Calcification and Physiology

Calcification and Physiology

2nd Edition - January 28, 1976

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  • Editor: Geoffrey Bourne
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161510

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Description

The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, Second Edition: Volume IV: Calcification and Physiology explores the biochemical and physiological aspects of bone calcification. It discusses the comparative physiology of bone, the organelles involved in the local mechanism of calcification, bone tracer uptake and removal, and matrix vesicles of cartilage and bone. It explains the parathyroid biosynthesis and metabolism, cellular and humoral factors in bone resorption, electrical properties of bone, circulation in relation to bone growth and metabolism, and dentin and bone formation. Organized into 12 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of noncalcifying matrix and its conversion to calcifiable matrix, impregnation of collagen, and extraskeletal calcification. The remaining chapters focus on the effects of pyrophosphate and diphosphonates on calcium metabolism and skeletal turnover, calcium kinetics in plasma, the method matrix vesicles use in initiating calcification, the chemistry of parathyroid biosynthesis and metabolism, and mammalian osteopetrosis as a model for investigating cellular and humoral factors involved in bone resorption. It also discusses the use of electron spin resonance spectrometry in studying mineralized tissues, electrical response in flexed wet bone, bone blood volume and flow, and origin and fate of bone cells. The book concludes with a chapter on the biogenesis of matrix and mineral components of dentin and bone tissues. This book is highly recommended to biochemists, cell biologists, physiologists, anatomists, orthopedists, pathologists, clinicians, biomedical engineers, graduate students, professors, and others interested in the calcification and physiology of bone.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Preface to First Edition

    Contents of Other Volumes

    Chapter 1. Biochemistry of Calcification

    I. Introduction

    II. Terminology and Concepts

    III. Composition of Interstitial Fluids

    IV. Composition of Bone Mineral

    V. Conversion of Noncalcifying to Calcifiable Matrix

    VI. Organelles in the Local Mechanism of Calcification

    VII. Enzymes

    VIII. Impregnation of Collagen

    IX. Inhibitors

    X. Extraskeletal Calcification

    XI. Summary

    References

    Chapter 2. Pyrophosphate and Diphosphonates

    I. Introduction

    II. Pyrophosphate

    III. Diphosphonates

    IV. Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 3. Calcium Kinetics in Plasma: As they apply to the measurements of bone formation and resorption rates

    I. Introduction: Observational Basis for Bone Mineral Tracer Methods

    II. Meaning of Bone Tracer Uptake and Removal

    III. Background Theory

    IV. Candidate Model Systems

    V. The Two-Compartment Model

    VI. Validation of Kinetic Models

    VII. Biological Correlates

    VIII. Other Approaches

    IX. Available Bone Mineral Tracer Isotopes

    References

    Chapter 4. Matrix Vesicles of Cartilage and Bone

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence That Matrix Vesicles Initiate Calcification

    III. Fine Structure of Matrix Vesicles

    IV. Origin of Matrix Vesicles

    V. Enzymes of Matrix Vesicles

    VI. Lipids of Matrix Vesicles

    VII. Initial Mineralization in Vesicles of Embryonic Bone

    VIII. Calcification of Matrix Vesicles in Rickets

    IX. Experimental Calcification of Isolated Vesicles

    X. A Model of Matrix Vesicle Calcification

    XI. Matrix Vesicles in Pathological Calcification

    XII. Future Matrix Vesicle Research

    XIII. Summary

    References

    Chapter 5. Parathyroid Physiology and the Skeleton

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemistry of Parathyroid Hormone

    III. Chemistry of Parathyroid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    IV. Structure-Activity Relationships

    V. Physiological Role of the Parathyroids

    VI. Mechanisms of Action

    References

    Chapter 6. Mammalian Osteopetrosis—A Model for Studying Cellular and Humoral Factors in Bone Resorption

    I. Introduction

    II. Bone Resorption—The State of Our Knowledge and Evaluation of the Evidence

    III. Mammalian Osteopetrosis—The State of Our Knowledge and Evaluation of the Evidence

    IV. Human Osteopetrosis

    V. The Challenges and Opportunities of Mammalian Osteopetrosis

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry in Investigations on Mineralized Tissues

    I. Introduction

    II. Basic Data on ESR Spectrometry

    III. The Nature of Stable Paramagnetic Centers Evoked in Mineralized Tissues by Ionizing Radiation

    IV. The Use of Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Centers in Calculation of Crystallinity

    V. Radiation-Induced Stable Paramagnetic Centers as a Label of Biological Material

    VI. Application of Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Centers in the Study of Pathologically Calcifying Tissues

    VII. Dosimetry of the Absorbed Dose of Ionizing Radiation Based on Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy of Bone and Teeth

    VIII. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8. Electrical Properties of Bone

    I. Introduction

    II. Atomic Bonds and Their Distortion

    III. Piezoelectricity

    IV. Streaming Potentials

    V. Characteristics of the Electrical Response in Flexed Wet Bone

    VI. Bone Architecture and Streaming Potentials: A Hypothesis

    VII. Stress-Induced Voltages in the Dentoalveolar Complex

    VIII. Electrical Properties of Cells and Intracellular Particles

    IX. Electrically Induced Osteogenesis

    References

    Chapter 9. Circulation and Bone

    I. Introduction

    II. Establishment of Circulation to Bone

    III. Bone Blood Volume and Flow

    IV. Measurements of Blood Circulation under Clinical Conditions

    V. Relation of Circulation to Bone Growth and Metabolism

    References

    Chapter 10. Physiological Relationship and Pathological Interferences between Bone Tissue and Marrow

    I. Introduction

    II. Development of the Hematopoietic System

    III. Stem Cells

    IV. Bone Marrow as an Organ in Postnatal Life

    V. Intramedullary Pressure and Blood Flow in Bone

    VI. Pathological Interferences between Bone and Marrow

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Comparative Physiology of Bone

    I. Introduction

    II. Bone Morphology

    III. Ossification and Growth

    IV. Origin and Fate of Bone Cells

    V. Bone Formation

    VI. Skeletal Collagen

    VII. Mineral Metabolism

    VIII. Bone Density

    IX. Bone Resorption

    X. Fracture Healing

    XI. Immobilization

    XII. Growth Hormone

    XIII. Insulin

    XIV. Thyroxine

    XV. Calcitonin (TCT)

    XVI. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

    XVII. Corticosteroids

    XVIII. Estrogens

    XIX. Testosterone

    XX. Progestérones

    XXI. Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 12. A Comparative Study of Dentin and Bone Formation

    I. Structure

    II. Outline of the Chemical Composition

    III. Formation of Dentin

    IV. Formation of Bone Tissue

    References

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: January 28, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161510

About the Editor

Geoffrey Bourne

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