Cardiac Muscle: The Regulation Of Excitation And Contraction

Cardiac Muscle: The Regulation Of Excitation And Contraction

1st Edition - August 26, 1986

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  • Editor: Richard Nathan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323155182

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Cardiac Muscle: The Regulation of Excitation and Contraction is a 12-chapter text that covers the research studies on characterizing the ionic and molecular mechanisms that regulate excitation and contraction of cardiac muscle. This book describes first the ionic currents underlying diastolic depolarization and pacing of the heart. The discussions then shift to the mechanisms of action of calcium-channel antagonists; the regulation of calcium influx by indigenous factors, such as voltage- or calcium-mediated inactivation; the identification of fixed negative charges on the surface of the sarcolemma; and the regulation of gating and permeability of ion channels by these charges. These topics are followed by examining the molecular and ionic mechanisms that underlie the electrophysiologic actions of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters and peptide hormones. This text further explores the theoretical and experimental studies of the sodium-calcium exchange process, its stoichiometry, and how the exchanger might contribute to current flow during or after the action potential. Other chapters consider the mechanism of twitch and tonic tension regulation by cardiac glycosides and intracellular sodium and how toxic concentrations induce cardiac arrhythmias. A chapter highlights the identification of sarcolemmal binding sites for calcium, the likelihood that such binding or the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a role in the regulation of contraction and the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The remaining chapters deal with the structural similarities among calcium-binding proteins of the contractile apparatus and the calcium channel, and the regulation of contraction by calcium-binding proteins. Physiologists, pathophysiologists, clinicians, researchers, and students who are interested in heart’s function will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Ionic Currents Underlying Cardiac Pacemaker Activity: A Summary of Voltage-Clamp Data from Single Cells

    I. Foreword

    II. Introduction

    III. Methods

    IV. Results

    V. Summary


    2. Inactivation and Modulation of Cardiac Ca Channels

    I. Introduction

    II. Inactivation of Cardiac Calcium Channels: Voltage- and Calcium-Mediated Mechanisms

    III. State-Dependent Modulation of Ca-Channel Current

    IV. Summary


    3. Negative Surface Charge: Its Identification and Regulation of Cardiac Electrogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Fixed Negative Charges on the Surface of Cardiac Myocytes

    III. Identification of the Negative Surface Charge

    IV. Summary


    4. Mechanisms of β-Adrenergic and Cholinergic Control of Ca and K Currents in the Heart

    I. Introduction

    II. Action Potential and Membrane Current

    III. β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    IV. Single-Ca-Channel Activity, Adrenaline, and cAMP

    V. Mechanism of Action of Acetylcholine

    VI. The Second Muscarinic Response

    VII. Summary and Perspectives for Future Research


    5. Modulation of Cell Electrical Properties by Peptide Hormones

    I. Introduction

    II. The Brain-Gut Peptides

    III. The Polypeptide Growth Factors

    IV. Mechanism of Peptide Hormone Action

    V. Conclusions and Future Research Directions


    6. Sodium-Calcium Exchange and Its Role in Generating Electric Current

    I. Introduction

    II. Equilibrium and Steady-State Theory of the Sodium-Calcium Exchange Process

    III. Theory of Transient Changes in the Sodium-Calcium Exchange Process

    IV. The Calcium Transient

    V. The Sodium-Potassium Exchange Process

    VI. Variation of E-NaCa during Activity

    VII. How Much Current Should the Carrier Generate?

    VIII. Time Constant for Exchange Process

    IX. Ionic Currents That Might be Attributed to Sodium-Calcium Exchange

    X. Relation between Slow Components of isi and the Transient Inward Current, iT1

    XI. Artificially Induced Slow Inward Current

    XII. Current-Voltage Relations for [Ca]i-Induced Variations in i-NaCa

    XIII. Conclusions


    7. Some Experimental Studies of Na-Ca Exchange in Heart Muscle

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Studies

    III. Discussion

    IV. Summary


    8. The Regulation of Tension in Heart Muscle by Intracellular Sodium

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Results and Discussion

    IV. Conclusions


    9. Cardiac Glycosides: Regulation of Force and Rhythm

    I. Introduction

    II. Cardiac Glycosides and the Regulation of Contractile Force

    III. Cardiac Glycosides and the Regulation of Rhythm

    IV. Conclusions


    10. Calcium at the Sarcolemma: Its Role in Control of Myocardial Contraction

    I. Introduction

    II. Extracellular Calcium

    III. Sarcolemmal Calcium Binding

    IV. Role of Phospholipid in Ca Binding

    V. Relationship of Ca Binding to Primary Alteration in Transsarcolemmal Flux

    VI. Present Concepts

    VII. Conclusions


    11. Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence for and against a Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum during Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    III. Hypothesis of Calcium-Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    IV. Hypothesis of Depolarization-Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    V. Hypothesis of Sodium-Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    VI. Hypothesis of Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Induced by a Change in pH

    VII. Hypothesis of Release of Calcium Induced by Movement of Transverse Tubular or Sarcolemmal Charged Particles Linked Mechanically to Sites in the Sarcoplasmic Reticular Membrane

    VIII. Hypothesis of Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Induced by Inositol (1,4,5)-Trisphosphate


    12. Calcium-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of Muscle Contraction

    I. Introduction

    II. Calcium Channels

    III. Calmodulin and Troponin C

    IV. Similarities between the Calcium-Binding Proteins of the Contractile Apparatus (Troponin C and Calmodulin) and the Calcium Channel

    V. The Na+ - Ca2+ Antiporter as a Calcium-Binding Protein That Controls Muscle Contraction

    VI. Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 340
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
  • Published: August 26, 1986
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323155182

About the Editor

Richard Nathan

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