Cancer Genomics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123969675, 9780123972743

Cancer Genomics

1st Edition

From Bench to Personalized Medicine

Editors: Graham Dellaire Jason Berman Robert Arceci
eBook ISBN: 9780123972743
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969675
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th December 2013
Page Count: 510
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Description

Cancer Genomics addresses how recent technological advances in genomics are shaping how we diagnose and treat cancer. Built on the historical context of cancer genetics over the past 30 years, the book provides a snapshot of the current issues and state-of-the-art technologies used in cancer genomics. Subsequent chapters highlight how these approaches have informed our understanding of hereditary cancer syndromes and the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a variety of adult and pediatric solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The dramatic increase in cancer genomics research and ever-increasing availability of genomic testing are not without significant ethical issues, which are addressed in the context of the return of research results and the legal considerations underlying the commercialization of genomic discoveries. Finally, the book concludes with "Future Directions", examining the next great challenges to face the field of cancer genomics, namely the contribution of non-coding RNAs to disease pathogenesis and the interaction of the human genome with the environment.

Key Features

  • Tools such as sidebars, key concept summaries, a glossary, and acronym and abbreviation definitions make this book highly accessible to researchers from several fields associated with cancer genomics.
  • Contributions from thought leaders provide valuable historical perspective to relate the advances in the field to current technologies and literature.

Readership

Academic researchers, clinicians, industrial and pharmaceutical scientists who are involved in fundamental or commercial research regarding cancer genomics. Graduate students in Cancer Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and related disciplines

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Part 1: Introduction

Chapter 1. Historical Perspective and Current Challenges of Cancer Genomics

Key Concepts

A Historical Perspective on the Development of Cancer Genomics

Current and Future Challenges

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Part 2: Genomics Technologies, Concepts and Resources

Chapter 2. Second-Generation Sequencing for Cancer Genome Analysis

Key Concepts

Introduction

Cancer Characterization using Sequencing Approaches

Advances in Sequencing Technologies

Discoveries using Second-Generation Sequencing Technologies

Future of Cancer Genome Sequencing

Conclusion

Glossary

Acronyms and abbreviations

References

Chapter 3. Cancer Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis

Key Concepts

Introduction

Cancer Transcriptome Sequencing

Cancer Transcriptome Analysis

Identifying Pathogen Presence in Cancer Samples

Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 4. The Significance of Transcriptome Sequencing in Personalized Cancer Medicine

Why is RNA important?

From microarray to RNA sequencing

Workflow for RNA-Seq

RNA-Seq data analysis in cancer genome research

Incorporating transcriptome sequencing analysis to identify genomic driver mutations

Transcriptome sequencing: from bench to bedside

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 5. Tissue Microarrays in Studying Gynecological Cancers

Key Concepts

Introduction

Materials and Tissues

Methods and Construction

Quality Control and Analysis

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 6. Cancer Pharmacogenomics in Children

Key Concepts

Introduction

Pharmacogenomics

Need for Collaboration, Active ADR Surveillance and Future Directions

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 7. Biomarker Discovery and Development through Genomics

Key Concepts

Uses of Biomarkers in Cancer Research and Cancer Care

Biomarker Discovery and Qualification

Assay Validation

Clinical Validity

Clinical Utility

Incorporation of Biomarkers into Clinical Trial Design

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 8. Preclinical Animal Models for Cancer Genomics

Key Concepts

History of the Development of Animal Models for Cancer Research

Transgenic Animal Models

Xenograft Animal Models

Choosing an Animal Model

Conclusions

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 9. Bioinformatics for Cancer Genomics

Key Concepts

Introduction

Data Types in Cancer Genomics

Data Management

Data Analysis

Data Interpretation

Data Integration

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 10. Genomic Resource Projects

Key Concepts

Introduction: The Genomic Data Goldmine

Key Large-Scale Cancer Genomics Projects

Other Genomics Projects of Note

Data Sources

Online/Offline Analysis Tools

Cloud Computing

Synopsis and Prospects (Genomic Resources and the Clinic)

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Part 3: Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

Chapter 11. Genetic Basis of Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

Key Concepts

Introduction

Retinoblastoma

Wilms tumor

Non-Syndromic Tumors and SusceptibIlity Loci

Cancer Predisposition Syndromes

The Potential Impact of Genome Studies on Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Part 4: Genomics of Adult and Pediatric Cancers

4.1: Adult Solid Tumors

Chapter 12. Genomics and Molecular Profiling of Lung Cancer

Key Concepts

Introduction

Epidemiology

Standard Treatment of Lung Cancer and Prognosis

Somatic Gene Mutations in Lung Cancer

Common Gene Mutations and Clinical Significance

Personalized Targeted Therapy in Lung Cancer

Glossary

References

Chapter 13. Breast Cancer Genomics

Key Concepts

Introduction

Breast Cancer Development and Progression: A Step-Wise Phenomenon

Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis: A Historical Overview

Future of Breast Cancer Prognosis and Treatment

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 14. Prostate Cancer Genomics as a Driver of Personalized Medicine

Key Concepts

The Need for Genomics in Prostate Cancer Prognosis

Genetic Architecture of Prostate Cancer and Clinical Outcome

Defining Heterogeneity in Prostate Cancer: Multifocality and Multiclonality

Genome-Wide Sequencing and RNA Expression Studies: Developing Signatures of Clinical Utility

Conclusions: Transferring Genomic Information into Clinical Tests

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 15. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer

Key Concepts

Introduction

Colorectal Cancer Syndromes

Genomic Features of Colorectal Cancer and Genome-wide Analyses

Impact of Common Somatic Mutations on Molecular Pathways in Colorectal Cancer

Molecular Diagnostics and Treatment Guidance

Conclusions and Future Directions

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 16. Thyroid Cancer

Key Concepts

Introduction

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC)

Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (FTC)

Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (PDTC) and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC)

Expression Profile Studies in Epithelial Thyroid Tumors

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC)

Conclusions

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

4.2: Age Non-Specific Tumors and Hematopoietic Malignancies

Chapter 17. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Introduction

Epidemiology

Etiology

Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations

Somatic Mutations and their Contribution to Survival in Childhood AML

Disease-Associated Mutations in Signal Transduction Pathways

Integration of Molecular DataSets and Pathway Directed Treatment

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 18. Genomics in Multiple Myeloma: From Conventional Cytogenetics to Novel Whole-Genome Sequencing Approaches

Key Concepts

Introduction

Complex Karyotypes in Multiple Myeloma

Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Multiple Myeloma

Chromosomal Imbalances in Multiple Myeloma

Somatic Mutations

Genomic Alterations in MGUS and PCL

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 19. Brain Tumor Genomics: Sequencing to Clinical Utility

Key Concepts

Introduction to Brain Tumors

Gliomas

Medulloblastoma

Other Brain Tumors

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

4.3: Pediatric Cancers

Chapter 20. Genomic Basis of Pediatric Lymphomas

Key Concepts

Introduction

Overview of B-Cell Development

Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Mature B-Cell Lymphomas

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

Conclusions and Future Studies

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 21. Neuroblastoma

Key Concepts

Introduction

Germline Predisposition

Somatic Changes in Neuroblastoma

Abnormalities of Specific Genes in Neuroblastoma

Chromosomal Abnormalities

mRNA Expression and Signatures

miRNAs

Epigenetics

Host Genomics

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 22. Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Key Concepts

Introduction

Genetics

Histologic Subtypes of STSs

Molecular Diagnosis of STSs

Commonly Deregulated Signaling Pathways in STSs

Conclusions

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 23. Wilms Tumors

Key Concepts

Wilms Tumors

Renal Development

Wilms Tumor Development

Genomics: Bench to Bedside

Wilms Tumors with Anaplasia

Next-Generation Sequencing

Wilms Tumor Cancer Stem Cells

Conclusions

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Part 5: Ethics of Genomics Research

Chapter 24. Cancer Genomics and Biobanking: Exploring Key Ethical and Legal Issues

Key Concepts

Introduction

Vignette Part 1: Olivia’s Leukemia

Part 1. The Ethics of Returning Research Results to Research Participants

Vignette Part 2: 10 Years after Olivia’s Donation

Part 2. Biobanks and the Commercialization of Research: Legal and Ethical Issues

Conclusions

Glossary

References

Part 6: Future Directions

Chapter 25. The Role of MicroRNAs and Ultraconserved Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer

Key Concepts

Introduction

miRNAs and Cancer

UCGs and Cancer

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 26. The Impact of the Environment on Cancer Genomics

Key Concepts

Cancer: A Global Disease

Cancer is a Family of Diseases

Cancer is an Environmental Disease

Important Components of the Exposome

Mechanisms of Environmental Carcinogenesis

Conclusion

Glossary

Abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
510
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123972743
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123969675

About the Editor

Graham Dellaire

Affiliations and Expertise

Departments of Pathology and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Jason Berman

Affiliations and Expertise

Departments of Pediatrics, Microbiology and Immunology, and Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada

Robert Arceci

Affiliations and Expertise

Children’s Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Hematology/Oncology, The Ron Matricaria Institute of Molecular Medicine at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Department of Child Health, University of Arizona, College of Medicine – Phoenix

Reviews

"…provides a snapshot of the current issues and state-of-the-art technologies used in cancer genomics. Subsequent chapters highlight how these approaches have informed our understanding of hereditary cancer syndromes and the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a variety of adult and pediatric solid tumors and hematologic malignancies."--Anticancer Research 34, 2014