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Centrifugal Separations in Molecular and Cell Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408708036, 9781483278414

Centrifugal Separations in Molecular and Cell Biology

1st Edition

Editors: G.D. Birnie D. Rickwood
eBook ISBN: 9781483278414
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 13th July 1978
Page Count: 340
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Centrifugal Separations in Molecular and Cell Biology focuses on the application of modern centrifugation technology in molecular and cell biology, including the separation and fractionation of biological particles by centrifugation on the preparative and analytical scales. The selection first covers the principles and practices of centrifugation and the bases of centrifugal separations. Discussions focus on the basic concepts of sedimentation theory, centrifugation methods, designing centrifugation experiments, care of centrifuges and rotors, and statistical estimation of molecular parameters. The book also ponders on the practical aspects of rate-zonal centrifugation, including gradient materials, density and viscosity of glycerol solutions, and resolution and gradient shape. The publication examines fractionations in zonal rotors and the quantitative aspects of rate-zonal centrifugation. The text then reviews isopycnic centrifugation in ionic media and analytical centrifugation. Topics include separation by isopycnic banding, large-scale preparative procedures, and density-gradient solutes. The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in centrifugation technology.

Table of Contents


1 Ιntroduction: Principles and Practices of Certification

Basic Concepts of Sedimentation Theory

Centrifugation Methods

Designing Centrifugation Experiments

Care of Centrifuges and Rotors

2 The Bases of Centrifugal Separations

Comparison of Zonal Centrifugation With Complementary Techniques

Differential Versus Zonal Centrifugation

Theory of Rate-Zonal Experiments

Sedimentation Coefficient

Location of the Centroid

Resolution in Velocity Experiments

Isopycnic Zonal Experiments

Time to Reach Equilibrium

Resolution of Isopycnic Zones

Interaction Between Solutes in Isopycnic Experiments

Statistical Estimation of Molecular Parameters


Statistical Procedures

Simulation of Zonal Experiments


Relationships Between s and Radial Co-Ordinates

Convective Instabilities in Zones

Isopycnic Equilibrium

Least-Squares Analysis For Curvilinear Polynomials


3 Practical Aspects of Rate-Zonal Centrifugation

Experimental Design

Gradient Materials

Simple Sugars




Deuterium Oxide

Mixed-Solute Gradients

Resolution and Gradient Shape


Design of Gradients

Gradient Generation

Loading, Running and Analyzing Gradients

Sample Loading

Centrifugation Conditions

Unloading and Analysis

Appendix I: Density and Viscosity of Sucrose Solutions

Appendix Ii: Density and Viscosity of Glycerol Solutions


4 Fractionations in Zonal Rotors

Design and Operation of Batch-Type Rotors

Dynamic Loading and Unloading

Statically-Loaded (Unloaded) Rotors

Gradients and Sample Preparation

Fractionations in Batch-Type Rotors

Separations of Different Cell Types

Separation of Cells According to Position in The Cell Cycle

Nuclei and Nuclear Membranes

Mitochondria, Lysosomes and Peroxisomes

Plasma Membrane and Endoplasmic Reticulum

Ribosomes and Polysomes

Nucleic Acids

Cell Surface Coat (Glycocalyx)

Plasma Lipoproteins


Continuous-Flow Zonal Centrifugation

Design and Operation of Rotors

Fractionation With B-Type Rotors

Fractionation With J- and K-Series Rotors

Centrifugal Elutriation

References 1

5 Rate-Zonal Centrifugation: Quantitative Aspects

Some Important Underlying Assumptions

Guide For The Computerized Calculation of Sedimentation Coefficients

Guide For The Manual Calculation of Sedimentation Coefficients

Accuracy of Sedimentation Coefficients Calculated From Density-Gradient Data Using Large-Scale Zonal Rotors

Some Important Sources of Error

Other Analytical Uses

Appendix I: FORTRAN Program For Calculating Sedimentation Coefficients

Appendix Ii: Calculating Radius-Volume Relationships

Appendix Iii: Sedim Values For Various Particle Densities

Appendix Iv: Calculating The Natural Logarithm of the Rotor Radius


6 Isopycnic Centrifugation in Ionic Media

Basic Procedures

Optimum Design of Buoyant Density-Gradient Separations

Equilibrium Gradients

Non-Equilibrium Preformed Gradients

Resolving Power of Gradients

Fractionation of Gradients

Buoyant Density-Gradient Solutes

Data From Isopycnic Gradients

Separations By Isopycnic Banding

Large-Scale Preparative Procedures

Isolation of DNA

Isolation of RNA

Isolation of Protein


7 Isopycnic Centrifugation in Non-Ionic Media

General Techniques

Density-Gradient Solutes

Monosaccharides and Disaccharides


Lodinated Compounds

Colloidal Silica

Other Gradient Media


8 Analytical Ultracentrifugation

History and Scope


Optical Systems

Analytical Ultracentrifuge Cells

Sedimentation Equilibrium Analysis

Sedimentation Equilibrium in Two-Component Systems

Sedimentation Equilibrium Analysis of Associating Systems

Sedimentation Equilibrium in Multi-Component Systems

Sedimentation Velocity Analysis

Areas of Application

Measurement of Sedimentation Coefficient

Use of Sedimentation Coefficients in Molecular-Weight Determination

Sedimentation Velocity Analysis and Molecular Shape

Large Molecule-Small Molecule Interactions

Large Molecule-Large Molecule Interactions



9 Characteristics of Ultracentrifuge Rotors and Tubes

Designs and Types of Rotor


Types of Rotor

Stability of Rotors

Centrifuge Tubes and Caps


Sealing Caps For Tubes

Derating Rotors

Routine Maintenance of Rotors

Appendix: Physical Dimensions and Characteristics of Rotors

The Relationship Between Radius and Volume of Zonal Rotors



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1978
13th July 1978
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

G.D. Birnie

D. Rickwood

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester

Ratings and Reviews