Campbell Walsh Wein Urology

Campbell Walsh Wein Urology

3-Volume Set

12th Edition - January 21, 2020

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  • Editors: Alan W. Partin, Roger R. Dmochowski, Louis R. Kavoussi, Craig A. Peters, Alan Wein
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323546423
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323672276

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Description

From the basic science underpinnings to the most recent developments in medical and surgical care, Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology offers a depth and breadth of coverage you won’t find in any other urology reference. Now in three manageable volumes, the revised 12th Edition is a must-have text for students, residents, and seasoned practitioners, with authoritative, up-to-date content in an intuitively organized, easy-to-read format featuring key points, quick-reference tables, and handy algorithms throughout.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • Video Contents
  • Volume I
  • Part I Clinical Decision Making
  • 1 Evaluation of the Urologic Patient
  • History
  • Physical Examination
  • Special Populations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 2 Evaluation of the Urologic Patient
  • Urinalysis
  • Chemical Examination of Urine
  • Summary
  • References
  • 3 Urinary Tract Imaging
  • Conventional Radiography
  • Radiation Management in Uroradiology
  • Contrast Media
  • Intravenous Urography
  • Plain Abdominal Radiography
  • Retrograde Pyelography
  • Loopography
  • Retrograde Urethrography
  • Static Cystography
  • Voiding Cystourethrogram
  • Nuclear Scintigraphy
  • Computed Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 Urinary Tract Imaging
  • Brief History of Ultrasound in Urology
  • Physical Principles
  • Modes of Ultrasound
  • Contrast Agents in Ultrasound
  • Patient Safety
  • Clinical Urologic Ultrasound
  • Practice Accreditation
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 5 Urinary Tract Imaging
  • Principles of Single Photon and PET Imaging
  • Functional Imaging of the Kidneys
  • Infection Imaging
  • Molecular Imaging of Genitourinary Malignancies
  • References
  • 6 Assessment of Urologic and Surgical Outcomes
  • Establishing a Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Treatment and Improving Care in Urology
  • Long-Term Disease Outcomes That Are Commonly Assessed in Urology
  • Commonly Assessed Short-Term Outcomes
  • Patient-Reported Outcomes
  • Other Outcomes of Interest in Urology
  • References
  • 7 Ethics and Informed Consent
  • Medical Ethics
  • Informed Consent
  • References
  • Part II Basics of Urologic Surgery
  • 8 Principles of Urologic Surgery
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Presurgical Testing
  • Preoperative Cardiovascular Evaluation
  • Pulmonary Evaluation
  • Hepatobiliary Evaluation
  • Special Populations
  • Preparation for Surgery
  • Intraoperative Management
  • Acknowledgments
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 9 Principles of Urologic Surgery
  • Abdominal Incisions
  • Anterior Approaches to the Kidney and Retroperitoneum
  • Flank Incisions
  • Inguinal Incisions
  • Incisions for Specific Surgeries
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 10 Principles of Urologic Surgery
  • Patient Environment
  • Blood Products
  • Drains
  • Suture Material and Incision Closure
  • References
  • 11 Lower Urinary Tract Catheterization
  • History
  • Anatomic Considerations
  • Indications for Lower Urinary Tract Drainage
  • Technique of Urethral Catheterization
  • Suprapubic Catheterization
  • Difficult Catheterization
  • Complications of Lower Urinary Tract Drainage
  • References
  • 12 Fundamentals of Upper Urinary Tract Drainage
  • Percutaneous Renal Access and Drainage
  • Retrograde Renal Access and Drainage
  • References
  • 13 Principles of Urologic Endoscopy
  • Introduction
  • History of Endoscopy
  • Basic Equipment and Video-Endoscopic Systems
  • Cystourethroscopy
  • Upper-Tract Endoscopy
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 14 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic and Robotic Urologic Surgery
  • Preoperative Preparation
  • Operating Room
  • Strategic Placement of Operative Team and Equipment
  • Performing the Procedure
  • Physiologic Considerations in the Adult
  • Complications and Troubleshooting in Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery
  • Training and Practicing Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 15 Basic Energy Modalities in Urologic Surgery
  • Tissue Dissection and Cauterization
  • Intracorporeal Lithotripters
  • Pneumatic Lithotripsy
  • Ultrasonic Lithotripsy
  • Holmium:YAG and Erbium:YAG Laser Lithotripsy
  • Dual-Modality Lithotripters
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 16 Evaluation and Management of Hematuria
  • Classification and Timing of Hematuria
  • Microscopic Hematuria
  • Guideline-Based Evaluation of Patients With Microhematuria
  • Symptomatic Microscopic Hematuria
  • Gross Hematuria
  • Hemorrhagic Cystitis
  • Hematuria From Prostatic Origin
  • Urethral Bleeding
  • Hematuria Originating From the Upper Urinary Tract
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 17 Complications of Urologic Surgery
  • Classification of Complications
  • Physiologic Complications
  • Positional and Neuromuscular Complications
  • Urinary Complications
  • Urine Leaks After Upper Tract Urologic Surgery
  • Ureteral Injuries
  • Lower Tract Urinary Complications
  • Vascular Complications
  • Bowel Injuries
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 18 Urologic Considerations in Pregnancy
  • Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy
  • Physiologic Hydronephrosis of Pregnancy
  • General Considerations for Imaging of the Pregnant Patient
  • General Concepts for Surgical Management of the Pregnant Patient
  • General Concepts of Urologic Medication Administration During Pregnancy
  • Urolithiasis in Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Women With Congenital Urologic Conditions
  • Functional and Anatomic Urologic Concerns During Pregnancy
  • Urologic Malignancy During Pregnancy
  • Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy
  • Urologic Management of Placental Abnormalities
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 19 Intraoperative Consultation
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Decision Making
  • Documentation
  • Urethral Injury
  • Bladder Injury
  • Ureteral Injury
  • Renal Injury
  • Placental Cases
  • References
  • Part III Pediatric Urology
  • Section A Development and Prenatal Urology
  • 20 Embryology of the Genitourinary Tract
  • Development of the External Genitalia
  • Development of the Female External Genitalia
  • Development of the Human Prostate
  • Development of the Human Seminal Vesicle
  • Development of the Gonads
  • Müllerian Structures (Female Internal Genitalia)
  • Development of the Ureter
  • Kidneys
  • Acknowledgment
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 21 Urologic Aspects of Pediatric Nephrology
  • Introduction
  • Renal Function, Fluid, and Electrolyte Homeostasis
  • Hematuria (Microscopic and Gross)
  • Proteinuria
  • Glomerular Disease
  • Tubulopathies
  • Cystic Renal Disease
  • Urolithiasis: Medical Management
  • Hypertension
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • End-Stage Renal Disease: Dialysis and Renal Transplantation
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 22 Perinatal Urology
  • Prenatal Imaging
  • Grading Systems
  • Prenatal Multidisciplinary Consultations
  • Urinary Tract Dilation
  • Postnatal Evaluation and Management
  • Management Recommendations for Postnatal Urinary Tract Dilation
  • Key Conditions
  • Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (Posterior Urethral Valve, Prune Belly Syndrome, Urethral Stenosis/Atresia)
  • Kidney Anomalies
  • Exstrophy (Bladder/Cloacal)
  • Urogenital Sinus/Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Perinatal Urgencies/Emergencies
  • References
  • Section B Basic Principles
  • 23 Urologic Evaluation of the Child
  • Overview of Pediatric Urology
  • Imaging
  • Presentations by Genitourinary Region
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 24 Pediatric Urogenital Imaging
  • Technique
  • sonography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Conventional Radiography
  • Voiding Cystourethrography/Micturating Cystourethrogram
  • Computed Tomography
  • DMSA Renal Cortical Scintigraphy
  • Diuretic Renal Scintigraphy
  • Radionuclide Cystography
  • Radionuclide Testicular Scanning
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 25 Infection and Inflammation of the Pediatric Genitourinary Tract
  • Evaluation and Management of a Child With a Fever
  • Classification of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections
  • Diagnosis of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection
  • Management of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection
  • Management After Urinary Tract Infection
  • Sequelae of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections
  • Uncommon Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 26 Core Principles of Perioperative Management in Children
  • Pediatric Anesthesia
  • Preoperative Assessment and Preparation for Surgery
  • Comorbidities: Perioperative Planning and Postoperative Considerations
  • ERAS Protocols
  • Laparoscopic Procedures
  • Opioid Use in Children
  • References
  • 27 Principles of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery in Children
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Minimally Invasive Surgery
  • Physiology of the Pneumoperitoneum
  • Patient Selection for Mimimally Invasive Surgery
  • Access
  • Approach
  • Equipment and Instrumentation
  • Complications of Minimally Invasive Surgery
  • Simulation Training and Evaluation
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Section C Lower Urinary Tract Conditions
  • 28 Clinical and Urodynamic Evaluation of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children
  • Clinical Evaluation
  • Laboratory Testing
  • Urodynamic Evaluation
  • Evaluation Strategies for Specific Clinical Entities
  • Acknowledgments
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 29 Management Strategies for Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Historical Perspective
  • Demographics
  • Inheritance and Genetics
  • Embryology of the Ureterovesical Junction
  • Functional Anatomy of the Antireflux Mechanism
  • Causes of Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Urinary Tract Infection and Reflux
  • Grading of Reflux
  • Cortical Defects
  • Diagnosis and Evaluation of Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Assessment of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Assessment of the Upper Urinary Tract
  • Controversies in Usage of Invasive Investigations
  • Associated Anomalies and Conditions
  • Natural History and Management
  • References
  • 30 Bladder Anomalies in Children
  • Congenital Bladder Anomalies
  • Acquired Bladder Anomalies in Children
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 31 Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex
  • Historical Aspects
  • Incidence and Inheritance
  • Embryology
  • Classic Bladder Exstrophy
  • Surgical Reconstruction of Bladder Exstrophy
  • Modern Initial Repair of Bladder Exstrophy: Outcomes and Results
  • Other Modern Exstrophy Repairs: Continence Outcomes
  • Exstrophy Reconstruction Failures and Complications
  • Transitional Exstrophy Patient: Adolescent and Adult Concerns
  • Continence
  • Male Concerns
  • Female Concerns
  • Quality of Life
  • Long-Term Adjustment Issues
  • Epispadias
  • Cloacal Exstrophy
  • Surgical Reconstruction of Cloacal Exstrophy
  • Long-Term Issues in Cloacal Exstrophy
  • Summary
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 32 Prune-Belly Syndrome
  • Genetics
  • Embryology
  • Clinical Features of Prune-Belly Syndrome
  • Presentation
  • Evaluation and Management
  • Long-Term Outlook
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 33 Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Background
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology of Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Presentation and Initial Management
  • Surgical Intervention
  • Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Bladder Dysfunction and Valve Bladder Syndrome
  • Prognostic Indicators for Renal Function
  • Transplantation in Valve Patients
  • Quality of Life With Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Anterior Urethral Valves
  • Urethral Atresia
  • Urethral Duplication
  • Urethrorrhagia
  • Urinary Fistula in Boys With Anorectal Malformation
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 34 Neuromuscular Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract in Children
  • Neural Tube Defects
  • Management of Neuromuscular Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux in Neuropathic Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Lipomeningocele and Other Spinal Dysraphisms
  • Sacral Agenesis
  • Conditions of the Pelvis
  • Central Nervous System Insults
  • Conditions of the Brain (Tumors/Infarcts/Encephalopathies)
  • Conditions of the Spinal Cord
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 35 Functional Disorders of the Lower Urinary Tract in Children
  • Clinical Significance
  • Epidemiology
  • Self-Esteem and Quality-of-Life Issues
  • Comorbidities
  • Terminology
  • Daytime Urinary Incontinence and Bladder Dysfunction
  • Enuresis
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 36 Management of Defecation Disorders
  • Epidemiology and Classification of Disorders of Defecation
  • Management
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 37 Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction in Children
  • “Functional” Urinary Tract
  • Patient Evaluation
  • Patient Preparation
  • Antireflux
  • Bladder Neck Reconstruction
  • Bladder Reconstruction
  • Augmentation Cystoplasty
  • Continent Urinary Diversion
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Section D Upper Urinary Tract Conditions
  • 38 Anomalies of the Upper Urinary Tract
  • Anomalies of Renal Number
  • Anomalies of Renal Ascent
  • Anomalies of Renal Form and Fusion
  • Anomalies of Renal Rotation
  • Anomalies of Renal Vasculature
  • Renal Artery Aneurysm
  • Anomalies of the Renal Collecting System
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 39 Renal Dysgenesis and Cystic Disease of the Kidney
  • Overview of Genetics
  • Renal Agenesis and Dysplasia
  • Hypoplasia and Hypodysplasia
  • Cystic Diseases of the Kidney
  • Autosomal Recessive (Infantile) Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Autosomal Dominant (Adult) Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Juvenile Nephronophthisis and Medullary Cystic Disease Complex
  • Other Inheritable Renal Cystic Diseases (Congenital Nephrosis)
  • Familial Hypoplastic Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease (Cortical Microcystic Disease)
  • Multiple Malformation Syndromes With Renal Cysts
  • Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney
  • Benign Multilocular Cyst (Cystic Nephroma)
  • Simple Cysts
  • Medullary Sponge Kidney
  • Sporadic Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease
  • Acquired Renal Cystic Disease
  • Calyceal Diverticulum (Pyelogenic Cyst)
  • Parapelvic and Renal Sinus Cysts
  • Acknowledgment
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 40 Pathophysiology of Urinary Tract Obstruction
  • Prevalence
  • Clinical Presentation of Obstruction
  • Progressive Renal Dysfunction
  • Definition of Obstruction
  • Diagnosis and Imaging
  • Pathological Changes of Obstruction
  • Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis
  • Hemodyamic Changes With Obstruction
  • Effects of Obstruction on Tubular Function
  • Egress of Urine From the Obstructed Kidney
  • Clinical Impact of Renal Obstruction
  • Treatment of Renal Obstruction
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 41 Ectopic Ureter, Ureterocele, and Ureteral Anomalies
  • Classification and Anatomic Description
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Evaluation
  • Clinical Management
  • Other Ureteral Anomalies
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 42 Surgery of the Ureter in Children
  • Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
  • Vesicoureteric Reflux
  • Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Megaureter
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 43 Management of Pediatric Kidney Stone Disease
  • Extrarenal Manifestations
  • Management of Children and Adolescents With Kidney and Ureteral Stones
  • Shock Wave Lithotripsy
  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
  • Laparoscopic and Robotic-Assisted Pyelolithotomy
  • References
  • Section E Genitalia
  • 44 Management of Abnormalities of the External Genitalia in Boys
  • Normal Male External Genitalia
  • Penile Anomalies
  • Scrotal Anomalies
  • Vascular Lesions of the Genitalia
  • Hernia and Hydroceles
  • Acute Scrotum
  • Varicocele
  • Epididymal and Vasal Anomalies
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 45 Hypospadias
  • Embryology
  • Diagnosis of Hypospadias
  • Etiology of Hypospadias
  • Surgical Assessment
  • Advancement Procedures
  • Tubularization Techniques
  • Hypospadias Outcomes
  • Future
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 46 Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of the Undescended Testis
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • General Guidelines for Management
  • Medical Management
  • Surgical Management
  • Prognosis
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 47 Management of Abnormalities of the Genitalia in Girls
  • Female Genital Embryology
  • Evaluation and Classification of Female Genital Anomalies
  • Congenital Disorders of Female External Genitalia
  • Acquired Disorders of the Female External Genitalia
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 48 Disorders of Sexual Development
  • Normal Sexual Development
  • Abnormal Sexual Development
  • Evaluation and Management of the Newborn With Ambiguous Genitalia
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Section F Reconstruction and Trauma
  • 49 Surgical Management of Differences of Sexual Differentiation and Cloacal and Anorectal Malformations
  • Classification of Urogenital Sinus and Cloacal Anomalies
  • Surgical Reconstruction of Disorders of Sex Development and Urogenital Sinus
  • Surgical Reconstruction for Cloacal Malformations
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 50 Adolescent and Transitional Urology
  • Definitions
  • Patient Population
  • Setting Up a Service
  • Barriers to Transition
  • Clinical Delivery
  • Patient/Parent Preparation for Transition
  • Clinical Practice: Major Diagnoses
  • Male
  • Females Born With Exstrophy
  • Spina Bifida: the Neuropathic Bladder
  • Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 51 Urologic Considerations in Pediatric Renal Transplantation
  • Pretransplant Assessment
  • Pretransplant Preparation
  • Transplantation
  • Complications
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 52 Pediatric Genitourinary Trauma
  • Renal Injuries
  • Indications for Renal Imaging
  • Imaging Studies for Diagnosis
  • Classification and Grading of Renal Injuries
  • Persistent or Delayed Bleeding
  • Operative
  • Ureteral Trauma
  • Bladder Injuries
  • Genital Injury in the Pediatric Population
  • References
  • Section G Oncology
  • 53 Pediatric Urologic Oncology
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Wilms Tumor
  • References
  • 54 Pediatric Urologic Oncology
  • Epidemiology and Syndromic Associations
  • Pathology and Molecular Biology
  • Presentation, Initial Evaluation and Management, Staging
  • Other Bladder Tumors
  • Female Genital Tract
  • Testicular Tumors
  • Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Perineal Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Volume II
  • Part IV Infections and Inflammation
  • 55 Infections of the Urinary Tract
  • Definitions
  • Incidence and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Evaluation
  • Localization
  • Imaging
  • Microbiome
  • Asymptomatic Bacteriuria
  • Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy
  • Bladder Infections
  • Kidney Infections
  • Other Infections
  • Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock
  • Bacteriuria and Urinary Tract Infections in the Elderly
  • Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection
  • Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury
  • Kidney Transplant Recipients
  • Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Common Urologic Procedures
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 56 Inflammatory and Pain Conditions of the Male Genitourinary Tract
  • Prostatitis
  • Acute and Chronic Orchitis and Orchialgia
  • References
  • 57 Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome and Related Disorders
  • A Brief History and Overview
  • Definition, Nomenclature, and Taxonomy
  • Historical Perspective of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: Early 1800S to 1970S
  • Voiding Symptoms and Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome
  • Epidemiology of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome
  • The Epidemiology of Hunner Lesions
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Beyond the History, Physical Examination, and Urine Studies
  • Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome
  • Final Thoughts
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 58 Sexually Transmitted Diseases*
  • Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Urethritis
  • Epididymitis
  • Genital, Anal, and Perianal Ulcers
  • Anogenital Warts
  • Zika Virus
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Ectoparasitic Infections
  • Vaginitis
  • References
  • 59 Cutaneous Diseases of the External Genitalia
  • Introduction to Basic Dermatology
  • Dermatologic Therapy
  • Allergic Dermatitis
  • Papulosquamous Disorders
  • Vesicobullous Disorders
  • Noninfectious Ulcers
  • Infections and Infestations
  • Neoplastic Conditions
  • Benign Cutaneous Disorders Specific to the Male Genitalia
  • Common Miscellaneous Cutaneous Disorders
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 60 Tuberculosis and Parasitic Infections of the Genitourinary Tract
  • Genitourinary Tuberculosis
  • Parasitic Infections of the Urogenital Tract
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part V Molecular and Cellular Biology
  • 61 Basic Principles of Immunology and Immunotherapy in Urologic Oncology
  • Innate Immune System
  • Adaptive Immune System
  • Immune Editing Hypothesis
  • Chronic Inflammation and the Endogenous Immune Response to Genitourinary Cancers
  • Chronic Inflammation and the Immune Response to Bladder Cancer
  • Immune Microenvironment in Kidney Cancer
  • Chronic Inflammation and the Immune Response to Prostate Cancer
  • Immunotherapy for Genitourinary Cancers
  • Conclusions
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 62 Molecular Genetics and Cancer Biology
  • Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes
  • Cell Cycle Deregulation
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA Damage and Repair
  • Genomic Alterations
  • Telomeres and Telomerase
  • Apoptosis
  • Stem Cells and Cancer
  • Checkpoint Inhibition
  • Microbiome and Cancer: the Metagenome
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part VI Reproductive and Sexual Function
  • 63 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
  • Testis
  • Epididymis
  • Vas Deferens
  • Seminal Vesicles and Ejaculatory Ducts
  • Prostate
  • Urethra
  • Penis
  • Scrotum
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 64 Male Reproductive Physiology
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
  • Epididymis
  • Ductus (Vas) Deferens
  • Seminal Vesicle and Ejaculatory Ducts
  • Spermatozoa
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 65 Integrated Men's Health
  • Rationale for Integrative Men's Health
  • Metabolic Syndrome and Men's Health
  • Testosterone Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk: Advances and Controversies
  • Association Between Cardiovascular Disease and Erectile Dysfunction
  • Mental Health and Opioid Abuse in Men
  • Building an Integrative Men's Health Center
  • References
  • 66 Male Infertility
  • Epidemiology
  • History
  • Physical Examination
  • Laboratory Evaluation of Male Infertility
  • Imaging in the Evaluation of Male Infertility
  • Testis Histopathology
  • Assisted Reproduction
  • Fertility Preservation in Cancer
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 67 Surgical Management of Male Infertility
  • Surgical Anatomy
  • Testis Biopsy
  • Vasography
  • Vasovasostomy
  • Surgery of the Epididymis
  • Transurethral Resection of the Ejaculatory Ducts
  • Electroejaculation
  • Sperm Retrieval Techniques
  • Varicocelectomy
  • Orchiopexy in Adults
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 68 Physiology of Penile Erection and Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction
  • Physiology of Penile Erection
  • Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction
  • Perspectives
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 69 Evaluation and Management of Erectile Dysfunction
  • Historical Perspective
  • Public Health Significance
  • Management Principles
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Specialized Evaluation and Testing
  • Treatment Considerations
  • Future Directions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 70 Priapism
  • Defining Priapism
  • Priapism: Historical Perspectives
  • Epidemiology of Priapism
  • Molecular Basis of Ischemic and Stuttering Priapism
  • Evaluation and Diagnosis of Priapism
  • Medical Treatments
  • Surgical Management of Ischemic Priapism
  • Interventional Angiography in the Management of Arterial (Nonischemic, High-Flow) Priapism
  • Surgical Management of Arterial (Nonischemic, High-Flow) Priapism
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 71 Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation
  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Ejaculatory Response
  • Premature Ejaculation
  • Kate! Delayed Ejaculation, Anejaculation, and Anorgasmia
  • Retrograde Ejaculation
  • Sperm Retrieval in Men With Anejaculation Pursuing Fertility
  • Ejaculatory Anhedonia
  • Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction
  • Orgasmic Headache
  • Painful Ejaculation
  • Postorgasmic Illness Syndrome
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 72 Surgery for Erectile Dysfunction
  • Types of Implants Available
  • Informed Consent
  • Preoperative Preparation
  • Incisions
  • Technique of Device Placement
  • Intraoperative Troubleshooting
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Special Situations
  • Postoperative Care
  • Patient and Partner Satisfaction
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 73 Diagnosis and Management of Peyronie's Disease
  • General Considerations
  • Natural History
  • Epidemiology
  • Penile Anatomy and Peyronie's Disease
  • Etiology of Peyronie's Disease
  • Symptoms
  • Evaluation of the Patient
  • Treatment Protocols
  • Nonsurgical Treatment of Peyronie's Disease
  • Surgical Management
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 74 Sexual Function and Dysfunction in the Female
  • Anatomy and Physiology of Female Sexual Organs
  • Evaluation of Sexual Wellness
  • Special Populations
  • Female Sexual Interest Disorder
  • Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
  • Pharmacotherapy for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
  • Genitopelvic Pain and Penetration Disorder
  • Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction and Female Sexual Dysfunction
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Links and Treatments
  • Self-Image/Body Image Connected to Female Sexual Dysfunction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part VII Male Genitalia
  • 75 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Retroperitoneum
  • Body Surface Landmarks
  • Posterior Abdominal Wall
  • Lumbodorsal Fascia
  • Retroperitoneal Fasciae and Spaces
  • Gastrointestinal Viscera and Mesentery
  • Vasculature
  • Lymphatic System
  • Nervous Structures
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 76 Neoplasms of the Testis
  • Germ Cell Tumors
  • Non–Germ Cell Tumors
  • Tumors of the Testicular Adnexa
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 77 Surgery of Testicular Tumors
  • Management of Testis Mass
  • Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Auxiliary Procedures
  • Surgical Decision Making
  • Histologic Findings at Post-Chemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection and Survival Outcomes
  • Post-Chemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in High-Risk Populations
  • Surgical Outcomes, Functional Considerations, and Complications of Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Unique Situations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 78 Laparoscopic and Robotic-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy for Testicular Tumors
  • Rationale and Evolution
  • Staging Laparoscopic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection and Controversy
  • Duplication of Open Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Development of Robotic-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Surgical Technique
  • Postoperative Care
  • Prospective Nerve-Sparing Techniques
  • Complications
  • Results and Current Status
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 79 Tumors of the Penis
  • Premalignant Cutaneous Lesions
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Surgical Management of the Primary Tumor
  • Treatment of the Inguinal Nodes
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Nonsquamous Penile Malignant Neoplasms
  • References
  • 80 Tumors of the Urethra
  • Benign Urethral Tumors
  • Male Urethral Cancer
  • Female Urethral Cancer
  • Urethral Recurrence After Radical Cystectomy
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 81 Inguinal Node Dissection
  • Introduction
  • Anatomic Background
  • Inguinal Anatomy
  • Endoscopic Anatomy of Inguinal Area
  • Imaging Evaluation of Inguinal Area
  • Penile Cancer: Surgical Management of Regional Lymph Nodes
  • Penile Cancer: Nonpalpable Inguinal Adenopathy
  • Penile Cancer: Palpable Inguinal Adenopathy or Positive Inguinal Lymph Nodes
  • Preparation of the Patient Before Surgery
  • Postoperative Care of Patients After Inguinal Lymphadenectomy
  • Complications of Inguinal Lymphadenectomy
  • Oncologic Results and Follow-Up After Surgery
  • References
  • 82 Surgery for Benign Disorders of the Penis and Urethra
  • Generalities of Reconstructive Surgical Techniques
  • Principles of Reconstructive Surgery
  • Surgical Anatomy of the Penis and Male Perineum
  • Selected Processes
  • Urethral Stricture Disease
  • Pelvic Fracture Urethral Injuries
  • Vesicourethral Distraction Defects (Vesicourethral Stenosis)
  • Complex Fistula of the Posterior Urethra
  • Curvatures of the Penis
  • Penile Transplantation
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 83 Surgery of the Scrotum and Seminal Vesicles
  • Surgical Anatomy of the Scrotum
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Surgeries of the Scrotum
  • Epididymis
  • Vas Deferens
  • Surgical Management of Chronic Scrotal Pain
  • Complications of Scrotal Surgery
  • Anatomy and Embryology of Seminal Vesicles
  • Surgical Approaches to Seminal Vesicles
  • Surgeries of the Seminal Vesicles
  • Complications of Seminal Vesicle Surgery
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part VIII Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • 84 Surgical, Radiologic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Kidney and Ureter
  • Kidneys
  • Pelvicalyceal System
  • Ureters
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 85 Physiology and Pharmacology of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter
  • Cellular Anatomy
  • Development of the Ureter
  • Electric Activity
  • Contractile Activity
  • Role of the Nervous System in Ureteral Function
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Urine Transport
  • Pathologic Processes Affecting Ureteral Function
  • Effect of Pregnancy on Ureteral Function
  • Effect of Drugs on the Ureter
  • Cardiac Glycosides
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 86 Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology Including Renovascular Hypertension
  • Glomerular Filtration
  • Pathophysiology and Management of Renovascular Hypertension
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 87 Renal Insufficiency and Ischemic Nephropathy
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 88 Urologic Complications of Renal Transplantation
  • Hematuria
  • Ureteral Stent Management
  • Urinary Leak
  • Ureteral Stricture
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Lymphocele
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Lower Urinary Tract Complications
  • Genitourinary Malignancies
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part IX Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction and Trauma
  • 89 Management of Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction
  • Evaluation of Upper Tract Obstruction
  • Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
  • Retrocaval Ureter
  • Ureteral Stricture Disease
  • Ureteroenteric Anastomotic Stricture
  • Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 90 Upper Urinary Tract Trauma
  • Renal Injuries
  • Ureteral Injuries
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part X Urinary Lithiasis and Endourology
  • 91 Urinary Lithiasis
  • Epidemiology of Renal Calculi
  • Physicochemistry and Pathogenesis
  • Mineral Metabolism
  • Pathophysiology of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 92 Evaluation and Medical Management of Urinary Lithiasis
  • Evaluation of Urinary Lithiasis
  • Epidemiology and Morbidity From Urinary Lithiasis
  • Imaging for Urinary Lithiasis
  • Metabolic Evaluation
  • Stone Analysis
  • Classification of Nephrolithiasis
  • Calcium-Based Calculi
  • Hypercalciuria (>200 mg/day)
  • Hypocitraturia (<550 mg/day Female, <450 mg/day Male)
  • Hyperoxaluria (>40 mg/day)
  • Cystinuria
  • References
  • 93 Strategies for Nonmedical Management of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi
  • Kidney Calculi
  • Ureteral Calculi
  • Rise of Endourology
  • Renal Calculi
  • Ureteral Calculi
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 94 Surgical Management for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi
  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
  • Ureteroscopic Stone Management
  • Intracorporeal Lithotripsy
  • Laparoscopic and Robotic Stone Removal
  • References
  • 95 Lower Urinary Tract Calculi
  • History
  • Etiopathogenesis of Bladder Calculi
  • Presentation of Bladder Stones
  • Management of Bladder Stones
  • Lower Tract Calculi in Special Situations
  • Urethral Calculi
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part XI Neoplasms of the Upper Urinary Tract
  • 96 Benign Renal Tumors
  • Diagnosis
  • Renal Cysts
  • Oncocytoma
  • Angiomyolipoma
  • Papillary Adenoma of the Kidney
  • Metanephric Adenoma
  • Mixed Mesenchymal and Epithelial Tumors
  • Mixed Epithelial and Stromal Tumors
  • Leiomyoma
  • Other Benign Renal Tumors
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 97 Malignant Renal Tumors
  • Historical Considerations
  • Classification
  • Radiographic Evaluation of Renal Masses
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Treatment of Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Treatment of Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Other Malignant Renal Tumors
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 98 Urothelial Tumors of the Upper Urinary Tract and Ureter
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Histopathology
  • Diagnosis
  • Staging and Classification
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 99 Surgical Management of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Tumors
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment Algorithm
  • Surgical Management
  • Endourologic Management
  • Follow-Up
  • References
  • 100 Retroperitoneal Tumors
  • Overview
  • Anatomic Considerations of the Retroperitoneum
  • Initial Evaluation of the Retroperitoneal Mass
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Surgical Management of the Retroperitoneal Tumor
  • Disease-Specific Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Therapies
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 101 Open Surgery of the Kidney
  • Historical Perspective
  • Preoperative Evaluation and Preparation
  • Surgical Approaches
  • Surgery for Benign Diseases
  • Surgery for Malignancy
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 102 Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery of the Kidney
  • Patient Evaluation and Preparation
  • Surgical Approaches and Obtaining Access
  • Simple Nephrectomy
  • Surgery for Renal Cystic Disease
  • Renal Biopsy for Medical Renal Disease
  • Nephropexy
  • Calyceal Diverticulectomy
  • Nephrolysis
  • Radical Nephrectomy
  • Partial Nephrectomy
  • Laparoscopic Ablative Techniques
  • Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery of the Kidney
  • Complications ff Laparoscopic Renal Surgery
  • Minimally Invasive Renal Surgery in Urologic Practice
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 103 Nonsurgical Focal Therapy for Renal Tumors
  • Cryoablation
  • Radiofrequency Ablation
  • Surgical Technique
  • Treatment Success and Follow-Up Protocol After Tumor Ablation
  • Oncologic Outcomes
  • Complications
  • New Ablation Modalities
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 104 Treatment of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Prognostic Factors
  • Surgical Management of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Immunologic Approaches in the Management of Advanced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Molecular Basis for Targeted Approaches in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Targeted Molecular Agents in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Immune “Checkpoint” Inhibitor–Based Combination Strategies
  • Other Treatment Options in Patients With Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Systemic Therapy for Non–Clear Cell Variants of Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Volume III
  • Part XII The Adrenals
  • 105 Surgical and Radiographic Anatomy of the Adrenals
  • Anatomic Relationships
  • Surgical Landmarks
  • Adrenal Vasculature
  • Adrenal Nerves
  • Embryology
  • Histology
  • Radiology
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 106 Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Medical Management of Adrenal Disorders
  • Historical Background
  • Adrenal Anatomy and Embryology
  • Adrenal Physiology
  • Adrenal Disorders
  • Evaluation of Adrenal Lesions in Urologic Practice
  • Conclusions
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 107 Surgery of the Adrenal Glands
  • Evolution of Adrenal Surgery
  • Surgical Anatomy
  • Clinical Indications for Adrenalectomy
  • Indications and Contraindications for Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
  • Preoperative and Perioperative Management
  • Open Adrenalectomy
  • Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
  • Robot-Assisted Adrenalectomy
  • Robot-Assisted Posterior Retroperitoneal Adrenalectomy
  • Hand-Assisted Surgery
  • Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Adrenalectomy
  • Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery–Assisted Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
  • Partial Adrenalectomy
  • Outcomes
  • Complications
  • Ablative Therapy for Adrenal Tumors
  • Future of Adrenal Surgery
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part XIII Urine Transport, Storage, and Emptying
  • 108 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Female Pelvis
  • Surgical Anatomy of the Female Pelvis
  • Radiographic Anatomy of the Female Pelvis
  • References
  • 109 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Male Pelvis
  • Bony Pelvis
  • Lower Abdominal Wall
  • Soft Tissues of the Pelvis
  • Perineum
  • Pelvic Circulation
  • Pelvic Viscera
  • Endoscopic Anatomy
  • Radiographic Anatomy
  • References
  • 110 Physiology and Pharmacology of the Bladder and Urethra
  • Lower Urinary Tract Anatomy
  • Bladder Compartments
  • Overview of the Urethra
  • Urothelial Physiology
  • Smooth Muscle Physiology
  • Bladder Mechanics
  • Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Relevance
  • Future Research
  • References
  • 111 Pathophysiology and Classification of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction
  • Normal Lower Urinary Tract Function: Overview
  • Micturition Cycle: Simplification and Overview
  • Abnormalities of Filling/Storage and Emptying/Voiding: Overview of Pathophysiology
  • Classification Systems
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 112 Evaluation and Management of Women With Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Prolapse
  • Definition and Impact of Pelvic Floor Disorders
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Physical Examination
  • Supplemental Evaluation
  • Management
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 113 Evaluation and Management of Men With Urinary Incontinence
  • Types of Urinary Incontinence
  • Evaluation
  • Principal Methods of Treating Men With Urinary Incontinence
  • Management of Different Urinary Incontinence Types in Men
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 114 Urodynamic and Video-Urodynamic Evaluation of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Role of Urodynamics in Clinical Practice
  • Conducting a Urodynamic Study: Patient and Technical Factors
  • Components of the Urodynamic Study
  • Urodynamic Equipment
  • The Urodynamic Study: Analysis and Interpetation
  • Videourodynamics
  • Ambulatory Urodynamics
  • Clinical Applications of Urodynamic Studies: Evidence-Based Review and Guidelines Pertaining to Urodynamics
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 115 Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Prolapse
  • Definition and Classification of Urinary Incontinence
  • Terminology of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Incontinence
  • Epidemiology of Urinary Incontinence in Women
  • Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence in Women
  • Epidemiology of Urinary Incontinence in Men
  • Definitions and Classification of Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Epidemiology of Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Relationship Between Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Consequences of Urinary Incontinence and Prolapse
  • Physiology of Urinary Continence
  • Pathophysiology of Urinary Incontinence: General Principles
  • Pathophysiology of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women
  • Pathophysiology of Insensible Incontinence
  • Pelvic Floor Support Mechanism
  • Pathophysiology of Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 116 Neuromuscular Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Objectives
  • Patterns of Neuropathic Voiding Dysfunction
  • Diseases at or Above the Brainstem
  • Diseases Primarily Involving the Spinal Cord
  • Disease Distal to the Spinal Cord
  • Miscellaneous Neurologic Diseases Causing Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction
  • Miscellaneous Conditions Definitely, Probably, or Possibly Related to Neuromuscular Dysfunction
  • Treatment of Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction: Overview
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 117 Overactive Bladder
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Epidemiology and Economics
  • Pathophysiology and Etiology
  • Clinical Assessment
  • Management
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 118 The Underactive Detrusor
  • Terminology, Definitions, and Symptoms
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiopathogenesis
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • Conclusions
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 119 Nocturia
  • Rationale for Evaluation and Management
  • Evaluation
  • Cause and Management
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 120 Pharmacologic Management of Lower Urinary Tract Storage and Emptying Failure
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacologic Therapy to Facilitate Bladder Filling and Urine Storage
  • Pharmacologic Therapy to Facilitate Bladder Emptying
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 121 Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence
  • Indications
  • Assessment Before Behavioral Treatments
  • Patient Education
  • Pelvic Floor Muscle Training
  • Behavioral Training With Urge Suppression
  • Role of Biofeedback
  • Pelvic Floor Muscle Electrical Stimulation
  • Bladder Training and Scheduled Voiding Regimens
  • Behavioral Treatment for Voiding and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
  • Prevention of Urinary Incontinence
  • Vaginal and Urethral Mechanical Devices for Incontinence
  • Models of Delivery
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 122 Electrical Stimulation and Neuromodulation in Storage and Emptying Failure
  • History of Electrical Stimulation
  • Neurophysiology Relevant to Electrical Stimulation for Storage and Voiding Disorders
  • Sacral Anterior Root Stimulation and Sacral Dorsal Rhizotomy
  • Goal and Effect of Dorsal Rhizotomy of the Sacral Nerves
  • Current and Future Perspectives for Neurostimulation
  • Working Mechanism of Electrical Stimulation in Non-Neurogenic Storage and Voiding Disorders
  • Techniques of Electrostimulation of the Lower Urinary Tract
  • Constant Versus Intermittent Stimulation
  • Rechargeable Neurostimulator
  • Other Issues
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 123 Retropubic Suspension Surgery for Incontinence in Women
  • Therapeutic Options
  • Choice of Surgical Technique
  • Assessing Outcomes of Therapy
  • Indications for Retropubic Repair
  • General Technical Issues
  • Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz Procedure
  • Burch Colposuspension
  • Paravaginal Repair
  • Vagino-Obturator Shelf Repair
  • Laparoscopic Retropubic Suspension
  • Complications of Retropubic Repairs
  • Comparisons of Incontinence Procedures
  • World Without Mesh
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 124 Vaginal and Abdominal Reconstructive Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Preparing the Patient for Prolapse Surgery
  • Use of Mesh in Vaginal Surgery: Current Controversy
  • Surgical Management of Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • References
  • 125 Slings
  • The Evolution of Slings
  • Pathophysiology of Stress Urinary Incontinence and Sling Mechanism of Action
  • The Age of the Mid-Urethral Sling
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Alternative Treatment Options
  • Pubovaginal Sling (PVS)
  • Pubovaginal Sling Operative Procedure
  • Outcomes of Pubovaginal Slings for Predominantly Stress Urinary Incontinence
  • Outcomes of Autologous Pubovaginal Slings for Mixed Urinary Incontinence
  • Outcomes of Autologous Pubovaginal Slings for Urethral Reconstruction
  • Voiding Dysfunction Secondary to Bladder Outlet Obstruction After Pubovaginal Sling Surgery
  • Complications of Pubovaginal Slings
  • Mid-Urethral Slings
  • Mid-Urethral Sling Operative Procedures
  • Complications of Retropubic, Transobturator, and Single-Incision Mid-Urethral Slings
  • Mid-Urethral Sling Trocar Injury to the Urinary Tract
  • Sexual Dysfunction After Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery
  • Other Complications After Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 126 Complications Related to the Use of Mesh and Their Repair
  • Mesh and Its Properties
  • Mesh Slings for Stress Urinary Incontinence
  • Risk Factors for Mesh Sling Complications
  • Mesh Complications Among the Three Slings
  • Male Mesh Slings
  • References
  • 127 Additional Therapies for Storage and Emptying Failure
  • Additional Therapies for Storage Failure at the Bladder Level
  • Additional Therapies for Storage Failure at the Bladder Outlet
  • Additional Therapies for Emptying
  • Additional Therapies for Storage and Emptying Failure: Circumventing the Problem
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 128 Aging and Geriatric Urology
  • Biology and Principles of Aging
  • Demographics of Aging
  • Clinical Evaluation of the Geriatric Urology Patient
  • End-of-Life Care and Urology
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 129 Urinary Tract Fistulae
  • General Considerations
  • Vesicovaginal Fistulae
  • Iatrogenic Fistulae
  • Ureteric Fistulae
  • Vesicouterine Fistulae
  • Urethrovaginal Fistulae
  • Uroenteric Fistulae
  • Pyeloenteric Fistulae
  • Rectourethral Fistulae
  • Urovascular Fistulae
  • Renovascular and Pyelovascular Fistulae
  • Ureterovascular Fistulae
  • Oncologic and Radiation Fistulae
  • Cancer Surgery
  • Radiation Fistulae
  • Other Urinary Fistulae
  • Acknowledgments
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 130 Bladder and Female Urethral Diverticula
  • Bladder Diverticula
  • Female Urethral Diverticula
  • Urethral Diverticula
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 131 Surgical Procedures for Sphincteric Incontinence in the Male
  • Classification, Pathophysiology, and Etiology
  • Indications for Surgery
  • Technique of Device Implantation
  • Artificial Urinary Sphincter Complications
  • Long-Term Results of Artificial Urinary Sphincters and Slings
  • Future Directions
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part XIV Benign and Malignant Bladder Disorders
  • 132 Bladder Surgery for Benign Disease
  • Bladder Anatomy and Surgical Considerations
  • Bladder Diverticulectomy
  • Ureteral Reimplantation
  • Psoas Hitch and Boari Flap
  • Enterocystoplasty
  • Partial Cystectomy and Urachal Surgery
  • Bladder Stones and Foreign-Body Removal
  • References
  • 133 Genital and Lower Urinary Tract Trauma
  • Injuries of the External Genitalia
  • Bladder Injury
  • Urethral Injury
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 134 Special Urologic Considerations in Transgender Individuals
  • Urologic Issues in Gender Nonconforming Youths
  • Urologic Issues in Male-to-Female Transsexuals (Transwomen)
  • Urologic Issues in Female-to-Male Transsexuals (Transmen)
  • Postoperative Care, Follow-Up, and Urethral Complications
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 135 Tumors of the Bladder
  • Epidemiology
  • Economic Impact
  • Risk Factors
  • Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma
  • Pathology
  • Histologic Variants of Urothelial Carcinoma
  • References
  • 136 Management Strategies for Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (Ta, T1, and CIS)
  • Pathology: Grading and Staging
  • Endoscopic Surgical Management
  • Intravesical Therapy
  • Refractory High-Grade Disease
  • Surveillance and Prevention
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 137 Management of Muscle-Invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer
  • Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Evaluation
  • Radical Cystectomy and Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
  • Adjuvant Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
  • Prognostic Nomograms for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
  • Management of Metastatic Bladder Cancer
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 138 Surgical Management of Bladder Cancer
  • Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors
  • Patient Preparation
  • Surgical Technique
  • Pelvic Lymphadenectomy
  • Radical Cystectomy: Male
  • Radical Cystectomy: Female
  • Partial Cystectomy
  • Robotic Radical Cystectomy
  • Acknowledgments
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 139 Use of Intestinal Segments in Urinary Diversion
  • Surgical Anatomy
  • Selecting the Segment of Intestine
  • Preparing the Bowel for Surgery and Postoperative Recovery
  • Intestinal Anastomoses
  • Ureterointestinal Anastomoses
  • Renal Deterioration
  • Urinary Diversion
  • Metabolic and Neurochemical Problems of Urinary Intestinal Diversion
  • Summary
  • References
  • 140 Cutaneous Continent Urinary Diversion
  • General Considerations
  • Patient Selection
  • Patient Preparation
  • Cystectomy
  • Postoperative Care and Comments
  • Continent Urinary Diversion
  • Quality-of-Life Assessments
  • Variations in Operative Technique
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 141 Orthotopic Urinary Diversion
  • History of Orthotopic Urinary Diversion
  • Basic Principles of Continent Orthotopic Urinary Diversion
  • Patient Selection
  • Continence Mechanism in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Diversion
  • Surgical Techniques for Continence Preservation During Radical Cystectomy
  • Techniques for Orthotopic Bladder Substitution
  • Results and Complications of Orthotopic Urinary Diversion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 142 Minimally Invasive Urinary Diversion
  • Incorporation of Robot-Assisted Approach
  • Patient Selection
  • Surgeon Choice
  • Preoperative Care
  • Patient Position and Port Placement
  • Anatomic Considerations in Men
  • Anatomic Considerations in Women
  • Ileal Conduit
  • Intracorporeal Neobladder
  • Future Directions
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Part XV The Prostate
  • 143 Development, Molecular Biology, and Physiology of the Prostate
  • Developmental and Cell Biology
  • Endocrine Control of Prostate Growth
  • Prostatic Secretions and Proteins
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 144 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Pathophysiology
  • Epidemiology and Natural History
  • Complications of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Surgery for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 145 Evaluation and Nonsurgical Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement
  • Androgen Manipulation
  • Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists
  • β3-Agonist (Mirabegron)
  • Phytotherapy
  • Prognosis of Patients Receiving Medical Treatment for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
  • Acute Urinary Retention
  • Future Directions in Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • References
  • 146 Minimally Invasive and Endoscopic Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology and Marketshare
  • Workup
  • Defining Outcomes
  • Presurgical Factors
  • Specific Technologies
  • Failed, Failing, and Future Directions
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 147 Simple Prostatectomy
  • Indications for Simple Prostatectomy
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Operating Day Preparation
  • Surgical Technique
  • Postoperative Management
  • Postoperative Management
  • Complications of Simple Prostatectomy
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 148 Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Prostate Cancer
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Etiology and Molecular Genetics
  • Chemoprevention
  • Pharmacologic Agents
  • Vitamins and Micronutrients
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 149 Prostate Cancer Biomarkers
  • Biomarker Development
  • Assessment of Biomarker Performance
  • Blood-Based Biomarkers
  • Urine-Based Biomarkers
  • Tissue-Based Biomarkers
  • Summary
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 150 Prostate Biopsy
  • Ultrasonographic Anatomy of the Prostate
  • Gray-Scale Transrectal Ultrasonography
  • Prostate Biopsy: Techniques and Outcomes
  • Advanced and Investigational Techniques for Prostate Biopsy
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 151 Pathology of Prostatic Neoplasia
  • Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Subtypes of Prostate Adenocarcinoma
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 152 Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer
  • Diagnosis
  • Staging
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 153 Active Management Strategies for Localized Prostate Cancer
  • Host Evaluation
  • Selection of Treatment: Comparative Studies
  • Patient Counseling: a Stepwise Decision Approach
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 154 Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer
  • The Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment Problem
  • The Natural History of Prostate Cancer
  • Outcome of Active Surveillance
  • Other Risk Factors
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Caveats of Tissue-Based Genomics
  • Psychological Aspects
  • Lifestyle Management
  • Pharmacologic Intervention
  • Summary
  • GAP 3
  • Barriers to Active Surveillance
  • Research Questions
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 155 Open Radical Prostatectomy
  • Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: Surgical Anatomy
  • Surgical Technique
  • Complications
  • Summary of Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 156 Laparoscopic and Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy
  • Evolution of Minimally Invasive Laparoscopic Prostatectomy
  • Patient Selection
  • Instrumentation
  • Preoperative Preparation
  • Surgical Technique
  • Postoperative Management
  • Complications of Robotic Prostatectomy
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Functional Outcomes
  • Salvage Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy
  • Minimally Invasive Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection
  • Summary
  • References
  • 157 Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
  • Historical Perspective and Technological Advances
  • External Beam Radiation Treatment (Also See Outcomes for External Beam Radiation)
  • Brachytherapy
  • Androgen Suppression Combined With Radiation
  • Role of Prophylactic Pelvic Nodal Treatment
  • Treatment Morbidity and Quality-of-Life Outcomes
  • Evaluating the Response to Radiation Therapy
  • Treatment Efficacy
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 158 Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer
  • Introduction
  • Concepts and Historical Perspective
  • Biologic Basis for Prostate Focal Therapy
  • Clinical Applications of Focal Therapy
  • Patient Selection
  • Advanced Imaging Techniques in Prostate Cancer
  • Promising Imaging Modalities
  • Ablation Patterns and Current Technologies
  • Conclusions and Areas for Future Research
  • References
  • 159 Treatment of Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer
  • Definition
  • Trends in Incidence and Treatment
  • Natural History
  • Radical Prostatectomy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Focal Ablative Therapy
  • Androgen Deprivation and Its Timing
  • Management of Delayed Sequelae
  • Clinical Trials
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • 160 Management Strategies for Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer
  • Radical Prostatectomy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Summary
  • References
  • 161 Hormonal Therapy for Prostate Cancer
  • Historical Overview
  • Molecular Biology of the Androgen Axis
  • Mechanisms of Androgen Blockade
  • Clinical Follow-Up on Hormonal Therapy
  • Combination Therapy
  • Timing of Therapy
  • References
  • 162 Treatment of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
  • Clinical Considerations
  • Cytotoxic Chemotherapy
  • Next-Generation Hormonal Therapies
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted Treatments
  • Palliative Management
  • Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested Readings
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 4096
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: January 21, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323546423
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323672276

About the Editors

Alan W. Partin

Alan W. Partin, MD, PhD

David Hall McConnell Professor and Chair

Urologist -in-Chief, Department of Urology, Oncology

The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions

Affiliations and Expertise

The Jakurski Family Director Urologist-in-Chief, Chairman, Department of Urology, Professor, Departments of Urology, Oncology and Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland

Roger R. Dmochowski

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Urologic Surgery, Surgery and Gynecology, Program Director, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Vice Chair for Faculty Affairs and Professionalism, Section of Surgical Sciences, Associate Surgeon-in-Chief, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

Louis R. Kavoussi

Louis R. Kavoussi, MD, MBA, is Chairman of Urology for Northwell Health and Waldbaum-Gardner Distinguished Professor of Urology at the newly established Zucker School of Medicine. He heads the Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, which is dedicated to the treatment of urological disease through innovative surgical procedures, diagnostics and medical care

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair, Department of Urology, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, The Smith Institute for Urology

Craig A. Peters

Craig A. Peters, MD

Chief, Division of Surgical Innovation, Technology and Translation

Principal Investigator, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation

Children's National Medical Center

Professor of Urology and Pediatrics

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief, Division of Surgical Innovation, Technology and Translation, Principal Investigator, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Professor of Urology and Pediatrics, The George Washington University and University of Virginia

Alan Wein

Alan J. Wein, MD

Professor and Chair, Division of Urology

University of Pennsylvania Health System

Affiliations and Expertise

Founders Professor and Emeritus Chief of Urology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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