Cell Physiology  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126851502, 9780323142816

Cell Physiology

1st Edition

Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Henry Tedeschi
eBook ISBN: 9780323142816
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1974
Page Count: 738
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Cell Physiology: Molecular Dynamics focuses on the molecular aspects of cell physiology. It analyzes the functional and structural organization of the cell as a unit of inheritance and a biochemical transducer; the mechanisms of genetic transmission; the transcription and translation of the genetic message; the capture of energy in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis; and the principle of semi-conservation in DNA duplication. Experiments illustrate the basic principles described in this book. Organized into three sections encompassing 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the cell as a system of compartments, and the possible functional significance of compartmentation. It then turns to a discussion of some of the processes involved in the functioning of the cell, the genetic control of cell function, the replication of DNA, and extrachromosomal inheritance. The reader is also introduced to interactions between organelles and the nucleus; differentiation and control of protein synthesis; the role of enzymes in the regulation of metabolism; and control of macromolecules in bacteria and in some mammalian tissues. The books also covers oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial organization; transport and permeability of the cell membrane; the role of specialized cells in the excitation and conduction of signals; and the molecular basis of mechanochemical coupling.
This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of the biochemical and genetic approaches to biology.

Table of Contents


Part I: An Introduction to the Cell

Chapter 1 The Cell: A System of Compartments

I. The General Organization of the Cell

II. The Compartments of the Cell

III. Are the Compartments Enclosed in Semipermeable Membranes?

IV. Possible Functional Significance of Compartmentation

Suggested Reading


Chapter 2 The Cell: A Dynamic System

I. Changes Triggered by Changes in Physiological Conditions

II. Secretion

III. Endocytosis: Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis

Suggested Reading


Part II: The Cell as a Genetic Units

Chapter 3 Genetic Control of Cell Function

I. The Genetic Control of Metabolism: Control of Enzyme Synthesis

II. Linearity of the Genetic Code

III. Nature of the Changes Induced in Proteins by Mutations; The Colinearity of the Genetic Code and the Protein Molecules

IV. Chemical Basis of Inheritance

Suggested Reading


Chapter 4 The Replication of DNA

I. Properties of DNA Polymerases: The in Vitro Replication of DNA

II. In Vivo Synthesis of DNA

III. Replication of the Prokaryotic Chromosome

IV. Replication of the Eukaryotic Chromosome

V. Reverse Transcriptase


Suggested Reading


Chapter 5 Transcription of the Genetic Message

I. The Indirect Role of the Genetic Determinants

II. The Machinery of Protein Synthesis

III. RNA Containing the Information Necessary for the Synthesis of Specific Proteins

IV. The in Vitro Transcription of RNA

V. The Message Produced Inside Cells

VI. The Transcription of the Synthetic Machinery

VII. Summary

Suggested Reading


Chapter 6 Translation of the Genetic Message

I. The Reactions Involved in Protein Synthesis

II. The Mechanism of Translation

III. Interactions among the Different Components of the Synthesizing System

IV. Protein Synthesis and Membranes

Suggested Reading


Chapter 7 Extrachromosomal Inheritance

I. Transfer of Genetic Information by Nonchromosomal Factors

II. Interaction between Chromosomal and Extrachromosomal Determinants

III. Genetic Characteristics of Extrachromosomal Determinants

IV. Molecular Basis for Extrachromosomal Inheritance

V. Extrachromosomal Inheritance without Genes

VI. Summary

Suggested Reading


Chapter 8 Interactions between the Organelles and the Nucleus

I. Mitochondrial DNA: Its Genetic Significance

II. The Synthesis of Proteins in Mitochondria

III. The DNA of the Chloroplast

IV. The Synthesis of the Proteins of the Chloroplast

V. Interplay between Chromosomal Genes and the Organelles

VI. Summary

Suggested Reading


Chapter 9 Differentiation and the Control of Protein Synthesis

I. The Genetic Complement Is Probably Unchanged by Differentiation

II. The Unavailability of the Genome to Transcription

III. Control of the Availability of the mRNA

IV. Development and the Quality of the mRNA Produced

V. Gene Reiteration and Amplification

VI. The Role of the Cytoplasm in Development

VII. Summary

Suggested Reading


Part III: The Cell as a Transducer

Chapter 10 Energy and Biological Systems

I. Free Energy

II. Coupled Reactions

III. Redox Potentials

IV. ?G as a Function of the Concentration of Reactants

V. ?G0

VI. The Energy Cost of Transport

VII. Muscle Contraction

Suggested Reading


Chapter 11 Enzymes and the Regulation of Metabolism

I. Chemical Reactions

II. The Role of Enzymes

III. Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions

IV. Multienzyme Complexes

V. Regulation of Metabolism

VI. Interactions between the Various Mechanisms

Suggested Reading


Chapter 12 Regulation of Metabolism: The Control of Macromolecules

I. On and Off Switches

II. Production and Degradation of Specific Enzymes

III. Mechanisms of Control of Enzyme Production

IV. Multiplicity of Controls in Protein Synthesis

Suggested Reading


Chapter 13 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Organization

I. General Considerations

II. The Electron Transport Chain

III. Oxidative Phosphorylation

IV. Coupling of Electron Transport to the Translocation of Ions

V. Mechanisms of Coupling

VI. Correspondence between Structural and Biochemical Elements

Suggested Reading


Chapter 14 Photosynthesis

I. Chloroplasts and Analogous Structures

II. The Events of Photosynthesis

III. Photosynthetic Phosphorylation; Cyclic Photophosphorylation

IV. The Production of Reducing Equivalents

V. The Presence of Two Photochemical Systems

VI. The Photosynthetic Units

Suggested Reading


Chapter 15 The Cell Membrane: Transport and Permeability

I. The Carriers

II. Carrier Models

III. The Energy Coupling

IV. The Hunt for Carriers

V. Vectorial Enzymes

Suggested Reading


Chapter 16 The Cell Membrane: Transport of Ions

I. Models of Active Transport

II. The Coupling of the ATP Hydrolysis to Transport of Na+

III. The Transport ATPase System

IV. Characterization of the Transport of ATPase

V. The Hunt for Carriers

Suggested Reading


Chapter 17 Excitation and Conduction

I. Neurons: Units of Conduction

II. The Resting

III. Dynamics of the Membrane Potential

IV. Electrogenic Pumps

V. Transmission of Excitation between Cells

Suggested Reading


Chapter 18 Mechanochemical Coupling: Motility in Various Systems

I. High-Energy Phosphate and Motility

II. Contraction in Striated Muscle

III. Cilia and Flagella

IV. Motility in Primitive Systems

Suggested Reading


Chapter 19 Mechanochemical Coupling: Its Molecular Basis

I. The Molecular Basis of Contraction

II. Is the Sliding Filament Model Applicable to Other Muscle Systems?

III. Is the Sliding Filament Model Applicable to Other Forms of Biological Movement?

IV. Filaments and Tubules in Cells

V. Triggering of Contraction

Suggested Reading




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© Academic Press 1974
Academic Press
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About the Author

Henry Tedeschi

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