Calcification and Physiology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780121192044, 9780323161510

Calcification and Physiology

2nd Edition

Editors: Geoffrey Bourne
eBook ISBN: 9780323161510
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1976
Page Count: 600
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Description

The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, Second Edition: Volume IV: Calcification and Physiology explores the biochemical and physiological aspects of bone calcification. It discusses the comparative physiology of bone, the organelles involved in the local mechanism of calcification, bone tracer uptake and removal, and matrix vesicles of cartilage and bone. It explains the parathyroid biosynthesis and metabolism, cellular and humoral factors in bone resorption, electrical properties of bone, circulation in relation to bone growth and metabolism, and dentin and bone formation. Organized into 12 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of noncalcifying matrix and its conversion to calcifiable matrix, impregnation of collagen, and extraskeletal calcification. The remaining chapters focus on the effects of pyrophosphate and diphosphonates on calcium metabolism and skeletal turnover, calcium kinetics in plasma, the method matrix vesicles use in initiating calcification, the chemistry of parathyroid biosynthesis and metabolism, and mammalian osteopetrosis as a model for investigating cellular and humoral factors involved in bone resorption. It also discusses the use of electron spin resonance spectrometry in studying mineralized tissues, electrical response in flexed wet bone, bone blood volume and flow, and origin and fate of bone cells. The book concludes with a chapter on the biogenesis of matrix and mineral components of dentin and bone tissues. This book is highly recommended to biochemists, cell biologists, physiologists, anatomists, orthopedists, pathologists, clinicians, biomedical engineers, graduate students, professors, and others interested in the calcification and physiology of bone.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Preface to First Edition

Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 1. Biochemistry of Calcification

I. Introduction

II. Terminology and Concepts

III. Composition of Interstitial Fluids

IV. Composition of Bone Mineral

V. Conversion of Noncalcifying to Calcifiable Matrix

VI. Organelles in the Local Mechanism of Calcification

VII. Enzymes

VIII. Impregnation of Collagen

IX. Inhibitors

X. Extraskeletal Calcification

XI. Summary

References

Chapter 2. Pyrophosphate and Diphosphonates

I. Introduction

II. Pyrophosphate

III. Diphosphonates

IV. Conclusion

References

Chapter 3. Calcium Kinetics in Plasma: As they apply to the measurements of bone formation and resorption rates

I. Introduction: Observational Basis for Bone Mineral Tracer Methods

II. Meaning of Bone Tracer Uptake and Removal

III. Background Theory

IV. Candidate Model Systems

V. The Two-Compartment Model

VI. Validation of Kinetic Models

VII. Biological Correlates

VIII. Other Approaches

IX. Available Bone Mineral Tracer Isotopes

References

Chapter 4. Matrix Vesicles of Cartilage and Bone

I. Introduction

II. Evidence That Matrix Vesicles Initiate Calcification

III. Fine Structure of Matrix Vesicles

IV. Origin of Matrix Vesicles

V. Enzymes of Matrix Vesicles

VI. Lipids of Matrix Vesicles

VII. Initial Mineralization in Vesicles of Embryonic Bone

VIII. Calcification of Matrix Vesicles in Rickets

IX. Experimental Calcification of Isolated Vesicles

X. A Model of Matrix Vesicle Calcification

XI. Matrix Vesicles in Pathological Calcification

XII. Future Matrix Vesicle Research

XIII. Summary

References

Chapter 5. Parathyroid Physiology and the Skeleton

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry of Parathyroid Hormone

III. Chemistry of Parathyroid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

IV. Structure-Activity Relationships

V. Physiological Role of the Parathyroids

VI. Mechanisms of Action

References

Chapter 6. Mammalian Osteopetrosis—A Model for Studying Cellular and Humoral Factors in Bone Resorption

I. Introduction

II. Bone Resorption—The State of Our Knowledge and Evaluation of the Evidence

III. Mammalian Osteopetrosis—The State of Our Knowledge and Evaluation of the Evidence

IV. Human Osteopetrosis

V. The Challenges and Opportunities of Mammalian Osteopetrosis

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter 7. Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry in Investigations on Mineralized Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Basic Data on ESR Spectrometry

III. The Nature of Stable Paramagnetic Centers Evoked in Mineralized Tissues by Ionizing Radiation

IV. The Use of Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Centers in Calculation of Crystallinity

V. Radiation-Induced Stable Paramagnetic Centers as a Label of Biological Material

VI. Application of Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Centers in the Study of Pathologically Calcifying Tissues

VII. Dosimetry of the Absorbed Dose of Ionizing Radiation Based on Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy of Bone and Teeth

VIII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 8. Electrical Properties of Bone

I. Introduction

II. Atomic Bonds and Their Distortion

III. Piezoelectricity

IV. Streaming Potentials

V. Characteristics of the Electrical Response in Flexed Wet Bone

VI. Bone Architecture and Streaming Potentials: A Hypothesis

VII. Stress-Induced Voltages in the Dentoalveolar Complex

VIII. Electrical Properties of Cells and Intracellular Particles

IX. Electrically Induced Osteogenesis

References

Chapter 9. Circulation and Bone

I. Introduction

II. Establishment of Circulation to Bone

III. Bone Blood Volume and Flow

IV. Measurements of Blood Circulation under Clinical Conditions

V. Relation of Circulation to Bone Growth and Metabolism

References

Chapter 10. Physiological Relationship and Pathological Interferences between Bone Tissue and Marrow

I. Introduction

II. Development of the Hematopoietic System

III. Stem Cells

IV. Bone Marrow as an Organ in Postnatal Life

V. Intramedullary Pressure and Blood Flow in Bone

VI. Pathological Interferences between Bone and Marrow

VII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 11. Comparative Physiology of Bone

I. Introduction

II. Bone Morphology

III. Ossification and Growth

IV. Origin and Fate of Bone Cells

V. Bone Formation

VI. Skeletal Collagen

VII. Mineral Metabolism

VIII. Bone Density

IX. Bone Resorption

X. Fracture Healing

XI. Immobilization

XII. Growth Hormone

XIII. Insulin

XIV. Thyroxine

XV. Calcitonin (TCT)

XVI. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

XVII. Corticosteroids

XVIII. Estrogens

XIX. Testosterone

XX. Progestérones

XXI. Conclusion

References

Chapter 12. A Comparative Study of Dentin and Bone Formation

I. Structure

II. Outline of the Chemical Composition

III. Formation of Dentin

IV. Formation of Bone Tissue

References

Index




Details

No. of pages:
600
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323161510

About the Editor

Geoffrey Bourne