Business Statistics and Accounting

Business Statistics and Accounting

Made Simple

1st Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Authors: Ken Hoyle, Geoffrey Whitehead
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135670

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Business Statistics and Accounting: Made Simple focuses on the principles, approaches, and operations involved in business statistics and accounting, including book-keeping, value added tax, cash and credit, and trial balance. The book first takes a look at basic numerical knowledge, introduction to business statistics, and classification and tabulation. Discussions focus on frequency distributions, discrete and continuous variables, approximation and error, simple mathematical symbols, importance of business calculations, calculating percentages of quantities, and powers and roots. The text then elaborates on time series, pictorial representation of statistical data, graphs, and mean, median, and mode. The manuscript examines the nature and purpose of accounting, double-entry book-keeping to the trial balance level, books of original entry, value added tax, and accounting to the trial balance, with books of original entry. Topics include original entries for petty cash, original entries for the payment of money, double entries for cash and credit transactions, and extracting a trial balance. The publication is a dependable reference for students and researchers interested in business statistics and accounting.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    Section 1: Introduction

    1 An Introduction to Business Statistics and Accounting

    1.1 The Subject-matter of this Book

    1.2 Simple Business Calculations

    1.3 Business Statistics

    1.4 Accounting to the Trial Balance Level

    1.5 Accounting to Final Accounts Level

    1.6 Conclusion

    Section 2: Business Calculations

    2 Basic Numerical Knowledge

    2.1 The Importance of Business Calculations

    2.2 Electronic Calculators and Business Calculations

    2.3 Calculating Percentages of Quantities

    2.4 Exercises: Calculating Percentages of a Quantity

    2.5 Calculating Quantities as Percentages of Other Quantities

    2.6 Exercises: Calculating Quantities as Percentages of Other Quantities

    2.7 Simple Ratios

    2.8 Exercises: Simple Ratios

    2.9 The Unitary Method

    2.10 Exercises: the Unitary Method

    2.11 Powers and Roots

    2.12 Exercises: Raising Numbers to a Power

    2.13 Exercises: Square Roots of Numbers

    2.14 Exercises: the Laws of Indices

    2.15 Simple Equations

    2.16 Exercises: Simple Equations

    Section 3: Business Statistics

    3 An Introduction to Business Statistics

    3.1 The Meaning of 'Statistics'

    3.2 Criticisms of Statistics

    3.3 Discrete and Continuous Variables

    3.4 Collection of Data

    3.5 Types of Sample

    3.6 Approximation and Error

    3.7 Simple Mathematical Symbols

    3.8 Exercises: Introductory Statistical Concepts

    4 Classification and Tabulation

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 The Classification of Data

    4.3 The Tabulation of Data

    4.4 Simple Tables

    4.5 Exercises: Simple Tabulation

    4.6 Frequency Distributions

    4.7 Cumulative Frequency Distributions

    4.8 Exercises: Frequency Distributions

    5 Time Series

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 The Trend

    5.3 Seasonal Variation

    5.4 Random Variations and the De-Seasonalising of Data

    5.5 The Uses of Time Series

    5.6 Exercises: Time Series

    6 Pictorial Representation of Statistical Data

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Pictograms

    6.3 Bar Charts

    6.4 Histograms

    6.5 Gantt Charts

    6.6 Pie Charts

    6.7 Exercises: Diagrammatic Representation

    7 Graphs

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Constructing a Graph

    7.3 Simple Graphs

    7.4 The Z Chart

    7.5 Exercises: Simple Graphs

    7.6 Straight-line Graphs

    7.7 Exercises: Graphs of Simple Functions

    7.8 The Frequency Polygon

    7.9 Scatter Diagrams

    7.10 The Lorenz Curve

    7.11 Semi-Logarithmic Graphs

    7.12 Exercises: More Graphs and Diagrams

    8 Measures of Position—The Mean, Median and Mode

    8.1 The Reasons for Measuring Position

    8.2 The Arithmetic Mean

    8.3 Exercises: Arithmetic Means of Simple Series

    8.4 The Arithmetic Mean from a Frequency Distribution

    8.5 Exercises: The Arithmetic Mean from a Frequency Distribution

    8.6 The Arithmetic Mean from Grouped Data

    8.7 Exercises: The Arithmetic Mean from Grouped Data

    8.8 The Arithmetic Mean, Calculated from an Assumed Mean

    8.9 Exercises: The Arithmetic Mean from an Assumed Mean

    8.10 The Weighted Arithmetic Mean

    8.11 Exercises: Weighted Arithmetic Means

    8.12 The Median

    8.13 Exercises: The Median

    8.14 Calculating the Median from Grouped Data

    8.15 Exercises: Medians from Grouped Data

    8.16 Calculating the Median from a Cumulative Frequency Curve (Ogive)

    8.17 Exercises: Calculating the Median from Ogives

    8.18 The Mode

    8.19 Exercises: The Mode

    8.20 Comparison of the Averages

    8.21 Exercises: Comparison of Averages

    9 Index Numbers

    9.1 What are Index Numbers?

    9.2 A Simple Index or Price Relative

    9.3 Exercises: Simple Index Numbers

    9.4 Weighted Index Numbers

    9.5 Exercises: Weighted Index Numbers

    9.6 Chain Index Numbers

    9.7 Exercises: Chain Index Numbers

    9.8 Some Difficulties with Index Numbers

    9.9 The General Index of Retail Prices

    9.10 Exercises: Index Numbers

    10 Official Sources of Statistics

    10.1 The Range of Official Sources of Statistics

    10.2 Regular Sources of Statistics

    10.3 Occasional Sources of Statistics

    10.4 Exercises: Official Statistics

    Section 4: Accounting to Trial Balance Level

    11 The Nature and Purpose of Accounting

    11.1 What is Accounting?

    11.2 The Development of Accounting: Introduction

    11.3 Early Double-Entry Book-keeping

    11.4 Modern Double-Entry Book-keeping

    11.5 How the Double-Entry System Works

    11.6 The Computerisation of Double-Entry Book-keeping

    11.7 The Pattern of Accounting Activities

    11.8 Exercises: The Nature and Purpose of Accounting

    12 Double-Entry Book-Keeping to the Trial Balance Level

    12.1 Double Entries for Cash and Credit Transactions

    12.2 Types of Double Entry

    12.3 A Model Exercise in Direct Double Entry

    12.4 Tidying Up Accounts for a Trial Balance

    12.5 Extracting a Trial Balance

    12.6 What to do if a Trial Balance does not Agree

    12.7 Exercises: Direct Double Entry

    13 Books of Original Entry

    13.1 Principles of Original Entry

    13.2 Original Entries for the Sale of Goods—the Sales Day Book

    13.3 Exercises: The Sales Day Book

    13.4 Original Entries for Purchases—The Purchases Day Book

    13.5 Exercises: The Purchases Day Book

    13.6 Invoices for Services—The Expenses Journal or Day Book

    13.7 The Return of Goods—Credit Notes

    13.8 Entering Credit Notes—The Sales Returns Book

    13.9 Exercises: The Sales Returns Book

    13.10 Entering Credit Notes—The Purchase Returns Book

    13.11 Exercises: The Purchases Returns Book

    13.12 Original Entries for the Payment of Money—Documents

    13.13 The Three-Column Cash Book

    13.14 Contra Entries in the Cash Book

    13.15 Posting the Three-Column Cash Book to the Ledger

    13.16 Exercises: The Three-Column Cash Book

    13.17 Original Entries for Petty Cash

    13.18 The Petty Cash Book

    13.19 Exercises: The Petty Cash Book

    13.20 Journal Entries: Original Entries for All Other Items

    13.21 Exercises: Journal Entries

    14 Accounting to the Trial Balance, with Books of Original Entry

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 What is Involved in Accounting to the Trial Balance?

    14.3 A Specimen Exercise to the Trial Balance

    14.4 Exercises: Accounting to the Trial Balance

    15 Value Added Tax

    15.1 What is Value Added Tax?

    15.2 Office Activities Made Necessary by Value Added Tax

    15.3 Output Records

    15.4 Input Records

    15.5 The VAT Account

    15.6 Special Retailers' Schemes

    15.7 The Tax Return (Form VAT 100)

    15.8 Exercises: Value Added Tax

    Section 5: Accounting to Final Accounts Level

    16 Fundamental Accounting Concepts

    16.1 Theory and Practice in Accounting

    16.2 The Four Fundamental Concepts

    16.3 Accounting Bases

    16.4 Inflation Accounting

    16.5 Accounting Policies

    16.6 Exercises fundamental Concepts

    17 Accounting to Simple Final Accounts Level

    17.1 What are Final Accounts?

    17.2 The Trial Balance from Which Final Accounts are Prepared

    17.3 Exercises: Preparation of a Trial Balance

    17.4 Final Accounts—The Trading Account

    17.5 Exercises: Trading Accounts

    17.6 The Profit and Loss Account

    17.7 Exercises: Profit and Loss Accounts

    17.8 The Appropriation of Profits

    17.9 The Residue of the Trial Balance

    17.10 History Makes a Mess of Things—The Balance Sheet Reversed

    17.11 The Order of Permanence and the Order of Liquidity

    17.12 Exercises: Simple Final Accounts

    18 Adjustments in Final Accounts

    18.1 The Nature of Adjustments

    18.2 Adjustments No. 1—Payments in Advance by the Firm

    18.3 Adjustments No. 2—Payments in Advance to the Firm

    18.4 Exercises: Payments in Advance

    18.5 Adjustments No. 3—Accrued Expenses Owed by the Firm

    18.6 Adjustments No. A—Accrued Receipts Due to the Firm

    18.7 Exercises: Accured Expenses and Accrued Receipts

    18.8 Exercises: Final Accounts Exercises Including Payments in Advance and Accrued Expenses

    18.9 Adjustments No. 5—Bad Debts

    18.10 Adjustments No. 6—Provision for Bad Debts

    18.11 What Happens to the Provision for Bad Debts in the Next Year

    18.12 Exercises: Bad Debts and Provision for Bad Debts

    18.13 Adjustment No, 7—Provision for Discounts on Debtors

    18.14 Adjustments No. 8—Depreciation of Assets

    18.15 Adjustments No. 9—Goodwill, and Writing off Goodwill

    18.16 Exercises: Depreciation

    18.17 Specimen Exercise to Final Accounts, with Adjustments

    18.18 Exercises: Final Accounts with Adjustments

    19 Final Accounts for Various Types of Business Units

    19.1 Types of Business Unit

    19.2 Partnership Accounts

    19.3 Exercises: The Final Accounts of Partnerships

    19.4 The Final Accounts of Limited Companies

    19.5 The Appropriation Account of a Limited Company

    19.6 The Balance Sheet of a Limited Company

    19.7 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies

    19.8 Exercises: The Final Accounts of Companies

    19.9 Club Accounts (the Accounts of Non-Profit-Making Organisations)

    19.10 Exercises: The Final Accounts of Clubs

    19.11 Local Government Accounts

    19.12 The Accounts of Central Government

    19.13 The Increased Net Worth Method of Finding Profits

    19.14 Exercises: Finding Profits by the Increased Net Worth Method

    20 Accounting Ratios

    20.1 What are Accounting Ratios?

    20.2 The Gross Profit Percentage

    20.3 The Net Profit Percentage and Expense Ratios

    20.4 Exercises: Gross Profit and Net Profit Percentages

    20.5 Turnover, Rate of Turnover or Rate of Stockturn

    20.6 Exercises: Rate of Stock Turnover

    20.7 Vocabulary for the Balance Sheet Ratios

    20.8 The Working Capital Ratio (or Current Ratio)

    20.9 The Acid-Test Ratio or 'Quick Ratio'

    20.10 Return on Capital Employed (or Return on Capital

    20.11 Exercises: Balance Sheet Vocabulary and Ratios


Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Made Simple 1979
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Made Simple
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135670

About the Authors

Ken Hoyle

Geoffrey Whitehead

Geoff Whitehead is one of the original Made Simple authors and has sold over 2 million Made Simple books. Before writing full-time he was Head of Professional Studies at Thurrock College, and he now runs a small business consultancy for one of the main publishers of account books. With day-to-day advice at a grass roots level he is still 'keeping it simple' for 350,000 book-keepers using the system each year.

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