Cardiac Muscle: The Regulation Of Excitation And Contraction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125143707, 9780323155182

Cardiac Muscle: The Regulation Of Excitation And Contraction

1st Edition

Editors: Richard Nathan
eBook ISBN: 9780323155182
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th August 1986
Page Count: 340
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Cardiac Muscle: The Regulation of Excitation and Contraction is a 12-chapter text that covers the research studies on characterizing the ionic and molecular mechanisms that regulate excitation and contraction of cardiac muscle. This book describes first the ionic currents underlying diastolic depolarization and pacing of the heart. The discussions then shift to the mechanisms of action of calcium-channel antagonists; the regulation of calcium influx by indigenous factors, such as voltage- or calcium-mediated inactivation; the identification of fixed negative charges on the surface of the sarcolemma; and the regulation of gating and permeability of ion channels by these charges. These topics are followed by examining the molecular and ionic mechanisms that underlie the electrophysiologic actions of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters and peptide hormones. This text further explores the theoretical and experimental studies of the sodium-calcium exchange process, its stoichiometry, and how the exchanger might contribute to current flow during or after the action potential. Other chapters consider the mechanism of twitch and tonic tension regulation by cardiac glycosides and intracellular sodium and how toxic concentrations induce cardiac arrhythmias. A chapter highlights the identification of sarcolemmal binding sites for calcium, the likelihood that such binding or the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a role in the regulation of contraction and the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The remaining chapters deal with the structural similarities among calcium-binding proteins of the contractile apparatus and the calcium channel, and the regulation of contraction by calcium-binding proteins. Physiologists, pathophysiologists, clinicians, researchers, and students who are interested in heart’s function will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents



1. Ionic Currents Underlying Cardiac Pacemaker Activity: A Summary of Voltage-Clamp Data from Single Cells

I. Foreword

II. Introduction

III. Methods

IV. Results

V. Summary


2. Inactivation and Modulation of Cardiac Ca Channels

I. Introduction

II. Inactivation of Cardiac Calcium Channels: Voltage- and Calcium-Mediated Mechanisms

III. State-Dependent Modulation of Ca-Channel Current

IV. Summary


3. Negative Surface Charge: Its Identification and Regulation of Cardiac Electrogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Fixed Negative Charges on the Surface of Cardiac Myocytes

III. Identification of the Negative Surface Charge

IV. Summary


4. Mechanisms of β-Adrenergic and Cholinergic Control of Ca and K Currents in the Heart

I. Introduction

II. Action Potential and Membrane Current

III. β-Adrenergic Stimulation

IV. Single-Ca-Channel Activity, Adrenaline, and cAMP

V. Mechanism of Action of Acetylcholine

VI. The Second Muscarinic Response

VII. Summary and Perspectives for Future Research


5. Modulation of Cell Electrical Properties by Peptide Hormones

I. Introduction

II. The Brain-Gut Peptides

III. The Polypeptide Growth Factors

IV. Mechanism of Peptide Hormone Action

V. Conclusions and Future Research Directions


6. Sodium-Calcium Exchange and Its Role in Generating Electric Current

I. Introduction

II. Equilibrium and Steady-State Theory of the Sodium-Calcium Exchange Process

III. Theory of Transient Changes in the Sodium-Calcium Exchange Process

IV. The Calcium Transient

V. The Sodium-Potassium Exchange Process

VI. Variation of E-NaCa during Activity

VII. How Much Current Should the Carrier Generate?

VIII. Time Constant for Exchange Process

IX. Ionic Currents That Might be Attributed to Sodium-Calcium Exchange

X. Relation between Slow Components of isi and the Transient Inward Current, iT1

XI. Artificially Induced Slow Inward Current

XII. Current-Voltage Relations for [Ca]i-Induced Variations in i-NaCa

XIII. Conclusions


7. Some Experimental Studies of Na-Ca Exchange in Heart Muscle

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Studies

III. Discussion

IV. Summary


8. The Regulation of Tension in Heart Muscle by Intracellular Sodium

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Conclusions


9. Cardiac Glycosides: Regulation of Force and Rhythm

I. Introduction

II. Cardiac Glycosides and the Regulation of Contractile Force

III. Cardiac Glycosides and the Regulation of Rhythm

IV. Conclusions


10. Calcium at the Sarcolemma: Its Role in Control of Myocardial Contraction

I. Introduction

II. Extracellular Calcium

III. Sarcolemmal Calcium Binding

IV. Role of Phospholipid in Ca Binding

V. Relationship of Ca Binding to Primary Alteration in Transsarcolemmal Flux

VI. Present Concepts

VII. Conclusions


11. Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

I. Introduction

II. Evidence for and against a Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum during Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling

III. Hypothesis of Calcium-Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

IV. Hypothesis of Depolarization-Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

V. Hypothesis of Sodium-Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

VI. Hypothesis of Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Induced by a Change in pH

VII. Hypothesis of Release of Calcium Induced by Movement of Transverse Tubular or Sarcolemmal Charged Particles Linked Mechanically to Sites in the Sarcoplasmic Reticular Membrane

VIII. Hypothesis of Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Induced by Inositol (1,4,5)-Trisphosphate


12. Calcium-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of Muscle Contraction

I. Introduction

II. Calcium Channels

III. Calmodulin and Troponin C

IV. Similarities between the Calcium-Binding Proteins of the Contractile Apparatus (Troponin C and Calmodulin) and the Calcium Channel

V. The Na+ - Ca2+ Antiporter as a Calcium-Binding Protein That Controls Muscle Contraction

VI. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1986
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Richard Nathan

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