Cell Press Reviews: Core Concepts in Cell Biology

Cell Press Reviews: Core Concepts in Cell Biology

1st Edition - November 29, 2013

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  • Editor: Cell Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780127999180
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780124201934

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Description

Written by leading cell biologists and curated by Cell Press editors, reviews in the Cell Press Reviews: Core Concepts in Cell Biology publication informs, inspires, and connects cell biologists at all stages in their careers with timely, comprehensive insight into the most recent exciting developments across cell biology and hot topics within core areas of the field including: Signaling mechanisms and membrane biology Cytoskeletal self-organization and cell polarity Organelle dynamics and biogenesis Morphogenesis and cell motility Chromatin and genome organization in nuclear function Contributions come from leading voices in cell biology, who are defining the future of their field, including:- Tom Misteli, National Cancer Institute - Galit Lahav, Harvard Medical School - Scott D. Emr, Cornell University - David G. Drubin, University of California, Berkeley - Tom Rapoport, Harvard Medical School - Anthony A. Hyman, Max Planck Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Dresden This publication is part of the Cell Press Reviews series, which features reviews published in Cell Press primary research and Trends reviews journals.

Key Features

  • Provides timely, comprehensive coverage across a broad range of cell biological topics
  • Offers foundational knowledge and expert insights to students and others new to the field
  • Features reviews from leaders in cell biology research and discussion of future directions for the field
  • Includes articles originally published in Cell, Current Biology, Developmental Cell, and Trends in Cell Biology

Readership

Academic, medical researchers and students across cell biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, stem cells

Table of Contents

  • About Cell Press

    Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter 1. The Cell Biology of Genomes: Bringing the Double Helix to Life

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    The Stochastic Genome

    Epigenetics—and When Epigenetics is not Epigenetics

    Genome Organization as a Modulator of Genome Function

    Facing the Complexity

    References

    Chapter 2. Condensin, Chromatin Crossbarring and Chromosome Condensation

    Acknowledgements

    Summary

    Introduction

    Molecular Architecture of Condensin

    Differential Contributions of Condensin I and II to Chromosome Structure

    Cell-Cycle Regulation of Chromosome Condensation

    Towards a Mechanistic Understanding of Chromosome Condensation

    A Model for Mitotic Chromosome Condensation

    References

    Chapter 3. Nuclear Positioning

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    The Nuclear Positioning Toolbox

    Initiation of Nuclear Movement

    Characteristics of Nuclear Movements

    MT-Mediated Nuclear Movement

    Actin-Mediated Nuclear Movement

    Nuclear Positioning and Disease

    Cellular Significance of Nuclear Positioning: Hypotheses and Perspectives

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Evolution and Function of the Mitotic Checkpoint

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Mitosis, Kinetochores, and the Mitotic Checkpoint

    Evolution of the MC and its Auxiliary Proteins

    The Inhibitor and its Target: MCC and Cdc20

    Evolution, Function, and Regulation of Cdc20

    Feedback Control of the MC: Ubiquitination of Cdc20 by the APC/C

    Catalyzing MCC Production

    The APC/C Pseudosubstrate Inhibitor within the MCC

    The Fate of a Paralog: Evolution and Function of Bub1

    Kinetochore Scaffolds for the Mitotic Checkpoint

    Regulating the MCC: Essential and Conserved Contributions of Mitotic Kinases

    Auxiliary MC Proteins: The RZZ Complex

    Releasing the Brake: MC Silencing

    Concluding Thoughts and Future Directions

    Supplemental Information

    References

    Chapter 5. Cell Division Orientation in Animals

    Summary

    Introduction

    Shaping Tissues and Organs

    Generating Cellular Diversity

    Switching the Division Axis to Generate Cellular Diversity

    Mechanism of Cell Division Orientation: Extracellular Cues

    Mechanism of Cell Division Orientation: Intrinsic Cues

    Connecting Extrinsic and Intrinsic Polarity Cues to Control Oriented Cell Division

    PCP Control of Cell Shape and Cell Division Orientation

    NuMA- and PCP-Independent Spindle Orientation Pathways

    Developmental Consequences of Altered Cell Division Orientation

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6. Cell Polarity: Mechanochemical Patterning

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Ubiquity and Universality During Cell Polarization

    Symmetry Breaking and Pattern Formation in Chemical Systems

    Mechanically Polarizing Systems

    Coupled Mechanochemical Systems

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 7. Encoding and Decoding Cellular Information through Signaling Dynamics

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    Quantifying Dynamics in Living Systems

    Impact of Identity and Strength of Upstream Stimuli

    Dynamics Associated with Specific Downstream Responses

    Targeted Perturbations of Signaling Dynamics

    Linking Dynamics with Network Structure

    Functions Achieved through Modulation of Signaling Dynamics

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 8. Directed Cytoskeleton Self-Organization

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Setting Boundaries

    Actin Network Self-Organization

    MT Network Self-Organization

    Cellular Self-Organization

    Tissue self-organization

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 9. Mitochondria in Apoptosis: Bcl-2 Family Members and Mitochondrial Dynamics

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    Bcl-2 Family Members

    Mechanisms of Activation of Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Family Members

    How Does Bax or Bak Permeabilize the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane?

    Mechanistic Link between Mitochondrial Dynamics and MOMP: The Role of Membrane Hemifusion/Hemifission Intermediates

    The Role of Mitochondria in Drosophila Cell Apoptosis

    Apoptosis in the Worm

    Bcl-2 Family Proteins and Mitochondrial Dynamics

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 10. Golgi Membrane Dynamics and Lipid Metabolism

    Acknowledgements

    Summary

    Introduction

    Ptdins-4-Phosphate and TGN Function

    The Yin and Yang of Lipid Transfer Proteins and TGN Functions

    Metazoan Lipid Transfer Proteins and the Golgi System

    Sac1 Phosphoinositide Phosphatases and the Golgi System

    Diacylglycerol and the Transport Carrier Cycle

    Phosphatidic Acid Metabolism and Golgi Membrane Trafficking

    PtdOH Remodeling Enzymes and Golgi Dynamics

    Genetic Models for PLD Function

    Genetic Models for BARS Function

    Amino-Phospholipids and Membrane Trafficking

    Sterols and the Golgi Complex

    Glycolipid Transfer Proteins

    Concluding Thoughts

    References

    Chapter 11. Weaving the Web of ER Tubules

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    The Cytoskeleton

    Curvature-Stabilizing Proteins

    Atlastin GTPase-Mediated Homotypic ER Fusion

    Mechanism of ATL-Mediated Fusion

    Homotypic ER Fusion in Yeast and Plants

    Perspective

    References

    Chapter 12. The ESCRT Pathway

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    The ESCRT Complexes

    Cargo: ESCRT-Mediated Cargo Recognition and Sorting

    ESCRT-Mediated Membrane Deformation and Scission

    Closing

    References

    Chapter 13. Mechanisms of Autophagosome Biogenesis

    Acknowledgements

    Summary

    Introduction

    Autophagosome Formation

    Membrane Sources for Phagophores

    Transition from Autophagosome Precursor to Phagophore

    Transition from Phagophore to Autophagosomes — Roles of Atg8 Proteins

    Synthesis, Challenges and Future Questions

    References

    Chapter 14. Organelle Growth Control through Limiting Pools of Cytoplasmic Components

    Acknowledgements

    Summary

    Introduction

    How Can the Cytoplasm Provide Dynamic Size Control?

    Control of Centrosome Size

    Centriole Duplication

    Nuclear Size Control — Limiting Component or Active Control?

    Cell Polarity — Global Control of Size and Number

    Flagellar Length Control — Competition for Limiting Components

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 15. Curvature, Lipid Packing, and Electrostatics of Membrane Organelles: Defining Cellular Territories in Determining Specificity

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    Biochemistry on Lipid Membrane Surfaces

    Recognition of Organelles by Peripheral Proteins

    Membrane Electrostatics

    Lipid-Packing Defects

    Membrane Curvature

    Changing Membrane Properties

    Phagocytosis: Decrease in Electrostatics Drives Membrane Maturation

    Feedback Loops Linking Membrane Curvature and Vesicle Biogenesis

    Barkor: Interplay between Curvature and PI(3)P Synthesis for Autophagosome Formation

    Lipid-Packing Defects as an Index of Lipid Droplet Expansion

    Membrane Contact Sites: When Lipid Territories Meet

    Dangerous Combinations

    Limits of the Two Territories Model and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 16. Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    Acknowledgements

    Summary

    Endocytosis in Yeast: Past, Present and Future

    Early Stages of Endocytosis, Including Cargo Selection

    Coat Maturation

    WASP/Myosin Recruitment

    Actin Polymerization

    Scission and Uncoating

    Phosphorylation, Ubiquitination and Lipid Modification

    Ultrastructural Analysis

    Theoretical Modeling

    Relationship to Mammalian Endocytosis

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Glossary

    Chapter 17. Life at the Leading Edge

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    Lamellipodia

    Filopodia

    Invadopodia

    Blebs

    Collective Cell Migration

    Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 18. Use the Force: Membrane Tension as an Organizer of Cell Shape and Motility

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    Introduction

    Feedback between PM Tension and Cellular Processes

    Role of Cytoskeletal Tension Versus PM Tension

    Sensing PM Tension

    Global Versus Local Membrane Tension

    Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 19. Thinking Outside the Cell: How Cadherins Drive Adhesion

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    The Classical Cadherin Family

    Extracellular Cadherin Domains Drive Adhesion from Outside the Cell

    Mechanism of Adhesive Binding Between Single Cadherin Molecules from Apposed Cells

    Speed Dating: The X-dimer Intermediate

    From Bonds to Junctions

    Non-Classical Cadherin Subfamilies Suggest Diversity of Adhesive Mechanism

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 20. Actin Cortex Mechanics and Cellular Morphogenesis

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    The Actomyosin Cortex Controls Animal Cell Shape

    Structure and Composition of the Cortical Network

    Mechanical Properties of the Cortex

    Physical Descriptions of the Cortex

    Cortex Contractility and Cell Shape Control

    Dysregulation in Disease

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 484
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © AP Cell 2013
  • Published: November 29, 2013
  • Imprint: AP Cell
  • eBook ISBN: 9780127999180
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780124201934

About the Editor

Cell Press

Affiliations and Expertise

Cell, Developmental Cell, Trends in Cell Biology, Current Biology

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