epidemiology of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)

1.1. Historical Background

1.2. Mechanisms of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi

1.3. Epizootiology of Trypanosoma cruzi

1.4. Epidemiology of Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Endemic Countries

1.5. Epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the United States

1.6. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Non-Endemic Countries Other than the United States

1.7. Perspectives on the Control of Chagas Disease

Acute and Congenital Chagas Disease

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Acute Phase

2.3. Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

2.4. Antitrypanosomal Drug Treatment

2.5. Epidemiology of Congenital Chagas Disease

2.6. Approaches to the Control of Congenital Chagas Disease

2.7. Conclusions

Cell-Based Therapy in Chagas Disease

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Cell Therapy in Cardiac Diseases

3.3. Cell Therapy in Chagas Disease

3.4. Clinical Trials

3.5. Future Perspectives for Cell-Based Therapies in Chagas Disease

Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Sterol Biosynthesis

4.3. Potential Drug Targets in the Pathway

4.4. Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

4.5. Inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51

4.6. Structural Basis for CYP51 Druggability

4.7. Anti-Parasitic Effects of CYP51 Inhibition in Trypanosoma cruzi

Acknowledgements

Experimental Chemotherapy and Approaches to Drug Discovery for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Compound Selection

5.3. In Vitro Efficacy Testing

5.4. Toxicity Testing

5.5. In Vivo Efficacy Testing

5.6. Testing for Drug-Like Properties and Safety

5.7. Advances in Experimental Chemotherapy for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

5.8. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Vaccine Development Against Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas Disease

6.1. Vector, Parasite and Disease Burden

6.2. Treatment

6.3. A Case for Vaccine Development Against Trypanosoma cruzi

6.4. Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi

6.5. Vaccine Development Against Trypanosoma cruzi

6.6. Future Prospects

Acknowledgements

Genetic Epidemiology of Chagas Disease

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Genetic Epidemiological Approaches to Chagas Disease

7.3. Exploring the Genetic Architecture of Chagas disease

7.4. Mapping the Future of Genetic Epidemiological Studies of Chagas Disease

Acknowledgements

Kissing Bugs. The Vectors of Chagas

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Vector Genera and Species

8.3. Evolution of the Triatomines

8.4. Biology of the Bugs

8.5. Urbanization of the Bugs

8.6. Control of Vectors

8.7. Non-Infectious Consequences of a Triatomine Bite

8.8. Conclusion

Acknowledgement

Advances in Imaging of Animal Models of Chagas Disease

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Larger Animal Models

9.3. Mouse Models

9.4. Future Directions: Multimodality Imaging Approaches

Acknowledgements

The Genome and Its Implications

10.1. Genome Organization, Gene Content and Gene Expression Mechanisms

10.2. Comparative Genome Analyses

10.3. Antigen Discovery and Identification of Other Parasite Molecules Involved in Host–Parasite Interactions

10.4. Manipulating the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome and the Perspectives of Developing New Tools for the Study of Chagas Disease

Genetic Techniques in Trypanosoma cruzi

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Genetic Tools Applicable to Trypanosoma cruzi

11.3. The use of Genetic Techniques to Investigate Trypanosoma cruzi Oxidative Defence and Drug-Resistance Mechanisms

11.4. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

Nuclear Structure of Trypanosoma cruzi

12.1. General Aspects of Nuclear Organization in Eukaryotic Cells

12.2. The Nucleus of Trypanosoma cruzi

12.3. The Nucleus Under Stress

12.4. Conclusion and Perspectives

Acknowledgements

Aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi Stage Differentiation

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Trypanosoma cruzi Differentiation

13.3. Stage-Specific Antigens

13.4. Proteinases and Differentiation

13.5. Stage-Specific Gene Expression

13.6. Conclusion

The Role of Acidocalcisomes in the Stress Response of Trypanosoma cruzi

Abbreviations

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma cruzi

14.3. Volume Regulation

14.4. The Contractile Vacuole Complex

14.5. Acidocalcisomes and the CVC

14.6. Signalling Pathways Involved in Volume Regulation

14.7. Drug Targeting of the Volume-Regulatory Pathway

14.8. Model for Volume Regulation

14.9. Poly P, Stress Response and Virulence

14.10. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Signal Transduction in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.1. Introduction

15.2. cAMP-Dependent Pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.3. MAPK Pathways in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.4. Protein Phosphatases in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.5. Protein kinases and Protein Phosphatases as Drug Target in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.6. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

Contents of Volumes in this Series


Description

Series Editors

Contributors

Preface

Epidemiology of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)

1.1. Historical Background

1.2. Mechanisms of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi

1.3. Epizootiology of Trypanosoma cruzi

1.4. Epidemiology of Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Endemic Countries

1.5. Epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the United States

1.6. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Non-Endemic Countries Other than the United States

1.7. Perspectives on the Control of Chagas Disease

Acute and Congenital Chagas Disease

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Acute Phase

2.3. Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

2.4. Antitrypanosomal Drug Treatment

2.5. Epidemiology of Congenital Chagas Disease

2.6. Approaches to the Control of Congenital Chagas Disease

2.7. Conclusions

Cell-Based Therapy in Chagas Disease

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Cell Therapy in Cardiac Diseases

3.3. Cell Therapy in Chagas Disease

3.4. Clinical Trials

3.5. Future Perspectives for Cell-Based Therapies in Chagas Disease

Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Sterol Biosynthesis

4.3. Potential Drug Targets in the Pathway

4.4. Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

4.5. Inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51

4.6. Structural Basis for CYP51 Druggability

4.7. Anti-Parasitic Effects of CYP51 Inhibition in Trypanosoma cruzi

Acknowledgements

Experimental Chemotherapy and Approaches to Drug Discovery for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Compound Selection

5.3. In Vitro Efficacy Testing

5.4. Toxicity Testing

5.5. In Vivo Efficacy Testing

5.6. Testing for Drug-Like Properties and Safety

5.7. Advances in Experimental Chemotherapy for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

5.8. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Vaccine Development Against Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas Disease

6.1. Vector, Parasite and Disease Burden

6.2. Treatment

6.3. A Case for Vaccine Development Against Trypanosoma cruzi

6.4. Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi

6.5. Vaccine Development Against Trypanosoma cruzi

6.6. Future Prospects

Acknowledgements

Genetic Epidemiology of Chagas Disease

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Genetic Epidemiological Approaches to Chagas Disease

7.3. Exploring the Genetic Architecture of Chagas disease

7.4. Mapping the Future of Genetic Epidemiological Studies of Chagas Disease

Acknowledgements

Kissing Bugs. The Vectors of Chagas

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Vector Genera and Species

8.3. Evolution of the Triatomines

8.4. Biology of the Bugs

8.5. Urbanization of the Bugs

8.6. Control of Vectors

8.7. Non-Infectious Consequences of a Triatomine Bite

8.8. Conclusion

Acknowledgement

Advances in Imaging of Animal Models of Chagas Disease

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Larger Animal Models

9.3. Mouse Models

9.4. Future Directions: Multimodality Imaging Approaches

Acknowledgements

The Genome and Its Implications

10.1. Genome Organization, Gene Content and Gene Expression Mechanisms

10.2. Comparative Genome Analyses

10.3. Antigen Discovery and Identification of Other Parasite Molecules Involved in Host–Parasite Interactions

10.4. Manipulating the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome and the Perspectives of Developing New Tools for the Study of Chagas Disease

Genetic Techniques in Trypanosoma cruzi

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Genetic Tools Applicable to Trypanosoma cruzi

11.3. The use of Genetic Techniques to Investigate Trypanosoma cruzi Oxidative Defence and Drug-Resistance Mechanisms

11.4. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

Nuclear Structure of Trypanosoma cruzi

12.1. General Aspects of Nuclear Organization in Eukaryotic Cells

12.2. The Nucleus of Trypanosoma cruzi

12.3. The Nucleus Under Stress

12.4. Conclusion and Perspectives

Acknowledgements

Aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi Stage Differentiation

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Trypanosoma cruzi Differentiation

13.3. Stage-Specific Antigens

13.4. Proteinases and Differentiation

13.5. Stage-Specific Gene Expression

13.6. Conclusion

The Role of Acidocalcisomes in the Stress Response of Trypanosoma cruzi

Abbreviations

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma cruzi

14.3. Volume Regulation

14.4. The Contractile Vacuole Complex

14.5. Acidocalcisomes and the CVC

14.6. Signalling Pathways Involved in Volume Regulation

14.7. Drug Targeting of the Volume-Regulatory Pathway

14.8. Model for Volume Regulation

14.9. Poly P, Stress Response and Virulence

14.10. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Signal Transduction in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.1. Introduction

15.2. cAMP-Dependent Pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.3. MAPK Pathways in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.4. Protein Phosphatases in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.5. Protein kinases and Protein Phosphatases as Drug Target in Trypanosoma cruzi

15.6. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

Contents of Volumes in this Series

Key Features

  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field
  • Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts

Readership

Researchers in parasitology, tropical medicine and entomology.


Details

No. of pages:
390
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123858641
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123858634

Reviews

"One is struck by the quality and scholarship of the various chapters and the obviously efficient editing."
-PARASITOLOGY
"The policy of the editors of Advances in Parasitology to include reviews from any aspect of parasitology and the high standard of individual papers have resulted in this series of volumes becoming an indispensable source for students, teachers, and research workers."
-ANNALS OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND PARASITOLOGY


About the Serial Volume Editors

Herbert Tanowitz Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

Louis M. Weiss Serial Volume Editor

Louis M. Weiss M.D., M.P.H is Professor of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Professor of Pathology (Division of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine) of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York. Dr. Weiss received his M.D. and M.P.H degrees from the Johns Hopkins University in 1982. He then completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Chicago and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Following this fellowship, he joined the faculty at Einstein where he is currently a Professor of Pathology and Medicine. His laboratory group has an active research program on parasitic diseases with a research focus on Toxoplasma gondii, the Microsporidia and Trypanosoma cruzi. Dr. Weiss is the author of over 200 publications and the editor of 3 books on parasitology. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, Infectious Disease Society of America and the American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Weiss is the Co-Director of the Einstein Global Health Center.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine and Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, U.S.A.

About the Series Volume Editors

Louis V Kirchhoff Series Volume Editor