Cell Physiology

Cell Physiology

Molecular Dynamics

1st Edition - January 28, 1974

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  • Author: Henry Tedeschi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142816

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Cell Physiology: Molecular Dynamics focuses on the molecular aspects of cell physiology. It analyzes the functional and structural organization of the cell as a unit of inheritance and a biochemical transducer; the mechanisms of genetic transmission; the transcription and translation of the genetic message; the capture of energy in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis; and the principle of semi-conservation in DNA duplication. Experiments illustrate the basic principles described in this book. Organized into three sections encompassing 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the cell as a system of compartments, and the possible functional significance of compartmentation. It then turns to a discussion of some of the processes involved in the functioning of the cell, the genetic control of cell function, the replication of DNA, and extrachromosomal inheritance. The reader is also introduced to interactions between organelles and the nucleus; differentiation and control of protein synthesis; the role of enzymes in the regulation of metabolism; and control of macromolecules in bacteria and in some mammalian tissues. The books also covers oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial organization; transport and permeability of the cell membrane; the role of specialized cells in the excitation and conduction of signals; and the molecular basis of mechanochemical coupling. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of the biochemical and genetic approaches to biology.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Part I: An Introduction to the Cell

    Chapter 1 The Cell: A System of Compartments

    I. The General Organization of the Cell

    II. The Compartments of the Cell

    III. Are the Compartments Enclosed in Semipermeable Membranes?

    IV. Possible Functional Significance of Compartmentation

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 2 The Cell: A Dynamic System

    I. Changes Triggered by Changes in Physiological Conditions

    II. Secretion

    III. Endocytosis: Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis

    Suggested Reading


    Part II: The Cell as a Genetic Units

    Chapter 3 Genetic Control of Cell Function

    I. The Genetic Control of Metabolism: Control of Enzyme Synthesis

    II. Linearity of the Genetic Code

    III. Nature of the Changes Induced in Proteins by Mutations; The Colinearity of the Genetic Code and the Protein Molecules

    IV. Chemical Basis of Inheritance

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 4 The Replication of DNA

    I. Properties of DNA Polymerases: The in Vitro Replication of DNA

    II. In Vivo Synthesis of DNA

    III. Replication of the Prokaryotic Chromosome

    IV. Replication of the Eukaryotic Chromosome

    V. Reverse Transcriptase


    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 5 Transcription of the Genetic Message

    I. The Indirect Role of the Genetic Determinants

    II. The Machinery of Protein Synthesis

    III. RNA Containing the Information Necessary for the Synthesis of Specific Proteins

    IV. The in Vitro Transcription of RNA

    V. The Message Produced Inside Cells

    VI. The Transcription of the Synthetic Machinery

    VII. Summary

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 6 Translation of the Genetic Message

    I. The Reactions Involved in Protein Synthesis

    II. The Mechanism of Translation

    III. Interactions among the Different Components of the Synthesizing System

    IV. Protein Synthesis and Membranes

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 7 Extrachromosomal Inheritance

    I. Transfer of Genetic Information by Nonchromosomal Factors

    II. Interaction between Chromosomal and Extrachromosomal Determinants

    III. Genetic Characteristics of Extrachromosomal Determinants

    IV. Molecular Basis for Extrachromosomal Inheritance

    V. Extrachromosomal Inheritance without Genes

    VI. Summary

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 8 Interactions between the Organelles and the Nucleus

    I. Mitochondrial DNA: Its Genetic Significance

    II. The Synthesis of Proteins in Mitochondria

    III. The DNA of the Chloroplast

    IV. The Synthesis of the Proteins of the Chloroplast

    V. Interplay between Chromosomal Genes and the Organelles

    VI. Summary

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 9 Differentiation and the Control of Protein Synthesis

    I. The Genetic Complement Is Probably Unchanged by Differentiation

    II. The Unavailability of the Genome to Transcription

    III. Control of the Availability of the mRNA

    IV. Development and the Quality of the mRNA Produced

    V. Gene Reiteration and Amplification

    VI. The Role of the Cytoplasm in Development

    VII. Summary

    Suggested Reading


    Part III: The Cell as a Transducer

    Chapter 10 Energy and Biological Systems

    I. Free Energy

    II. Coupled Reactions

    III. Redox Potentials

    IV. ?G as a Function of the Concentration of Reactants

    V. ?G0

    VI. The Energy Cost of Transport

    VII. Muscle Contraction

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 11 Enzymes and the Regulation of Metabolism

    I. Chemical Reactions

    II. The Role of Enzymes

    III. Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions

    IV. Multienzyme Complexes

    V. Regulation of Metabolism

    VI. Interactions between the Various Mechanisms

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 12 Regulation of Metabolism: The Control of Macromolecules

    I. On and Off Switches

    II. Production and Degradation of Specific Enzymes

    III. Mechanisms of Control of Enzyme Production

    IV. Multiplicity of Controls in Protein Synthesis

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 13 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Organization

    I. General Considerations

    II. The Electron Transport Chain

    III. Oxidative Phosphorylation

    IV. Coupling of Electron Transport to the Translocation of Ions

    V. Mechanisms of Coupling

    VI. Correspondence between Structural and Biochemical Elements

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 14 Photosynthesis

    I. Chloroplasts and Analogous Structures

    II. The Events of Photosynthesis

    III. Photosynthetic Phosphorylation; Cyclic Photophosphorylation

    IV. The Production of Reducing Equivalents

    V. The Presence of Two Photochemical Systems

    VI. The Photosynthetic Units

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 15 The Cell Membrane: Transport and Permeability

    I. The Carriers

    II. Carrier Models

    III. The Energy Coupling

    IV. The Hunt for Carriers

    V. Vectorial Enzymes

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 16 The Cell Membrane: Transport of Ions

    I. Models of Active Transport

    II. The Coupling of the ATP Hydrolysis to Transport of Na+

    III. The Transport ATPase System

    IV. Characterization of the Transport of ATPase

    V. The Hunt for Carriers

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 17 Excitation and Conduction

    I. Neurons: Units of Conduction

    II. The Resting

    III. Dynamics of the Membrane Potential

    IV. Electrogenic Pumps

    V. Transmission of Excitation between Cells

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 18 Mechanochemical Coupling: Motility in Various Systems

    I. High-Energy Phosphate and Motility

    II. Contraction in Striated Muscle

    III. Cilia and Flagella

    IV. Motility in Primitive Systems

    Suggested Reading


    Chapter 19 Mechanochemical Coupling: Its Molecular Basis

    I. The Molecular Basis of Contraction

    II. Is the Sliding Filament Model Applicable to Other Muscle Systems?

    III. Is the Sliding Filament Model Applicable to Other Forms of Biological Movement?

    IV. Filaments and Tubules in Cells

    V. Triggering of Contraction

    Suggested Reading



Product details

  • No. of pages: 738
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1974
  • Published: January 28, 1974
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142816

About the Author

Henry Tedeschi

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